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O&KKCEy AiiciENT. The name of <?r<8- 
aa originated in Itahr, and waa prob- 
Mj derived fix)m Pelaagian colonies, 
Wiy coming fiom Epirus, and calling 
theooflelvea Grecians^ nom Gncctif, die 
80Q of thdr anceetor, Thessalus, occa- 
aoned the application of this name to all 
the people who spoke the same lanj^uage 
with them. In eaifier times, e. g., m the 
time of Homer, Greece had no general 
name among the natives. It aftc^ards 
leceived the name of HeUaa^ and sdll lat- 
er, after the country was conquered by 
the Romaitfs the name of ^chidOf under 
which Macedonia and Epirus were not 
inchided. The Grecian tribes were so 
widely di^tersed, that it is difficult to de- 
tarmine, with precision, the limits of 
Greecty properiy so called. The name 
was sooietinies applied only to that coun- 
ny which was surrounded on thiee sides 
by the Mediterranean sea, was separated 
mnn Macedonia by the Oambunian moun- 
tains, and contained about 42,000 square 
miles ; sometimes it was taken in a wider 
seose, including Macedonia and Epirus, 
having mount Hiemus and the /Egean 
and Ionian seas for its boundaries, and 
eomprisuig the islands of these two seas. 
Gfeece consists partly of continental, 
and partly of insular regions. A chain 
of mountains, extending fiiom the Ambre- 
dsn gttl^ ID the west, to Thermopylie, on 
the east, separated Northern Greece from 
Southem. The climate is alternately se- 
vere or mild^ as the mountains or vfuleys 
predominate, but it is agreeable and 
beahfay. People are not unfiequently 
found here, whoto age is over 100 yean. 
The sofl of the valleys and plains is favor* 
able to the growth of the finest tropical 
iiwta, while the summits of the High 

mountains are covered with the plants of 
the polar regions. In Athens, the ther- 
mometer very seldom fidls bekiw the 
freezinjc point, or rises above 35° Beau- 
mur (8§ Fahrenheit). In the islands^ eve- 
ry evening, at a paiticukur hour, a gentle 
sea breeze sets in, which tempen the heat 
of the day. But in the plains of Thessa- 
hr, which lie 1200 feet above die level of 
the sea, and more especially in the moun- 
tains of Arcadia, the winter is as severe 
as in Enffland. The fruits of the soil are 
as abundant as they are various. Even 
where it is not adapted for the purposes of 
husbandry, it proauces thyme, marjoram, 
and a number of aromatic herba, which 
afford a rich pasturage. Greece produces 
ei^ht kinds of com and ten kinds of 
olives. It is, perhaps, the native countiT 
of the grape, particularly of the small 
sort, from which the currants of com- 
merce are made. Tlie name of these m 
a corruption of Corinik, the chief planta- 
tion having formeriy been on the isthmus 
of this name. There are 40 kinds of Gre- 
cian grapes known. The honey of this 
country is very famous. (See S^fmeUus,) 
Greece produces all the necessaries or 
life, and there is no comtiy whose coast 
is so well supplied with bays and harbors 
(or commerce. The main land is now 
divided into Northern Greece, Middle 
Greece, Greece Proper, or Hellas, in its 
narrower sense, and the Peloj^nnesus 
(Morea). I. Northern Greece mcludes, 
LThesBaly (q. v.Wnow Jitnna); 2. Epi- 
rus (q. V.) (now Albania| ; ^ Macedonia 
(now Macedonia, or Filiba-Vilajeti), ac- 
counted a part of Greece from the time 
of Philip and Alexander, and making a 
link in the chain between Greece and 
Thrace, of which, in eaiiier times, Mace- 


donia made a oait IL Middle Gteece, 
or Hellas (now Liyadia), containa, 1. Acar- 
nania, inhabited by a rough and warlike 
people, with no remarkable rivers or 
mountains; 2. .£tolia (q. v.); 3. Doris, 
or Doiis Tetrapolis {fbrmedy Dryopolis); 
4. Locris (q. v.), with the pass of Ther- 
mopylee; 5. Phocis, watered by the Ce- 
phissus, and containing mount Pamassua, 
under which lay Delphi (q, t.U d. Boeo* 
tia (q. ▼.); 7. Attica (q. v.); 8. Megaris, 
witli the city of Megaia, the smallest of 
all the Grecian states. HI. The penin- 
sula of the Peloponnesus, to which the 
isthmus of Corinth led through Megaris, 
contained, 1. tlie territory of Corinth 
(q. V.J, with the cily of the same name, 
callea, in earlier times, Ephyra; 2. the 
small territory of Sicyon, with the ancient 
city of the flame name; 9. Achaia, an- 
ciently called JEgialoBf and, afterwards, 
hnioy contained 12 cities on the coast 
which stretched along the Corinthian 
gulf to the river Melas; 4. Eiis, divided 
mto two parts by the river Alpheus^ 
stretched mm Achaja, south-west, to the 
sea-coast; it contained the oelebrmted 
cities of Cyllene and Olympia (q. v.); 
5u Messenia, with the river Pamisus, ex- 
tending from tlie southern part of Elia 
along tlie sea to the extremity of the con- 
tinent, with the city of Mefisene, and the 
tiontier towns of Ithome and Ira ; 6. La* 
conia, Laconica, Lacediemon, a moun- 
tainous coimtry traversed by the Tayipe- 
tus, and watered by the Eurotas, bounded 
on three sides by the Measenian, the La* 
conian and the Argolic gulfi; Sparta 
(q. V,) was the capital ; 7. Argolis (q. v.) ; 
8. Arcadia (q. v.jl The islands which 
belong to Greece, lie, L in the Ionian sea, 
on the west and south of the main land. 
1. Corcyra (Corfu ) ; 2. Cephalonia; S, As- 
teris; 4. Ithaca (Teaki); 5. Zacynthus 
(Zante : Sl Maura is the ancient peninsu- 
la of Leucadia, formerly connected with 
the mainland of Acamania); 6. Cythera 
(Cerigo) ; 7. the group of islands m the 
Ai^lic gulf; 8. the island of Pelops, near 
the territory of Troezene, and, not far 
ofi; Spbieoa, Calauria (Poros); 9. iEgi- 
iia; 10. Salamis (Coluri), andf many sur- 
rqunding islands; 11. Crete (Candia). 
IL In the iEgean sea, now called the 
•^rckipela^, on tlie south and east sides of 
the main land, lie, 1. Carpathos (Scarpan- 
to) ; 2. Rhodes ; 3. Cyprus ; 4. the Cycla- 
iles, i. e., Delos, and the surroundmg 
islands on the west ; and, 5. the Sporades, 
i. e., those scattered over the eastern Ar- 
chipelago. To the Cydades belong De- 
los (Sdilli), Rheniea, Mieonos^ TeQos 

tTine), Andros, Gjraroa, Ceos (Zia), Syros, 
Cythnus (Themuai Seriphoe, Siphnos, 
Cimolis (Argentiere), Melos (Milo), The- 
ra (Santorin), los, where Homer is said to 
have been buried, Naxoe (in more ancient 
times, Dia), Pares (Paria), &c To the 
Sporades belong Cos (Stanchio, Stingo), 
Parmacusa, Patmos (Palmo, Palmosa), 
Samos, Chios (Sciol with many smaller 
surrounding islands, t4eabos (Mitylene), the 
surrounding islands called HecaUmmfBoi^ 
L e., the hmdnd idantU, Tenedos (Bosds- 
cha, Adassi), Lemnos (Stalimene), Imbros 
(Lembro), Samothrace, Thasos, and, near- 
er the Grecian coast, Scyroe and Eubcea 
(Negropont). Ancient Macedonia was, 
in its mtenor, rough, woody and barren, 
and produced wine, oil and fhiit-tre^ 
only on the coast The same is true of 
Epirus. But Thesaaly was a fruitful and 
well watered country, and produced the 
finest h<Mses. BcBotia was likewise fruit- 
ful, and abounded in fine herds of cattle. 
The soil of Locris was moderately ffood ; 
that of Doris was more fruitful, and that 
of Phocis still more so, producing, in 
abundance, good wine, fine ofl and niad- 
der. The rou||[h mountains of JBtolia 
were neither suited to pasturage nor to 
agriculture. Acamania, the sea-coast of 
Attica, and the mountainous parts of 
Megaris, were as litde remarkable for fer- 
tility as Achaia. Argolis had a fruitfbl 
soil ; and in Laconia, Messenia and Elis, 
both Sjgriculture and pasturage flourisJied. 
Arcadia was a mountainous country, well 
adapted for the raising of flocks. Tlie 
Grecian islands lie under a fortunate sky, 
and are most of them veir rich in wine 
and in wild and cultivated fruits.* 

* See Hellas^ or a Geemphicri and Antiqua- 
rian Account or Ancient woece and ita Colonies, 
with a View of the Modern Dbcoveriei made in 
that CoanUy, by F. K. G, Kcwe, pmfeMor 
(Leipsic, 18ShK two volumes, with an Atlas. A 
Jounial of a Tour through Greece and Albania 
(Bcrfin, 18^)* contains very satisfactory accounts 
of Ancient Greece^ particularly in a military 
point of view. Gell and Dodwell have iKiitten 
on the ffiofpvpby, topography and history of 
Greece m ancient and mcNlem times, wiui the 
writings of the ancients in their hanai. Dod- 
well's companion. Pomardi, has given lome ad- 
J informatMH (Rome^ 1830), Chandler, 


Sinart, ReveU, have given accurate descriptions 
of the remains of the architecture and sculpture 
of the ancient Greeks. Spohn and Wheeler, Le 
Chevalier, Choiseul-Goumer, and Clark and 
Turner have ftmished accurate accounts of parts 
of the country previously little known. See also 
Homer'i Picture of Grecian Antiquities, or an 
Account of tlie most celebrated Places and 
most important Worics of Ail of Ancient 
Greece, (Zurich, 18S4, et seq. ). The Journals of 
Hughes, Holland, Vaudoocourt, Leake, Dougias, 
Castellan, imd also Gait's Letters from the Le- 


Tkt IStien ^ Greece is diTicled into 
tbfee priiiGiparperiods--th0 periods of its 
liK, in power, and its fiilL The fint ex- 
tends from tbe origin of the peoo^ about 
1800 yeaiB B. C^ to Lycumifl^ 875 yean 
B. C; the second eoctends from tliat time 
to tbe cQoqueet of Greece by the Roman% 
146B.C.; the third ahowB us the Greeks 
SB a cooquered people, con9taBtly on the 
decline, until at length, about A. D. 300, the 
old Grecian states were swallowed up in 
tbe Byzantine empire. According to trap 
ditiooy the Pelasgi, under Inachua, were 
the fint people who wandered into 
Greece. Tbey dwelt in caves in the 
eanli, supporting themselves on wild 
froits, ana eating the flesh of their con- 
quef«d eoemies, uotil Phoroneus, who is 
called king of ArgoB^ began to introduce 
dvifizalicm amon^ them. Pelasp^ in 
Arcadia, and iE^akus in Achaia, en- 
deavoied at the same time to civilize their 
savaee subjects. The Cyclopean waUs 
are raeir woifc. (See Cydopeon Works,) 
SmaD kingdoms arose ; e. g^ Sparta ana 
Athiraia. SfHne barbarous tribes received 
names fit>m the three hrotheis, Achseua, 
Pebagus and Pjrthius, who led colonies 
from Aicadia to Tbessaly, and also from 
Thessalus and Gnecus (the sons of Pelas- 
raJL and ocherBL Deucialion's flood, 1514 
B. C., and the emigration of a new peo- 
ple from Asa, the Hellenes, produced great 
changes. The Hellenes spread them- 
selves over Greece, and drove out the Pe- 
hggiy or mingled with them. Their name 
became the general name of the Greeks. 
Greece now raised itself from its savage 
Mate, and improved stiU more rapidly 
after the anivid of some PhoBnician and 
Egyptian colonies. About 60 years after 
ibe flood of Deucalion, Cadmus, the PIxb- 
nieian, settled in Thebes, and introduced a 
knowledge of the alphabet. Ceres, frvMn 
Sioly, and Triptotomus, from Eleusis, 
tangiit the nation agriculture, and Bac- 

vut, cooiaiD food oMrvations on tbe maimen 
tnd dmooM or Modern Greeee, and the islands 
oftke Archipelago. Tbe principal work, howev- 
er, is that or Fooqaeville (fonnerly French con- 
ni-geoera} near Ali Pacha) Vou. dam la Grice 
(Paris, 1890, six volumes). Iken's HMemon, 
&e.. coBtaias informatioB on the history of the 
cohivatkNi of the modem Greeks. Gell, in his 
Nanrative of a Joumey in the Morea (London, 
18S3}, maintains that the Greeks do not j)os< 
•ess socfa ciMvadon as to be worthy of fieeaom, 

The cositmy opinioD is maintaineo by Ed. Bla- 
qsMre, in fais Report on the present finate of the 
Seek CoiiMerition,dMS. (London, mS). P.O. 
BraBMled's Voyages dans la Ordee accompagnSs 
4e Reeherekes AreMdogiquea (Paris, 1826, wiUi 
eqpavii^), is a ▼aloaSle work. (For a hst of 
««iks oo the Greek revolution, see the close of 
tkatdimaionqfihis artieU, intohichii U treated.) 

chus planted tbe Tine. The Egyptian 
fUgitiye Danaus came to Aigos, and Oe- 
crops to Attica. Now beguk the heroic 
age, to which Hwcules, Jason, Pirithous 
and Theseus belong, and that of the old 
bards and sages, as Thamyris, Atnpbion, 
Ori^us^ Linus, Musasus, Chiron and 
many othera. A wariike spirit filled the. 
whole nation, so that every quarrel called 
all the heroes of Greece to arms, as, £ot 
instance, the war against Thebes, and the 
Trojan war, 1300 years B. C^ which lat- 
ter forms one of the principal epochs in 
the history of Greece. This war depriv- 
ed many kingdoms of their princes, and 
product a general confluaon, of which 
the Heraclida took advantage, 80 yean 
after the destruction of Troy, to possess 
themselves of the Peloponnesus. They 
drove out the lonians and Achfleans, who 
took refuge in Attica, But, not finding 
here sufficient room, Neleus (1044) led an 
Ionian colony to Asia Minor, where a 
colony of ifioliaas, fit>m the Peloponne- 
sus, had already settled, and was followed, 
80 yean after, by a colony lof Dorians. 
In other states republics were founded, 
viz., in Phocia, in Thebes, and in die 
Asiatic colonies, and at length also in 
Athens and many other places ; so that, for 
the next 400 years, all the southern pMart 
of Greece was for die most part oocupied 
by republics. Their pcospexity and the 
fineness of the climate, in the mean time, 
made the Asiatic colonies the mother of 
the arts and of learning. They gave 
birth to the songs of Homer and HeiBod. 
There commerce, navigation and law 
flourished. Greisce, however, sdll retun- 
ed its ancient siinpUcity of manners, and 
was unaoquainted with Inxury. If the 
population of any state became too nu- 
merous, colonies were sent out ; for exam- 
ple, ih die ^th and 8tli centuries, the pow- 
erful colonies of Rbegium, Syracuse, Sy- 
baris, Crotona, Tarentum, Gela, Locris 
and Messena wen planted in Sicily and 
the southern part or Italy. (See MagtM 
Orada.) The small independent states of 
Greece needed a common bond of union. 
This bond was foimd in the teniple of 
Delphi, the Amphictyonic cotmcil, and the 
solemn games, amon^ which the Olym- 
pic were the most distinguished, the in- 
stitution, or rather revival of which, 776 
B. C, fomished tbe Greeks with a chron- 
ological era. (See JEJpoc^) From this 
time, Athens and Sparta be^ to surpass 
the other states of Greece m power and 
importance. At the time of the Persian 
war, Greece had already made important 
advances in cirilizatioiu Beades the art 


of poetry, we find that jpfailoeophj began 
to be cultivited 600 B. C., and even ear^ 
licr in Ionia and Lower Italy than in 
Greece Proper. Statuary and painting 
were in a flourisbing condition. The 
important colonies of Maesilia (MarKjlks), 
in Gaul, and Agrigentum, in Sicily, were 
founded. Athena was continuaUr ex- 
tending her commerce, and eatabfighed 
imporumt commercial posts in Thrace. 
In Asia Minor, the Grecian colonies were 
broueht under the dominion of the Lyd- 
ian Croesus, and soon after under that of 
Cyrus. Greece itself was threatened 
with a amilar ftte by the Perrian kinp 
Darius and Xenes. Then the heroic 
spirit of the fiee G^reeks showed itself in 
ilB matest brilhancy. Athens and Spar- 
ta umost alone withstood the vast armies 
of the Penian, and the battles of Mara- 
thon, Theimopylffi and Platiea, as well as 
the sea-fights at Artemisium, Salamis and 
Mycale, taught the PersianB that the 
Greeks were not to be subdued by theoL 
Athens now exceeded all the other states 
in ^riendor and in power. The suprema- 
cy which Sparta had hitherto maintained, 
doTolved on this city, whose commander, 
Cimou, compelled the Persians to ac- 
knowledge tne independence of Asia 
Minor. Athens was abo the centre of 
the arts and sciences. The Peloponne- 
sian war now broke out, Sparta being no 
longer able to endure tlie overbeuing 
pride of Athens. This war dcYBstated 
Greece, and enslaved Athens, until Thras- 
ybulus again restored its freedom; and, 
for a short time, Sparta was compelled, in 
her mm, to bend befere the Theban he- 
roes Epominondas and Pelopidas. In 
spite of these distuibances, poets, philoso- 
phers, artists and statesmen, continued to 
arise, commerce flourished, and manners 
and customs were carried to tlie highest 
degree of refinement But that unhappy 
period had now arrived, when the GreeKs, 
ceasing to be free, ceased to advance in 
civilizadon. A kingdom, formed by con- 
quest, had grown up on the north of 
Greece, the ruler of which, Philip, united 
courage with cunning. The dissensions 
which prevailed among the different 
states, afforded him an opportunitv to exe- 
eute his ambitious plans, and the bottle of 
Cheeronea, 338 B. C., gave Macedonia the 
command of all Greece. In vain did the 
subjugated states hope to become free after 
bis death. Tha destruction of Thebes 
was sufficient to subject all Greece to 
the younjp Alexander. This prince, as 
generalisamio of the Greeks, gained the 
most ^lendid victories over the Persians. 

An attempt to liberate Greece, oecosiQlied 
by a false report of his death, was finstrat- 
ed by Antipater. The Lamian war, af- 
ter the death of Alexander, was equaUy 
unsuccessful. Greece vras now fittfe bet- 
ter than a Macedonian province. Luxoiy 
had enervated the ancient coinage and 
energy of the nation. At length, most 
of the states of Southern Greece, Sparta 
and iEiolia excepted, concluded the 
Achaean league, for the maintenance of 
their freedom against the Macedonians. 
A dispute having arisen between this 
league and Sparta, the latter appfied to 
Macedonia for help, and was victorious. 
But this friendship was soon &tal, fbr it 
involved Greece m the contest between 
Philip and flie Romans, who, at first, in- 
deed, restored fineedom to the Grecian 
states, while they changed .fitofia, and 
soon after Macedonia, into Roman prov- 
inces ; but they afterwards began to ex- 
cite dissensions in the Achnan league, 
interfered in the quarrels of the Grraka, 
and finally compeUed them to take up 
arms to maintain theur fivedom. So un- 
equal a contest could not k»ig remain un- 
decided ; the capture of Corinth, 146 
B. C, placed the Greeks in the power of 
the Romans. During the whole period 
which elapsed between the batOe of 
Chnronea and the destruction of Corinth 
by the Romans, the arts and sciMices 
flourished among the Greeks ; indeed, the 
ffolden age of the arts was in the time of 
Alexander. The Grecian colonies were 
yet in a more flourishing condition than 
the mother countiy ; especially Alexan- 
dria, in Egypt, became the seat of learn- 
ing. As they, also, in proceas of time, 
fell under the dominion of the Romans, 
they became, like their mother oountnr, 
the insuructers of their conqueron. In 
the time of Augustus, the Greeks \o&i 
even the shadow of tlieir former fireedom, 
and ceased to be an independent people, 
although their language, manners, cus- 
toms, ieaming, aits and taste spread over 
the whole Roman empve. llie charac- 
ter of the nation was now sunk so low, 
that the Romans esteemed a Greek as the 
most worthless of creatures. Asiatic lux- 
ury had wholly corrupted them; their an- 
cient love of freedom and independence 
was extinguished; and a mean servility 
was substituted in its place. At the be- 
ginning of the fourth century, the nation 
scarcefy showed a trace of the noble 
characteristics of then* fiithers. The bar- 
barians soon after began their ruinous iii- 
curaioiis into Greece^— Besides the well 
known works on the hisloiy of Greece, 


bj VEnfyrdj CKUies, BartMletiiy ( Anaehar- 
■sl ftc^ we would mentkm ClintoD^ 
JUi BdUmei (Ozfoi^ I8B41 on Impor- 
tsnt woik on the political and Memy eiiro- 
noloiry of Greece, from the 55th to the 
ia4£^01ymplad ; and Waehnutfa's jHU- 
Um$ekt AUeMimtkmtk 1 to^ Halle, 
1836); ako Heeien's PoliMa of ADcient 
Greece (tnnBlated, Boeton, 1834).— The 
prineipal traits in the charaetor of the an- 
eie&t Oroe i M , were ampllcitj and gran- 
deiir. The Greek waa hia own inatnict- 
er, and if he learned any thinf from oth- 
en, he did it with freedom and independ- 
ence. Natnre waa hia mat mode), and 
in hia nati?e land, ahe diaplayed henelf 
in aM her charms The uncivilized 
Greek was manly and proud, active and 
emerpriainff, vioieDt both in his hate 
and in his love. He esteemed antf exer- 
cised hospitality towards mxtiDgm and 
countiTmen. These features or the Gre- 
cian chancter had an important influence 
on the religion, politicB, mannera and phi- 
losophy of the nation. The gods of 
Greece were not, like thosa of Asia, sur« 
rounded by a holv obacurity ; they were 
human in their nabs and virtues, but 
were placed far above mortals. They 
kepc up an interoourse with men ; good 
and evil came from their hands ; all poys- 
ical and moral endowments were their 
inft. The moral system of the earliest 
Greeks taught them to honor the gods 
by an exact observance of customs ; to 
hold the ri^ls of hospitality sacred, and 
even to spare murderers, if thev fled to the 
sanctuaries of the gods for renige. Cun- 
ning and revenge were allowed to be 
pramed 8j||ainst enemies. No law en« 
forced continence. The power of the 
frther, of the husband or the brother, 
akHie suacded the honor of the female 
sex, who therefore lived in continual de- 
peodenoa. The loss of virtue was se- 
verdy punished, but the seducer brouffht 
hia cifls and ofllnngsto the gods, as if his 
oonduct had been guiltless. The securi- 
ty of domestic life rested entirely on the 
master of the fiunify. From these char- 
aetenstie trailB of the earliest Greeks, 
erigimited, in the sequel, the peculiarities 
of their religious notions, their love of 
freedom and action, their taste for the 
beautiful and the grttid, and the simpiici- 
tv of th^ manners. The reli|pon of the 
&eeks was not so much mingled with 
superatition as that of the Romans ; thus, 
for example, they were unacquainted with 
the piactice of augury. The Greek was 
inchned lo festivity, even in religion, and 
served die gods leas in spirit than in out- 

ward ceremonies. His religion had little 
influence on his monls, his befie^ and 
the government of his thoughts. All it 
reouiredwasa belief in the gods, and in 
a futiffs existenoe ; a fieedom from mas 
oimes^ and an observMiee of prescnbed 
rites. The amplicity of their manneit, 
and some obscure notions of a supreme 
God, who hated and punished evil, loved 
and rewarded good, served, at first, to 
nBaintainjSood morals and piety amoiig 
them. These notions were afte rw a wii 
exalted and systematized by poetry and 
philosophy, and the improvement spread 
from the cultivated classes through the 
great mass of the people. In the most 
enlightened period of Greece, clearer 
ideas of the unity of the deity, of his om- 
niscienoa^ his omnipresence, ms holiness^ 
his goodness, his justice, and of the ne« 
oesBity of worshipping him by virtue and 
purity of heart, preyed. The moral 
system of some individuals among the 
Greeks vres equally pbre. The precepla 
of morality were dehvered at first in sen- 
tentious maxims ; for example, the sajrings 
of the seven wise men. Anerwards, Soc 
rates and his cDsciples arBfle,and promul- 
gated their pure doctrines. The love of 
freedom among the Greeks sprang from 
their good fbrtune, in having hved so iSti^.« 
without oppresrion or frar of other na- 
tions, and mmi their natural vivacinr of 
spirit. It was this which made small ar^ 
mies invincible^jind which caused Lycur- 
gus, Solon and Timoleon to refuse crowns^ 
Their freedom was the work of nature, 
and the consequence of their original pa- 
triarchal mods of life. The fint kmgs 
were considered as frthers of fiunilies, to 
whom obedience was willingly paid, in 
return for protection and favon. Impor- 
tant afiairs were decided by the assemblies 
of the people. Each man was master in 
his own house, and in eariy times no tax- 
es were paid. But as the kings strove 
continual^ to extend their powers, the^ 
were ultimately compelled to resign theif 
dignities, and nee states arose, with forms 
of government inclining more or less to 
ariatocracy or democracy, or composed of 
a union m the two ; the citiaMus were at- 
tached to a government which was ad- 
ministered under the direction of wise 
hiwB, and not of arbitrary power. It was 
this noble love for a free country, which 
prompted Leonidas to say to the kmff of 
Fenta, that he would rather die than hold 
a deflpotic sway over Greece. It vinas this 
which Inspired Solon, Themistoclee, De- 
mosthenes and Phoeion, when, in spite o^ 
the mgratitude of their countiymen, they 


cho0e to serrethe stale and the bws, rath- 
er than their o^vn intereslB. The cultiva- 
tion of their fruitful country, which, by 
tfie industiy of the inhabitants, afforded 
nourishment to eeveral millions, and the 
wealth of their colonies, iHX>ye the actiyity 
of ttke Greeks. Commerce, navigation 
and manufactures flourished on all sides ; 
knowledge of every sort was accumulat- 
ed ; the spirit of invention was busily at 
work ; the Greeks learned to estimate the 
pleasures of sociew, but they also leained 
to love luxuiy. From these sources of 
activity sprang also a love of great ac- 
tions and great enterprises, so many in- 
stances of which are furnished by Gre- 
cian history. Another striking trait of the 
Grecian diameter, was a love of the beau- 
tiful, both physical and inteUecnial. This 
sense of the beautifiil, awakened and de- 
veloped by nature, created fbr itself an 
ideal of beauty, which served them, and 
has been transmitted to us, as a criterion 
for every work of art. A noble simplici- 
ty pervades eveiy thing which comes fiom 
them. It is this which has made Uie Greeks 
the instructers of all ages and nations. 

Greek Lanfvage and WriUng. The 
languajfe, which we call Greefc, was not 
the^pnmitive language of Greece, for 
Greece was originaUy inhabited by the 
Pelas^ Their tanffuace was already ex- 
tinct m the time cf Herodotus, who as- 
sarts that it was different from the Heile- 
nie, and adds, that it is probable that the 
Hellenes have retained ueir original lan- 
guage (I. 57). But on the questicm 
^ence it originated, there is a divereity 
of opinion ; for some derive it from the 
Pernan, others fiom the Scythian — two 
opinions, which are not, perhaps, incom- 
patible with each other. Out of Greece, 
It was spoken in a gieat part of Asia Mi- 
nor, of the south of Italy and Sicily, and 
in other regions which were setded by 
Grecian colonic From the great num- 
ber of Hellenio tribes of the same race, it 
was to be expected that there would be 
different dialects, the knowledge of which 
is the more necessary for booming ac- 
cuiainted vrith the Ghreek language, since 
the writers of this nation have transmitted 
the peculiarities of the different dialects 
in the use of single letteis, words, foims, 
terminations and expressions, and that not 
merely to characterize more paiticulariy 
an individual represented as speaking, 
but even when they speak in their ovni 
peraon. It is customary to distinguish 
three leading dialects, according to the 
three leadiiur branches of the Gredcs, the 
iEolic, the Doric, and the Ionic, to which 

was afberwards added the mixed Attic di- 
alect ; besides these, Aere are several 
secondary dialects. The four leadinr di- 
alects may be reduced to two, the Helle- 
nic-Doric and the Ionic- Attic The for- 
mer was the oldest \ in fact, Doric was 
generally used to signify what was an- 
cient. The oldest Doric style is display- 
ed in the iEolic dialect, fiom which the 
Latin language is derived. The Done 
was hard and harsh ; the Ionic was die 
softest The iEolic was spoken on the 
north of the Isthmus (excepting in Mesa- 
ra, Attica and Doris), m the iEolian colo- 
nies of Asia Minor, and on some of the 
northern islands of the .£gean sea. The 
Doric was spoken in the Peloponnesus, in 
the Doric Tetrapolis, in the Doric colo- 
nies of Asia Minor, of Lower Ital^ (Taien- 
tum), of Sicily (Syracuse, Agngentum), 
and most purely by the Messenians ; the 
Ionic in the Ionian colonies of Asia Mi- 
nor, and on the islands of the Archipeki- 
00 ; and the Attic in Atdca. In eacn of 
these dialects, there are celebrated au- 
thors. To the Ionic dialect belong, in 
pan, the worics of the oldest poets, Ho- 
mer, Hesiod, Theognis^ etc ; it is found 
mue in some prose virritera, eqiecially 
Herodotus and Hippocrates ; the poems 
of Pindar, Theocntus, Bion and Mos- 
chus. Litde Doric prose remains, and 
that is mostl]r on mathematical or philo- 
sophical suqects. In .£olic, we have 
fragments of Alcseus and Sappho. After 
Athens had obtained the supremacy of 
Greece, and rendered itself the centre of 
all literaiy cultivaticm, the masterpieces 
of iEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aris- 
tophanes, Thucydides, Xenopfaon, Plato, 
Isocrates, Demosthenes, etc., made the 
Attic the common dialect of literature. 
Grammarians afterwards distinguished 
the genuine Attic, as it exists in those 
masters, fiom the Attic of common life, 
callinff the latter the common Oreek or Hd- 
lemc liuiled, and even the later Attic wri- 
ters, posterior to the golden age of tlie lit- 
erature, HeOeneg or common Gredts, In 
this latter class are Aristode, Theophns- 
tus, ApoUodorus, Polybius, Plutarcn and 
others, many of whom, however, wrote 
genuine Attic, as Ludan, JEHma and Ar- 
rian. Except the dramatistB, the poets 
by no means confined themselves to the 
Attic ; the dramatists themselves assumed 
the Doric, to a certain degree, in their 
choruses, for the sake of giving them ad- 
didonal solemnity, because these belonged 
to the oldest litui^ of the Greeks ; and 
the other poets retained the Homeric style. 
It cannot be denied, that the Cheeks were 


I beOBT •equaioiMl with thnr diflep- 
CDC dialectB thiiii aome moderiM^ Uie 
OeaomM^ for iofltuce, are with theim. 
ms may, perhaps^ hanre beeiiv in a gnat 
depee> the eifeet of the univeraal popu- 
hnty of Homer, the uae of a rehgious 
ritiial, and thegreat mutual intercourBe of 
the natioii. But, probahly, the dialects 
wen not, in die eaiiieat timea, ao diatinct 
fiom each other aa they aftowarda be- 
caoie; and on this hypothesia we muat 
eiqphin the pecuUttitiea of the §tyle of 
Homer and Heaiod. ^In Homer and 
Haaod," aaya Mathiil, *^ forma and ex- 
pnaaiona oceur, which grammaiiana pro- 
nomiee JEolio, Doric, Attic, or the pe- 
oiliaritiea of a local dialect But tliey 
could haidly have been auch at the time 
of theae poett^ who would have aa little 
aOowed tfaemeelTea to employ auch a 
naxtwe^ as a German poet would pennit 
himaelf to ndngle together Lower Saxon 
and High German provincialisms. The 
kagoage of Homer seems rather to have 
been the language of the lonians of that 
time. Of the forms common io Homer, 
an did not remain in the Ionic dialect, 
but aame subsisted in the ifiolic-Dorio 
only, othflBB merely in the Attic llie 
gnmmariana call that Attic, iEoiic, Doric, 
eic, in Homer, which was so at ^eir 
time." The period when these changes 
teok ]dace in the leading dialects cannot 
be determined. It follows from all this, 
that, to have a thorough knowledge of the 
Greek language, we must follow out, hia- 
toricaliy, £e coune of its formation, tak- 
ing no partial grammar as our foundation, 
but extending our view over all the variea 
fbrms of the dialects-^a labor which this 
language^ ao rich in classic models of ev- 
enr kind, and therefore so perfect, so flex- 
iUb, ao expreasive, so sweet in its sound, 
SDharmoniouB in its movement, and so 
philosophical in its grammatical forms 
and wfole atructure, jiierits, and richly re- 
wardsL At what time this language finit 
began to be expreased in writing, has long 
been a subject of doubt According to 
the general opinion, Cadmus, the PhcBiii- 
oan, introduced the alphabet into Greece. 
His alphabet conaiated of but 16 lettera ; 
four (e 1 « x) are aaid to have been in- 
fented by Palamedes, in the Trojan wan 
and four more (z h t a) by Simouides of 
CeoB, That the eight lettera mentioned, 
are more modem than the othen, is ceiv 
tarn, partly ftom historical accounts, 
paidy mm the moat ancient inscriptions. 
Aa the loniana &;st adopted theae lettera, 
and the Atheniana reomved them from 
tfaem^ the alphabet vrith 34 lettera ia called 

the Mamt. The flgurea of the oldeat 
Phoenician and Greek lettera difier veiy 
much fitmi the modem Hebrew and 
Greek lettera. There have not been want* 
ing penon^ however, who aaaeit that the 
an of writing waa praetiaed among the 
Pelaagi before the thne of Cadmua. Thia 
opinion, not unknown to the ancients, but 
corroborated by no sin|^ author of au- 
thority, has not fiiiled to meet with advo- 
eatea in modem timea. Othen, on the 
contraiy, have appeared, who place the 
origui of the an (^ writing in Greece 
much later. The flrat who attracted at- 
tention to this point, waa Wood, in hia 
Eeaay on the origmal Geniua of Homer. 
It is, at all events, of great importance, for 
forming a proper judgment o£ Homer, 
and deciding rei^iecting Ante-Homeric 
poetiy and literature, to aacertain whether 
the an of writiiur waa or waa not Imown 
in the time of Homer. Wood'a opinion 
ia, that we may place the time when the 
uae of the alphabet became common in 
Greece, and the beginning of proae wri- 
ting, in about the same period, 554 beftse 
Cbnat, and about aa long after Homer. 
In Homer's time, all knowledge, religion 
and laws were preaerved by memoiy 
alone, and for that reason were put in 
verse, till proae was introduced with the 
an of wnting. The aii|;ument drawn 
from several ancient inacnptiona on tem- 
plea, Wolf has deprived of all its force: 
m his ProUgomena to Homer, he haa con- 
verted the qoeedon with more pre^akm 
into two : — 1. When did the Greeks be- 
come acquainted with the an of writing ? 
2. When was it common among them ? 
In solving the latter question, it must be 
ascertained when convenient materials 
for writinff became common, and in what 
century the writing of books ^vas intro- 
duced among the Greeka. Wolf proves 
not only that Homer committed to writ- 
ing nothing which he sung, the skins of 
anunab not having been uaed for writing 
till afler him, nor E^ptian papyrus till the 
time of Psammeticua, but that hia veraes 
were never committed to writing till the 
middle of the wxth century before Christ 
It remains to remarii:, that the Greeks 
originally wrote their lines fix>m right, to 
left, then baustrophedon (see Bout^ropht' 
don\ and finally m>m lefl to rif^t 

UTuk lAUnAwrt. The orisin of Greek 
literature, that is, of the inteUectual cul- 
tivatiou of the Greeks by written woriu, 
is lost in an almost imY)enetrable obscurity. 
Though there existed in Greece, in earlier 
timea, no actual literature, there was by 
no means a want of what we may, not 



V, call Utarary cuUivadon^ if we 
free oureelveB finom the prejudice, that the 
piillAHiiim of humanltf consists solely 
in written alphabetical characters. The 
Jint period ot Qndtoi cultivation, which 
extends to the invasion of the Peloponne- 
sus by the HeradidflB and Dorians, and the 
ffreat changes produced by it^ consequent- 
^ to 80 years after the Trojan war, and 
which we may designate by the name of 
the Ante-Homarie period^ was indeed utter- 
ly destitute of literature ; but it may be 
questioned whether it was also destitute 
of all that culture, which we are accua- 
tomed to call Uiamv. The fables which 
are told of the intellectual achievements 
of this period, have a certain bans of 
truth. Among the promoters of literary 
cultivation, in this tune, we must distin- 
guish three classea— 1. Those of whom 
we have no writings, but who are men- 
tioned as inventors of arts, poets and 
saffes: Amphion, Demodocus, Melampus, 
Oien,Phemius and Prometheus. 2. Those 
to whom are falselv attributed works no 
lon^r extant: Abaris, Aristeas, Chiron, 
Epmienides, Eumolpus, Corinnus, Linus 
and Palamedes. 3. Those to whom writ- 
ings yet extant, which, however, were rao- 
ductions of later times, are attributed : jDa- 
res, Dictys, HorapoUo, Musesus, Orpheus, 
and the authors of the Sibylline oracles. 
This is not the place to inquire whether 
any and how much of these writings is 
genuine. It is enough, that the idea of 
such a forgeiy proves the existence of ear- 
lier productions. And how could the 
next period have been what it was, vrith- 
out previous preparation ? If we may thus 
infer what must have been, in order that 
the succeeding period should be what it 
was, we leani, also, from the various tradi- 
tions of the Ante-Homeric period, that 
there existed in it institutions which, 
through the means of religion, poetry, 
oracles and mysteries, had no small influ- 
ence on the civilization of the nation and 
the promotion of culture ; for the most 
part, indeed, in Oriental forms, and perhi^ 
of Oriental origin ; and that these institu- 
tions, generally of a priestly character, ob- 
tained principally in the uortliem parts 
of Greece, Thrace and Macedonia. We 
must here remark, that intellectual cultiva- 
tion did not prosper at once in Greece, nor 
displav itself simultaneously among all 
tlie tribes ; that the Greeks became Greeks 
only in the process of time, and some 
tribes mode more rapid progress than 
others. About 80 years after the Trojan 
war, new commotions and a new migra- 
tion began within the borders of Greece. 

A portion of the mhahitenta emigxaied 
from the mother countiy to the jsJands 
and to Asia Minor. This change was in 
the highest degree fkvorable to Grecian 
genius ; ft>r the new setdements, abound- 
ing in harbors, and destined by nature for 
commerce and industry, affi)rdkMi them not 
only a more tranquil life, but also a wider 
field for refinement, and j^ve rise to new 
modes of life. The ancients ascribed to 
the colonies in Ionia and Asia Minor the 
character of luxury and voluptuousness. 
The blue sea, the pure sky, the balmy air, 
the beautiful prospects, the finest miits 
and most delicious vegetables in abun- 
dance, all the requisites of luxuiy, here 
united to nourish a soft sensuality. Poet- 
ly and phik)sophy, painting and statuary, 
here attained their highest perfection ; but 
great and heroic deeds were ofiener cele- 
brated than perfoimed. Near the scene 
of the first gl]and national enterprise of the 
Greeks — theTrojan war-«it was not strange 
that the interest it excited should be live- 
ly, and that it should take a powerful hold 
of the imagination. Poetiy thus found 
a subject, in the treatment of which it 
necessarily assumed a character entirely 
distinct from that of the former period. 
Among all nations, heroic poetry has flour- 
ished with the spirit of heroism. The he- 
roes were here lollowed by the bards, and 
thus the epopee was fonned. We there- 
fore call this second period the mc age 
of the Gre^LS. The minstrel (<U(^) now 
i^>pearB separated from tlte priest, but 
highly honored, particulariy because the 
memory of the heroes lived in his verse ; 
and poetiy was the guardian of all the 
knowledge of preceding times, so ]on|r as 
traditions were not committed to writmg. 
From its very nature, the epopee must ho 
historical, in an enlarged sense. Under 
such circumstances^ it is not strange that 
regular schools for poets were established ; 
for the imagination of the first poet fired 
the imagination of others, and it was then, 
perhaps, believed that poetiy must be 
leameid like other arts — a belief to which 
the schools for priests contributed not 
a little, on which the schools for min- 
strels were probably modelled. But they 
were minstrels in the strictest sense, for 
their traditions were sung, and the poet 
accomiwnied his verses on a stringed in- 
strument. On every important occasion, 
minstrels were present, who were regard- 
ed as standing under the immediate influ- 
ence of the ^8, especially of the muses, 
vdio were acquainted with the present, the 
past and the future. The minstrel, with the 
seer, thus stood at the head of men. But, 



many moMCrds which this age 
ly po a a ofl B o d, Homer alone haa 
Vr e have from him two gnat 
epic poema^ the Died and Odyasey, with 
several hymns and epigrema. Qoe mock 
heroic poem, the BatraiiAamjfomadty ( the 
Baotle of the FrD§^ and Miee), ia ascrib- 
ed to him. From him an Ionian achool of 
ininBtielB takes its name — the Ameruia — 
who pvobaUy constiaited, atfint,at Chios^ 
a diituict ftmily of rhapaodisia, and who 
preaenred the old Homeric and epic atyk), 
the nirit and tone of the Homeric vene. 
MtM^ that 19 attribmed to Homer, may 
zeaaonabfy be aaeigned to them. The 
aame may be the case with the epic Cy- 
cluBy abo ascribed to Hcnner : whicn brings 
OS to the Cyclic poeta, who begui, how- 
efer, to deioate materially from me Ionian 
epofl^ thebjatofical element predominating 
more and more over the poetical. By Qf- 
dua^ we here undentaDa the whole cir- 
cle of tiaditiona and ftblea, and not mere- 
ly the erenta of the Trojan war. Cyclic 
poeny comprehended the whole compaaa 
of mythology ; and we may, therefine, di- 
vide It into, 1. a coamcMKonical, % a genea* 
kwica], and 3L a heroic Uyclus ; in the htter 
oiwhMh there are two separate periods ; 
L of tibe heroes before, and 9, of those af- 
ter, the eipedidon of me AiwHieirta. To 
the fintt dMB bdong the battiesof the Ti- 
tons and giants; to the second, the theog- 
onies and herogoniee. To the ftnt period 
of the tlurd class belong the Eun^a, sev- 
eral Hendeia and Ihonyaiacs, several 
ThebaidB, Argonautics, Thesdds, Dana- 
ids^ AraaBODica, etc In the second peri- 
od, die poelnr generally related to the 
Trojan war. To thia bek>nged the Nosloi, 
wfaAch treated of the return of the heroes 
from IVoy. The eariieat of these Cyctio 
poelB apfwared about the time of the first 
Oljnmpiad. A hwtory of the gradual for- 
mation of their poetnr cannot be given, 
beeauae we have only very general ac- 
oounta reapeeting them. But what we do 
know justifies us in oondudinff that be- 
tween tfaeae hiatoric poets and me Ionian 
achool of minstrelsy, somethm^ interven- 
ed, makings as it were, the trausition. And 
weactnally find thia in the BflBolum-.^wre- 
asschcM>l, wlueh arose in European Greece 
probably about 890 B. C. It derived its 
aame firm Ascra inBoeotia, the residence 
of Heaiod, who stood at its head, and by 
whom poetiy was probaUv conducted 
back again fimn Aaia Minor (for he origi- 
nated from Cume in iEoha) to Greece, 
ffia woika, alao, were at firrt preaenred bv 
riiapMNiiala. They were not arranged tiu 
skier period, when they were augmented 

by foreign additioos ; so that, in their prea- 
ent form, their authenticity is aa doubtfiil 
aa that of the poema ascribed to Homer. 
(See HuM.) Of the sixteen works attrib- 
uted to him, there have come down to ua 
the Theogony, the Shield of Hereule8(the 
fincment of a larger poem), and Works 
ana Da^ a didactic poem on agriculture, 
the choice of days, intermixed with moral 
and prudential maxima^ &i*. These works, 
especially those of Homer and Heriod, 
WDJch acquired a canonical importance, 
and constituted, in a certain degree, the 
foundation of youthful education, gave to 
the character of die Greeks that particular 
direction, by which it waa afterwards dis- 
tmguiahed, and which was most strikingly 
dispkiyed in their religion ; which, mr 
want of the necessary dignity, and espe- 
cially of a caste of priests, was so indefi- 
nite, and therefore so ftncifiil. The mys- 
ticism of the first period was, therefiire, 
for the most part, discarded ; and in die 
later Grecian mythology (for that a new 
ratem of divimties had arisen cannot be 
wmbted)^ nothing waa aeen but the peifoc- 
tion of human nature. Sensuality thence 
became the characteristic of the Grecian 
religion, in which no other morality could 
subsist but that which teaches the enjoy- 
ment of the pleasures of lift with pru- 
dence. Hitherto poetry had been the on- 
ly inatructreas of the Gredan w<Hid; and 
it remained so still, when it took another 
direction. This happened in the ikxrd pe- 
fiod, the age of lyric poetry, of apologuea 
and philowphy, vrith which history raad- 
uallv acquired a greater certainty. About 
the DMrming of the epoch of the Olympi- 
ads (776 B.C.), there ensued a ttue ebb and 
flooa of constitutions among the small 
statea of Greece. After numerous vicis- 
situdes of power, during which the con- 
tending partiea persecuted each other for 
along tune with mutual hatred, repub- 
lics, with democratical constitutions, final- 
ly sprung up, which were in some meas- 
ure united into one whole by national 
meetings at the sacred gamea. The spirit 

Eient in such a time greatly fiivored 
poetry, which now became an art in 
DC, and reached thesummitof itsjper- 
foction at the time of the invasion or the 
Persians. Next to the gods, who were 
celebrated at their festivab with hymna, 
their country, with its heroes, was the lead- 
ing subject of this l»anch of poeUy, on 
the character of which external circum- 
stances seem to have exercised no slight 
influence. The mental energies of the 
nation were roused by the droumstances 
of tba country; and the numeroua wan 



and couiiictfi, patriotisni, the lore of fte^ 
dom and the hatred of enemies and tw- 
lanta, gave birth to the heroic ode. life, 
however, was at the nme tune viewed 
more on its daik flide. Thence there was 
an interminffling of more sensibility in the 
elegy, as wMl as, on the other side, a vi^- 
orotts reliction, in which the spirit of ridi- 
cule gave rise to the iambus (satire). In 
eveiy thing there was a more powerful 
impulse towards meditation, investigation 
ana labor for the attainment of a desired 
condition. The aolden age, the gift of the 
gods, was fek to have depaited. Whatev- 
er man discovered in fhture was to be the 
fruit of his own eftbrts. This feeling 
showed that the age of manhood had ar- 
rived. Philosophv had become necessaiy, 
■and attained contmually a greater devei- 
opement It first epoke in maxims and 
gnomes, in febles and in dogmatic pre- 
cepts. Lvric poetry next gave utterance 
to the leefinffs excited by the pleasures of 
earth. Of mose who gained a reputation 
in this way, as well as by the improve- 
ment of music and the invention of vari- 
ous forms oflyric poetry, history presents us 
the names Archilochus of Pares, inventor 
of the iambus ; TyrtsMis of Miletus, au- 
thor of war songs ; Callimachus of Ephe- 
sus, inventor of the elegiac measure ; Ak- 
man, the Lydian; Arion of Methymna, 
who periected the dith vrambus ; Terpander 
of Antissa, inventor of the barbitos (a kind 
of lyre) ; the tender Sappho of Mi^lene ; 
her countryman AIcibus ; Erinna, the coo- 
temporary of both ; Mimnermus of Colo- 
phon, the flute player ; Stesichmtis of Hi- 
men ; Ibycus of RhMium ; Anacreon and 
Simonides of Oeoe ; Hipponax of Ephe- 
sus; Timocreon of Rnodes; Lasus of 
Hermione ; Corinna of Tanagia, the friend 
and instructress of Pindar. As gnomic 
writen (see Otwmie), Tbeoanis, Phocyli- 
des, Pythagoras, deserve to Be named ; as 
a ftbulist, iEeop. In the order of time, 
several belong to the following period, but 
are pn^riy placed here, on account of 
their connexion. If we consider the phi- 
losophy of this a^ we find it to have gen- 
erally had a practica] duuacter. T^-^ phi- 
losophy of life must precede tlie philos- 
ophy of science. Philosophy must give 
JBBSoos of wisdom, before it can fiuniah 
sdendflc 8vstem& In this light must we 
consider the seven torn mm qf Qrttoty as 
they are called (Periander, instead of whom 
othen place Epimenides of Crete or Myon, 
Pittacus,Thales, Solon, Kas, Chile and Cle- 
obulus) I six of whom acquired their namea, 
ttotby diving into liiddenlore,but by mature 
experience and the practical wadom result* 

faig fivm it, by dieirprudeiioe and nAsc^ 
tion, their skill in aflairi of state. In tw- 
ness and the aits. Their sayings aie prac- 
tical rules^ originating in the co m metceof 
life, and fifequently only tfaeexpresrion of 
present feeHnoB. But as knowledge is the 
foundation of science, fiuther inveslica- 
tioDS resulted in theoretical philosophy 
Tfaales was the founder of the Ionic phi- 
losophy. Here we stand on the most im- 
portant point of the history of the literary 
developement of Greece, where poetry 
ceases to contain every thmg wormy of 
knowledge, to be the onlv source cm in- 
struction. Hitherto she liad djschai]ged 
the oflice of history, philosoi^y and re- 
ligion. Whatever was to be transmitted to 
posterity, whatever pracdcal wisdom and 
knowledge was to be imparted, whatever 
religious feelings were to be insjnred, re- 
course was hA to her measured stfains, 
which, fiom their rhythmical chaiacter, 
left a deeper and stronger impresrion on 
the memory. Hencemth it was to be 
otherwise. Civil lifo was to have an im- 
portant influence on hnfloage. The pub^ 
tic transactioniiL in which the citixen took 
a part, compelled him to make the lan- 
guage of common lifo more soilable fiir 
pubuc delivery. This and alphabet- 
ical writing, that had now become com- 
mon in Greece, WHh the intioduotton of 
the Egyptian papyrus, prepare d the vray 
for the formation of prose. All this had 
an eesential influence on the conditioB of 
sdence. From epic poetry pr o ceeded, by 
degrees, history. From tM practical wis- 
dom conveyed in verse proceeded an in- 
veetigatinff philosophy. Our former sin- 
gleness of view is ttius lost We must 
now necessarily turn our attention to dif- 
ferent sides, and, in the rest of our sketch, 
follow out each branch separately. Every 
thing tended to excite the spirit cS'iiiqmry, 
and a scientifie activity was every where 
awakened. We may dierefors call the 
finaiSkptnodf tiiat now ensued, the scmi*- 
Mc wHoiL It reaches to ^ end of 
Greeic literature, but is divided into sev- 
eral epochs, according to the diflSMeot 
spirit which predominated, and the supe- 
riority which a particular branch acquired 
at dififi»rent times. The fint egoeh ex- 
tends from Solon to Alexander (504—^886 
B. C.) In philosophy, a phynoo-speoula- 
tive wpuit was manifested ; for nhikisophy 
origiiuited immediately fifoin religion, and 
aD religion rests on the conception ^ the 
Divinity, which was not then ifistinguished 
fifom nature. Now, anoe the conception 
of religion contained notiung bat Poetical 
ideas of tiie origm of tiie princiiwl phe* 



nomeoa of nature, that is, of the divinities 
the noat ancient philosophy was, of necea- 
sky, natural philosophy, in which the hu- 
man mind sought to analyze more thor- 
oughly the phenomena previously observe 
ed, to explain them more sati6&ctoiily,and 
to comprehend them in one whole. From 
the want of sufficient experimental ac- 
quaintance with nature, it was to be ex- 
pected that the imagination would fre- 
quently interfere in the work of the un- 
demanding and reason. From this cause, 
these philosophical inquiries are interwov- 
en with poetical imaceg. This was the 
fbim of the Ionic philoaophy, whose au- 
thor was Thales; the Italian, whose 
fiwnder was Pytha^ras, and the older 
and later Eleatic. To the Ionic school, 
which sought after a material origin to the 
world, befonged Pherecydea, Anaximan- 
dei^ Anaximenea, AnaXagoras, Diogenes 
of ApoUonia, Aiiaxarclius and Archelaus 
of Miletus. The principal disciples of 
the Pythagorean philosophy, which refer^ 
red the organization of the world to num- 
ber and measure, were Alcipieon. Umie- 
iB of Locris, Ocellus Lucanus, Epichar- 
mus, Theaff^ Archytas, Philolaus and 
Eudoxus. To the older Eleatic school, 
which held the idea of a pure existence, 
belonged Xenophanes, Parmenides ; to the 
later, Zeno, Meuasus and Diagoras. With 
this is connected the atomic school of Leu- 
dppua and Democritus, and the dualist,. 
Eknpedoeles. On the other hand, Hern- 
clitUB stands alone in his theory of the 
eternal flow of thinga Till near the 90th 
CMympiad, the philosophers and their 
scbolars were dispersed through all the 
Greek cities. About this time, Athens be- 
came their principal place of residence, 
which contributed not a little to breathe 
another spirit into philosophy, the Sophists 
becoming the teachers. Gorgias of Leon- 
tiom in Sicily, who joined the Eleatics, 
Protagoras of Abdero^ Hippias of Elis, 
Prodicus of Cos, Trasimacus and Tmas 
are the most celebrated whose names have 
reached us. Their name designates them 
aa men of science ; and they were, in fact, 
the encyclopeedists of thev times, who 
coilectad the ideas and sentiments of the 
fiirmer ^ea^ and enriched them with their 
own. They were particularly distinguish- 
ed in rhetoric and polities, two sciences so 
highly important in democratic forms of 
fovenunent ; but, not contented vnth this, 
oi^abo pro&awd the natural sciences, 
Bttthematics, the theory of the fine arts, 
and plulosophy. In the last, it does not 
aeem to have been their object to arrive at' 
ftutfa, hut only to make a plausible aigu- 

VOU VI. 2 

ment ; and for this end were ibiined so- 
phistics and erislics, or the art of reasoning, 
which was afterwards called diaUcUcs; 
in which their object was to prove eveiy 
thing they wislied. For this tney invent- 
ed those fiiUacies, still called, from them, 
sophittrieSf and sought to lead their oppo- 
nents astray by various meana That this 
must needs be detrimental to true philos- 
ophy is evident. 6o much the more for- 
tunate was it tliat, in this very age, Socra- 
tes appeared, who was not only a strenu- 
ous antagonist of these Sophists, but open- 
ed a u^w career to philosophy itself; It 
has been jusdy said of him, that he brought 
down philosophy from heaven to eanh, 
for he gave it again a practical dhection, 
differing, however, from the former, since 
the object was no longer merely to* string 
togetlier experiments, but philosophers be- 
gan to investigate the nature and relations 
of man, the object and best regulation^ of 
his life ; and reflection was turned princi- 
pally to psychology and morals, instead of 
physics and metaphysics. Socrates had 
many scholars, some of whom committed 
his ideas to writing in lus manner — Cebes, 
iEschines, Xenophon; others, deviating 
more or less firoiu his ideas and his man- 
ner, were founders of philosophical schools 
of their own. The rour following schools 
proceeded from that of Socrates: l.the 
Cyrenaic, whose founder was Aristippus 
of Cyrene (see AriHiffnu) ; 2. the Mega- 
ric, Elian and Eretnan, under Eucud, 
PhiBBdon ai^d Menedemus ; 3. the academ- 
ic, whose founder was Plato ; and 4. the 
Cynic, whose founder was Antisthenes. 
Plato (a. v.] was unquestionably the most 
compcenensive and splendid genius. With 
the philosophical knowledge of the former 
Greek philosophers, he combined that of 
the Egyv^BXk priests, and the eloauence of 
the Sophists. A fondness for tne super- 
nitfural, a delicate moral sense, a fine, acute 
and profound understaudkig, reign in his 
productions, which are adorned with all 
the graces of expression, and are enliven- 
ed l^ a rich imagination. By his poetic 
talent, the philosophical dialogue of Socra- 
tes was presented under a tmly dramatic 
form. While philosophy was making 
such important progress, history rapidly 
approached perfection. In the period 
of 550—500 B. C, ttaditions were first 
committed to writing in prose, and Cad- 
mus, Dionysius and Hecatieus of Miletus, 
Acuflikus the Aiigive, Hellanicus of MiQr- 
lene and Pherecydes of Scyros are among 
the oldest historical writers. Afler them 
appeared Herodotus (q. v.), the Homer of 
history. His example kindled Thucydi- 



dee to emulttion, and his eight books of 
the histoiy of the Peloponneoan war 
make hhn the first philosophical historian, 
and a model for all his successon. If his 
conciseness sometimes reudeni Thucydi- 
des obscure, in Xenophon, on the contra- 
ly, there prevails the greatest perspicuity ; 
and he became the model of Quiet, unos- 
tentatious historical writing. These three 
historians are the most distinguished of 
diis period, in which we must, moreover, 
mention Cftesias, Philistus, Theopompus, 
Euphorus, who, however, abandoned the 
genuine style of historical narration for a 
rh^orical af^tadon. An entirely new 
^pecies of poetry was created in this pe- 
nod. From the thanksgiving festivals, 
which the countiy people solemnized after 
the vintage, in honor of the giver of joys, 
with vrila sonss and comic dances, arose, 
especially in Atdca, the. drama. By de- 
grees, varie^ and a degree of art were 
given to the songs of tiie chorus, or dithy- 
rambics, at the sacrifice of the goat, vi^hich, 
in the process of time, became more seri- 
ous, wnile on intermediate speaker related 
popular fables, and the chorus varied tlie 
etemid praises of Bacchus by moral re- 
flections, as the narration prompted. Their 
reward, if they gave satisfiiction, was a 
goat Sportive dances were introduced, 
mingled with waggish pranks, and every 
thinff to excite laughter. These games of 
the feast of the vintage were soon repeat- . 
ed on oUier days. Solon's contemporary, 
Thespis, who smeared his actors, like vin- 
tagers, vrith lees of wine, exhibited at the 
cross ways or in the villages, on movable 
stages, stories sometimes serious with sol- 
emn choruses, sometimes laughable with 
dances, in which sa^rs and otiier ridicu- 
lous characters excited laughter. Their 
representations were called tnu;edies 
(rpoYiaitat), that is, songs of the sacrifice of 
the goat, or r^yioiiai, songs of the vintage; 
comedies, festive dances and satirical ac- 
tions (drama satyiicvm). These sports 
were nnally exhibited, with much more 
splendor, on the stages of the towns, and 
acquired a more and more distinct charac- 
ter, by their peculiar tone and morality. 
Instead of an intermediate speaker, who 
related his stoiy extemporaneously, iEs- 
chylns first MlbBtituted actors, who repeat- 
ed their parts by rote ; and he was thus the 
actual creator of the dramatic art, which 
was soon carried to perfection ; tragedy by 
.^Eschylufl^ Sophocles, Euripides; comedy 
by Cratiinis, Eupolis, Cmtcfl, but especial- 
ly by Aristophanes. Under the govern- 
ment of the thhty tyimts, the freedom, 
which comedy had putacaitd, of holding 

up living chaiBcters to ridicule, was re- 
stricted, and the middle comedy wios thus 
gradually fi^rmed, in which the chorus was 
abolished, and, vrith delineations of gen- 
eral character, chaiacteristic masks were 
idso introduced. In this, Aristophanes 
and Alexis were distinguished. The 
mimes of Sophron of Syracuse, dramatic 
dialogues in rh^micaf prose, formed a 
distinct species, in connexion with which 
stands the Sicilian comedy of Epichar- 
mus. In the order of time, several gnom- 
ic and lyric vmters belong to this period. 
Several philosophers appeared as didactk^ 
poets — Aenophanes, Parmenides, Emped- 
oeles ; as epic poets, Pisander and Pany- 
asis were famous for their Heraclea, and 
Antimachus for his Thebaid. The epic 
soon became more and more historical, 
and lost its beautiful poetic aspect With 
poetiy, her severer sister, elo(}uence, also 
nour^ed in this period, which republi- 
can constitutions rendered necessary, and 
which the Greek character speedily ele- 
vated to tho rank of a fine art Antiphon, 
Goi^as, Andocides, LysiaB, Lsocrates, Issb- 
us, Demosthenes, iEschines, were highly 
appreciated as masters of this art, for 
which schools were actually established. 
We still possess the admired masterpieces 
of several of these orators. How near 
rhetoric was then to triumphing over poe- 
tiy, is manifested in Euripides, and there 
is no question that it had a considera- 
ble influence on Plato and Thucydidcs. 
Mathematics was now cultivated, and ge- 
ography served to illustrate history. As- 
tronomy is indebted to the Ionic school, 
arithmetic to the Italian, and geometry to 
the academic school for many discoveries. 
As mathematicians, Theodorus of Cyre- 
ne, Meton, Euctemon, Archjrtas of Taren- 
tum, Eudoxus of Cnidus, were celebrated. 
Geography was, particularly, enriched by 
voyages of discovery, which were occa- 
aon^ by commerce ; and, in this view, 
Hanno's voyage on the western coast of 
Africa, the Periplus of Scvlax, a descrip- 
tion of the coasts of the Mediterranean, 
and the discoveries of Pythias of Massilia 
in the north-west of Europe, deserve men- 
tion. The study of nature was Dkewise 
pursued by tiie philosophers ; but the 
healing art, hitherto practised by the As- 
clepiades in the temples, constituted a dis- 
tinct science, and Hippocrates became the 
creator of scientific medicine. The M- 
lowing period is usually called the •^fexan- 
driiUj and might be characterized as the 
tystemaiaing or cridcal period. Athens 
<lid not, indeed, cease to sustain its ancient 
reputation ; but Alexandria waa» in reality, 


the leading city. Fiom (his caufle^ the 
spirit of Grecian literature necesBarily took 
•noCher turn ; and it is evident, that the 
use of an immense libraiy mustnecessari- 
W have niade erudition triumph over the 
former iiee action of mind, which, how- 
ever, could not be immediately suppress- 
ed, lo philosophy, Plato's acute and 
learned disciple, Arvstotle, appeared as the 
founder of the Peripatetic school, which 
gained distinctiou by enlarging the territo- 
ry c€ philosophy, and by its spirit of sys- 
tem. He separated logic and rhetoric, 
ethics and politics, physics and n^taphys- 
'— (to which last science he gave its 
» and applied philosophy to several 
9 of imowledge ; thereby producing 
economics, pedagogics, poetics, physiog* 
nomics. He invented the philosophical 
Byllocinn, and gave philosophy the form 
which it fxcserved for centuries. His dis- 
cqile Theophrastus followed his steps, in 
the investigation of philosophy and natu- 
lal histoiy. But the more dogmatic was 
the philosophy of Aristotle, the more cau* 
tion was requisite to the philosophical in- 
«iirer, and the spirit of doubt was salutary. 
This was particulariy exhibited ui the sys- 
tem of scepticism which originated vnth 
Pynho of Elis. A similar spirit, at least, 
Bubsisied in the middle aud new acade- 
mies, of which ArcesUaud and Cameades 
were the found^n. The Socratic school 
put forth new branches in the Stoic school, 
founded by Zen6 of Citium in Cyprus, and 
die Epicurean, of which Epicurus of Gar- 
giettus in Attica was the founder. Mathe- 
matics and astronomy made great progress 
in the schools at Alexandria, Rhodes and 
PemmuB. And to whom are the names 
of £uclid. Arc! umedes, Eratosthenes aud 
Hippoichus unknown ? The expeditions 
and achievementa of Alexander turuished 
abundant matter to histoiy ; but, on the 
whole, it gained in extent, not in value, 
ance a taste for the wondeiful had now 
become prevalent The more gratifying, 
dknefore, is the appearance of Potybius 
of Megalopolis, about the end of this pe- 
* nod, who IS to be regarded as the author 
of true historical description, by which 
univeisal histoiy acquired a philosophical 
spirit and a wordiy object Geography, 
which Eratosthenes made a science, and 
Hipparchus united more closely ^tli 
mathemadcs, was enriched in various 
ways. To the knowledge of countries 
and nations much was added bv the ac- 
counts of Nearchus and Agatharchidee^ and 
to chronology by the Parian chronicles. 
With respect to poetiy, many reroaikable 
changes occurred, m Athens, the middle 

comedy gave place, not without the inter- 
vention of political causes^ to the new, 
which approaches to the modem drama, 
as it took the moral nature of man for the 
subject of its representations. Among 
the 32 poets of tliis class, Menander, Phi- 
lemon and Diphylus were eminent From 
the mime proceeded the idyl, in which 
branch of poetiy, after the period of Stesi- 
chorus, Asclepiades, etc., Theocritus, Bi- 
on and Moschus were pardculariy cele- 
brated. The other kinds of poetiy did 
not remain uncultivated ; but all these la- 
bors, as well as the criticisms on poetzy 
and the fine arts, point to Alexandria ; and 
we shall therefore pass them over m 
this place. At the end of this period^ 
Greece ceased to be independent, and 
Rome, the queen of empires, established 
her dominion over it (See the continuation 
of this subject, under the articles Maam- 
drian School^ and Roman LiUraturt.) 

Greeccj Repolutian of Modem, (For 
the history of Greece under the Eastern 
empire, see ByzanUne Empire; and for 
the period from die down&ll of this 
-empire to the late revolution, see Turkey^ 
and Venice.) 

For centuries, the name of Greece pos- 
sessed a melancholy celebrity in the polit- 
ical history of Europe. In the primitive 
seat of European civilization, amid the 
noblest ruins of the ancient world, one 
people has preserved its existence through 
the wild tempests of Asiatic conquerors, 
and has recently contended with the ene- 
mies of Christiani^ and civilization^ like 
a shipwrecked mariner with the waves, for 
life and freedom, whilst Christian Europe 
beheld the death-struggle, forseven years, 
without coining to any resolution which 
posterity will consider as due from this ase. 
From the year 1821, Europe saw me 
Greeks asserting a national existence ; but 
she considered this as the effort of despair, 
and, from day to day, expected to see 
the last sparks of Grecian life ex- 
tinguiAied. She therefore withheld, for 
years, the assistance that was prayed for. 
Europe did not see, in the oppressors of this 
people, a powerful state, resting on firm 
foundations, but rather expected eveiy day 
the dissolution of this hollow mass of se- 
raglio slaves and janizaries. The jealous 
policy, both of the neighboring and distant 
powers, had thus far supported the fidiin^ 
state, and therefore a contest, strange as tt 
was terrible, was prolonged before our 
eyes, between a state and a people, both 
of whom stood equally near destruction. 
The Sublime Porte appeared so litde in 
a condition to conquer the Greeks, that it 



called from Africa the boldest and moHt 
powerful of its satraps, that he might exter- 
minate the men of Greece, send their wives 
and children as slaves to tlie Nile, and 
spread Africans over the land of classic 
reminiscences. Even Frenchmen offered 
their aid to subjugate the Moreo. Had 
the powerful viceroy of Egypt succeeded 
in uniting - under one government the 
iEgean sea, the Peloponnesus, Crete and 
the land of the Nile, then this Egyptian 
dynasty, like tlie ancient Fatimites, would 
have been in a situation to rule the Medi- 
terranean sea, to close the Dardanelles, to 
give laws to the trade of the Levant, and 
to invade Italy. Then would Greece, that 
venerable ruin of classical antiquity, have 
been for ever annihilated. The' Porte, 
called the hey-sUmt of thi Eunpean arch, 
would hardly have been the shadow of the 
last caliphs of Bagdad. Europe would have 
numbered anew Sesostris among her mo^ 
narclis. God be thanked that the result 
of the conflict has been more auspicious ! 

The Tuifcs and Greeks never became 
one nation; the relation of conquerors 
and conquered never ceased. Howe\'er' 
abject a laige part of the Greeks became 
by their continued oppression, tfaey never 
forsot that they were a distinct nation; 
and their patriarch at Constantinople re- 
mained a visible point of union for their 
national feelings. (See Ranke's Fwrsten 
ymd Vmer, &c., Beriin, 1827.) The 
Creeks had been repeatedly called upon 
by Russia to shake on the Turkish yoke, 
as in 1769, 1786 and 1806. . The last revo- 
lution broke out in March, 1621. As 
eaiiv as 1809, a society had been formed 
at Paris for the liberation of Greece. In 
1814, the HeUdreia (q. v.) was formed in 
Vienna, but the revolution began too 
eariy for their plans. Coray (q. vj with 
many others, as Mustoxydy, Gazy, Ducas, 
CumaSy Bambas, Gorgorios, Oiconomos, 
Capetanaki, exerted themselves to enlight- 
en their nation, and to prepare it. by a 
better education, for a struggle for nb^rty. 
Similar views had been entertained fifty 
years earlier, by several Greeks, in differ- 
ent parts of the country, among whom 
were Panagiotis, Mavrocordato and De- 
metrius Cantemir. In Greece itself, sev- 
eral attempts were made to revive the 
study of the ancient language, and with 
it a taste for letters, civilization and liberty. 
This was particularly the case in the 
islands (see Ihfdriots), where intercourse 
with France, and even with the U. States, 
contributed to hasten the revival of a thirst 
for liberty. The works of F^nelou, Bec- 
caria, Montesquieu, and those of some 

German scholars ; also Goldsmith's Greece 
and Franklin's Poor Richard, were trans- 
lated into modem Greek. At Athens, Salon- 
iki,Yanina, Smyrna, Cyd(»iia(Aivali), Bu- 
charest, Jassy, Kuru-Tschesme (a village 
on the European shore of the BosphorusL 
in Scio, &c., schools were establisliea. 
But the wai' has destroyed all these schools, 
with the exception of that on mount Athos. 
Rhigas (q. v.) animated the spirit of his 
countrymen by his so^gs. In addition to 
all this, the wretched state of Turkey, 
weak from without and within; every 
thing, in short, seemed fiivorable, when 
the precipitancy of oue or a few individ- 
uals, was the origin of infinite mischief, 
because the cause of liberty was not yet 
ripe. February 1, 1821, prince Charles 
Calimachi was appointed, by the Porte, 
hospodar of Walachia, in the place of the 
deceased Alexander Suzzo. Tike fear ef 
new exactions (which take place, in that 
country, with every new governor), pro^ 
duced commotions among the people of 
Walachia; and this excitement seemed 
to the members of the Hdaireia in St, 
Pet^fiburg, to afford a favorable moment 
for takuig up arms against the Turks, in 
which they expected to be suppcnrted by 
the Russian cabinet. Without knowing 
any thing of this plan, a Walachian, Theo- 
dore Wladimiresko, lefl Buchaiest, Janu- 
ary 30, vrith 60 {Mindoors, and instigated 
the peasants to revolt, promising them the 
protection of Russia and the restoration 
of their oki rights. The Amaouti, who 
were sent against him, joined him, and he 
soon became master of Littie Walachia, 
at the head of 5000 men. The Greeks in 
Moldavia likewise rose, under prince Al- 
exander Ypsilanti (q. v.]^ a mnjor-general 
in the Russian service. This insurrection 
was connected with the Htiaireia, (q. v.) 
Perhaps the object was to hasten the 
ttneatened breach between Russia and 
Turiiey. Besides, the Greeks always re- 
lied much on the (so called) Greek protect 
ofCaiharintU. March 7, 1821 (Feb. 23, 
old style), a proclamation of Ypsilanti was 
placarded in Jassy, under the eyes of the 
hospodar Michael Suzzo, which declared, 
that all the Greeks had, on that day, thrown 
off the Turkish yoke ; that he would put 
himself at their head with his country- 
mea ; tliat prince Suzzo wished the hap- 
piness of tlie Greeks; and that nothing 
was to be feared, as a great power was 
going to march against Turkey. Several 
officeiis and meml)er9 of the netaxreia had 
accompanied Ypsilanti from Bessarabia 
and Jassy. Some Turks were murdered, 
but Ypsilanti did all in his power to pre- 



vent ezcesKs, and was generally succesB- 
iiil. He wrote to the emperor of Ruwia, 
Alexander, who was then at Laybech 
(q. ?.), adung his protection for the Greek 
cause, and the two principatities Walachia 
and MoldaTia ; but the revolutions in Spain 
andPiedmont had just then broken out, and 
that monarch considered the Greek insur- 
rection to be nothing but a political fever, 
caught from Spain and Italy, which could 
not be checked too soon {besides, Yj^lanti 
was actually in the service of Russia, and 
therefore had undertaken this step lujainst 
die rules of military discipline). Alexan- 
der publicly disavowed the measure, ¥p- 
silanti^ name was struck from the army 
roUA, and he was declared to be no longer 
a subject of Russia* The Rusaan minis- 
ter, and the Austrian iMemuncio at Con- 
staminople, also declared that their cabinets 
would not take advantage of the internal 
troubles of Turkey in any shape what- 
ever, but would remain stdotly neutral. 
Yet die Porte continued suspicious, par- 
ticularly afler the information of an Eng- 
lishman had led to a detection of some 
supposed traces of the Greek conspiracy 
at Constantinople. It therefore ordered 
the Rusnan vessels to be searched, con- 
truT to treaty. The conunerce of Odessa 
mmered from this measure, which occa- 
siooed a serious correspondence between 
faanm StroganofT, the Rus8ia^ ambassador, 
and die reis efiendL The most rigorous 
measares were taken agfdnst all Greeks : 
their aehools were suppressed } their arms 
seized ; susoicion was a sentence of death ; 
the flight of some rendered all guilty ; it 
was nrahJlMCed under penalty of death ; in 
the cuvan, the total extmction of the Greek 
name was proposed ; Turkish troops 
marched into the principalities ; the hos- 
podar Suzzo was outlawed; the patri- 
archs of Constantinople and Jerusalem 
ezconununicated all insurgents (Mamh 
21); and a hatti-sheriff of March 31, 
caUed upon all Mussulmans to arm against 
the rebels for the protection of the filam; 
no Greek was, for some time, safe in the 
streets of Constantinople ; women and 
children were thrown into the sea; the 
noblest females openly violated and mur- 
dered or sold; the populace broke into 
the house of Fonton, the Russian coun- 
sellor of legation ; and prince Murusi was 
beheaded in the seraglio. Afler the arri- 
val of the new srand-vizier, Benderli All 
Pacfaa (appointed April 10), who conduct- 
ed a (tisorderiy army from Asia to the 
Boephonn, the wildest fimaticism raged 
in Constantinople. In Walachia and 
Moldavia, the bloody struggle (not the 

devastation of the comuxv, however) was 
brought to a close throuffh the treachery, 
discord and cowardice of the pandoors and 
Amaouts, with the annihilation of the val- 
iant ''sacred band^ of the /fetosreio, in the 
battle of Dnigashan (June 19, 1821), and 
with Jordaki's heroic death in the monas- 
tery of Seek. (See YpnlanH,) In Greece 
Proper, no cruelty could quench the fire 
of hberty ; the beys of tlie Morea invited 
ail bishops and the noblest Gnelmiffroidrm) 
to Tripolizza, under pretence ot consult- 
ing with them on the deliverance of the 
people from their cruel of^MMQOn. Sev- 
eral fell into the snare : when they amved, 
they were thrown into prison. Ciermanos, 
archbishop of Patras, alone penetrated the 
intended treacheiy, and took measures 
with the otbera for frustratincr the designs 
of their oppressors. The beys of the 
Morea tlien endeavored to disarm the sep- 
arate tribes ; but it was too late ; the Mai- 
notesy always free, descended from mount 
Taygetos, in obedience to Ypsilanti's proc- 
lamation,' and the heart of all Greece beat 
for libeity. 

Tlie revolution in the Morea began, 
March 29^ 1821, at Calavota, a small 
place in Achaia, where 80 Turks were 
made prisoners. On the same day, the 
Turkien garrison of Patras fell upon the 
Greek inhabitants ; but they were soon re- 
lieved. In the ancient Laconia, Colocotroni 
and Peter Mavromichalis ft>used the peo- 
ple to arms. The archbishop Germanos 
collected the peasants of Achaia. In Patras 
and the other places, the Turics retreated 
into the fortresses. As eariy as April 6, a 
Messenian senate assembled in Calamata, 
and the bey of Maina, Peter Mavromi- 
chalis, as commander-in-chief, proclaim- 
ed that the Morea had shaken off the 
yoke of Turkey to save the Christian 
&ith, and to restore the ancient character 
of their country. " From Europe, nothing 
is wanted but money, arms and counsel'' 
From that time, the sufiering Greeks found 
friends in Germany, France, Switzerland, 
England and the U. States, who sympa- 
thized with them, and did aH m then- 
power to assist them in their strug]^. 
The cabinets of Europe, on the 6cBitrary, 
duew eveiy impediment in the way of 
the llellemsts, mitil they were finally 
obliged, against their inclination, to inter- 
fere in their favor. Jilasuf Setim, pacha 
of Lepanto, having deceived information 
of these events fit>m the diplomatic a^t 
of a European power, hastened to relieve 
the citadel of Patras, and the town was 
changed into a heap of ruins. The mas- 
sacre of the inhabitants^ April 15, was the 



eiffnal for a struggle of life and death. 
Almost the whole war was thenceforward 
asucceasion of atrocities. It was not a 
war prosecuted on any fixed plan, but 
merely a series of devastations and mur* 
ders. The law of nations could not exist 
between the Turks and Greeks, as they 
were then situated. The monk Gregoras, 
soon after, occupied Corinth, at the head 
of a body of Greeks. Tlie revolution 
spread over Attica, Boeotia, Phocis, iEto- 
lu and Acaruania. The ancient names 
were revived. At the same time, the 
islands declared themselves free. In the 
beginnhig of April, the wealthy merchants 
and ship-owners, the bold mariners of Hy- 
dra, Spezzia and Ipsara (see Ifydriots'^ long 
before gained over to the cause of hberty 
by Bambe^ and other patriots, erected an 
independent government in Hydra. They 
fitted out their vessels for war, and the 
blue and red flag of the Hdcdreia soon 
waved on 180 vessels, mostly of 10 or 12 
ffun8.f It must be remembered that the 
mhabitants of the islands, particularly 
those just mentioned, and the neroic pop- 
ulation of Suli, are very different from 
the people of the Morea and Livadia, if 
we wish to form a ct>rTect understanding 
of the Greek struggle. While tlie con- 
duct of the Moreots has but too oflen 
drawn on them the just reproach of their 
compatriots, the former have gained a 
name in history, which will be honored 
as lonff as an invincible love of liberty 
and bold and inflexible courage in an tm- 
equal struggle are prized. Even women, 
among the islanders, took arms for liberty, 
and, among them, Lascarina Bobolina, of 
Spezzia, was distinguished. The Hydri- 
olB cruised in the Turkish waters, and 
blockaded the ports. In some islands, 
Uie TurjLs were massacred in revenge for 
the murder of the Greeks at Patras, and, 
in retaliation, the Greeks were put to 
death at Smyrna, in Asia Minor, and in 
those islands which had not yet shaken 
off the Tuiidsh yoke. The exaqieration 
was raised to its highest pitch by the cru- 
elties committed against the Ureeks in 
ConiMantinople, after the end of March. 
On mere suspicion, and often merely to 
get possession of their property, the di- 

* Neophytos Bambts, teacher of natural phi- 
lotopby and mathemaUcs in the school of Scio. 
pobRsbed, in 1818, in Venice, a manual of moral 
philo80|)hy, which is one or the most vahiable 
pvudttctions of modem Greek literature. He has 
since been professor in the Ionian univerBity, in 
Corfu, established by Uie infiuence of lord GuilfoH. 

t According to Pouqueville, tl» mercantile 
marine of the Greek islands consisted of 615 ves- 
sels, with 17;fi00 sailors and 6878 guns 

van caused the richest Grreek merchants 
and bankers to be put to death. The 
rage of the Mussulmans was particularly 
directed against the Greek clergy. April 
22, Gregory (q. v.) the patriarch of 
Constantmople, was murdered, with his 
bishops, in the metropolis. In Adriano- 
ple, May 3, the venerable patriarch Cy- 
rillus, who bad retired to solitude, and 
Proesos, archbishop of Adrianople, and 
others, met the same fate. Several hun- 
dred Greek churches were torn down, 
without the divan payinff any attention to 
the^ remonstrances of tne Christian am- 
bassadors. The savage grand-vizier, in- 
deed, lost his place. May 1, and soon ofler 
his life ; but Mahmud (q. rX and his fa- 
vorite Halet Effendi, persisted in the 
plan of extermination. The coura^ous 
Stroganoff (q. v.) was yet less able to 
make his remonstrances heard, after the 
grand seignior, in order to save his fiivor- 
ite, who was hated by the janizaries, on 
account of his plan of reform in the mili- 
tary department, gave a seat, in the divan, 
to three members of those riotous troops. 
The commerce of Russia, on the Black 
sea, was totally ruined by the blockade of 
the Bosphorus, and the ultimatum of the 
ambassador was not answered. Baron 
StroganofT, therefore, broke off all diplo- 
matic relations with the reis effendi, July 
18, and, July 31, embarked for Odessa. 
He had declared to th^ divBn, that if the 
Porte did not change its system, Russia 
would feel herself obliged to give "the 
Greeks refuge, protection and assistance.^ 
The answer or the reis efiendi to this 
declaration, given too late, was sent to 
Petersburg ; but it was only after the most 
atrocious excesses committed b^ the jani- 
zaries and the trooiK from Asia (for in- 
stance, in Constantinople, June 27 and 
July 2), that the foreign ministers, particu- 
larly the British minister, lord Strangford, 
succeeded. in inducing the grand seignior 
to recall the command for the arming 
of all Mussulmans, and to restore order. 
The Porte even promised an amnesty, on 
condition of the submission of the Greeks ; 
but what fftiarantee was ttiete for the ful- 
filment of it? Individual executions still 
continued. Prince Calimachi, hospodar 
of Walachia, was sent, with his familv, to 
Asia Minor, where he suddenly died on 
hearinff of the execution of his brother. 
The old &milies of the Fanariots (q. v.) 
no longer existed in Constantinople, and, 
after ul the cruelties they had sufiered, 
the Greeks could not trust the amnesty 
of the sultan. They remembered, too, 
the 900,000 Moreots, who bad been mur 



dered by the orders of a former suhan, 
though their pardon bad been stipulated 
with Catharine IL Their hopes were al- 
so strenglhened by the war which broke 
out between Tuifcey and Persia, and they 
never gave up the confidence that the 
^^ofcorabC would at last arm for their 
pzotectioD, which Rusria had taken upon 
herself in the three last treaties with the 
Porte. Meanwhile the Turkish general 
in Epirua^ Khurahid Pacha, who was be- 
sieging the rebel Ali (q. v.), in Yanina, 
had sent troops against the ^uliots, into 
the Morea and to Thessaly. But the 
iEltolians under Rhanffos, and the Acar- 
nanians under the brothers Hyscus, 
obliged the Turks to shut themselves up 
in Ajrta, and made themselves masters of 
Salona. Ulysses put himself at the 
head of some Armatolics (q. vX in Thes- 
saly, and the archimandrite, Antny mos 6a- 
zis, called the peasants to arms. In Euboea 
(Negropont), ail the peasants took up anna, 
and obliged the Turks to shut themselves 
up in the fortified cities ; but these move- 
ments were not decisive, because they 
took place without cooperation; and, in 
fiict, nothinff was efiected, but the driving 
the Turks &om the country into the cit- 
ies. The pacha of Saloniki delivered the 
pacha who was besieged in Larissa. 
Omer Vrione, the lieutenant of Khurahid 
Pacha, entered livadia; the inhabitants 
of Athens fled to the islands ; the Acrop- 
olis was garrisoned by Turks. The 
Greeks afWwards retook Athens, and at- 
tempted to reduce the Acropolis bv fion- 
ine ; but it was relieved by Omer Vrione, 
July dO, 1821, and the inhabitants of 
Athens again fled to Salamis. On the 
Achaian sea, Greek and other pirates 
frustrated the plans of the navarcks (ad- 
mirals) in Hydra, and the European pow- 
ers were obliged to protect their vessels 
by cruisers. In the funeral confusion, 
the islanders distinguished themselves 
by their valor in batUe, and their greater 
order in the organization of government ; 
and if much complaint has been made 
against their piracies, it must be remem- 
bered, that the convulsed state of things 
offered great temptations to piracy ; that 
the government was too weak to re- 
prefls it ; and that, privateering being law- 
ful against the Turks, it was not straiuie 
that a people, so much removed flrom the 
influence of European civilization, ex- 
ceeded the legitimate limits of private war- 
five. The Cneek sailors were bolder and 
touch more expert than the Turkish, 
Iheir vessels much swifier. In ftct, we 
can hardly imagine a navy in a more 

wretched state of discipline than the 
Turkish. When, therefore, the first Tuik- 
ish squadron left the DardaueHes^ Mav 
19, the Greeks constantly puraued it with 
their fire-ships, avoiding, at the same 
dme, a general engagement; and, June 
8, they attacked a vessel of the line, 
which had got ashore at Tenedoe, burned 
it, and compeUed the rest of the squad- 
ron to put back to the Dardanelles. June 
13, the Ipeariots landed on the coast of 
Asia Minor, and took possession of the 
ancient Cydonia, now the Greek city of 
Aivali ; but, after they had retired, the 
Turks burned the city, and 35,000 inhabi- 
tants either perished or were driven from 
their homes. The ill success of their ex- 
pedition added fresh fuel to the rage of 
the Turks. The Greeks in the island of 
Candia, who had avoided all participation 
i9 the insurrection, were disarmed, and 
their archbii^op and several clergymen 
executed. But the peasants in the moun-> 
tains, and the inhabitants of the small 
island Sphakia, called the Sidiois of 
Candia, refused to nve up their arms, 
collected, and drove tne Turks back again 
into die towns. From that dme, the 
struggle continued, and the Turks, though 
supported by several thousand men from 
Egypt, were never acain abte to make them- 
selves masters of me highlands. They, 
however, maintained themselves in the 
cities. Madden, in his Travels in Egypt, 
&C., gives some interesting details of the 
Esyptian expedition to Candia. On the 
isuuid of Cyprva, where also there had 
been no appearances of an insurrection, 
the Greeks were disarmed in November, 
1821, and almost all the inhabitants of 
Lamica, with the ard^bishop and other 
prelates, murdered. T^e peasants united 
for mutualprotection ; as a punishment 
for which 68 villages were burned in Au- 
gust, 1832. Since that time, the stillness 
of the grave has brooded over Cyprus. 
Similar atrocities were committed by the 
Turks at Scala Nuova, in Rhodes and at 
Pergamos, after die Greeira had surprised 
the latter place. In Simyma, also, new 
cruelties were committed ; and the Euro- 
pean consuls did not succeed until No- 
vember, 1881, in inducing the pacha t» 
put a stop to the enormities of the 
Turks* Since that thne, the ppblic se- 
curity has rareh^ been intemiptad in that 
place.* But ^ die European prov- 

* Here, and in other places, the comaiandei* 
of French, Encliah, Austrian and American vea- 
sets, and the CHiropean conaals, among whom the 
French consal^ David, deflerves to be particulari/ 
mentioned, saVed the lives of many anfortuaai* 



inces of Turkey, the crueltieB against 
ChristiaDS continued, as the sultan had 
issued a hatUrdimff (September 20, 
1821), calling upon all Mussuhnans to 
take arms against the Giaours. This 
order was not piublislied in Constanti- 
nople, for which the populace, in that 
place, revenged themselves by setting 
nre to the city, whenever news of ill 
success exasperated them against the 

The great Turidsh fleet, under the cap- 
' udan pacha, Kara All, strengthened by 
Egyi>tian, Tunisian and Algerine vessels, 
had, indeed, driven awav the Greek flotil- 
las,^ supplied the Turkish garrisons in the 
Morea with troops, arms and provisions, 
burned the small vUli^ of Galaxidi, in the 
gulf of Ijepaiito, October % 1821, and 
taken some small Greek fishing cnift in 
the harbor of this place. Yet the fleet 
had effected nothing decisive. Hardly 
had it returned to the Dardanelles, Octo- 
ber 22, 1821, when the Greek fleets re- 
newed their system of blockade, and be- 
came, as formerlv, masters of the iEgean 
sea and the fpAl of Saloniki. Mean- 
while, Demetnus Ypsilanti had arrived at 
Hydra, with prince Alexander Cantacu- 
zeno, with authori^ from his brother, 
Alexander Ypsilanti. In Hydra, the un- 
fortunate result of the struggle in Wala- 
chia was not yet known. Denietrius 
promised the aid of Russia, and announc- 
ed the restoration of the Greek empire. 
Yet it was with great difliculty that he 
succeeded in being appointed, on Julv 24, 
1821, arckistrategaa (conmiander-in-chief ) 
of the Peloponnesus, the Archipelago, 
and all the liberated provinces, and, as 
such, in being placed at the head of 
the Greeks in the Morea, where the dis- 
sensions among the anntimij and the un- 
disciplined state of the soldiery, had a 
most injurious effect Soon after (Au- 

Sist 3), the principal Turidsh fortress, 
onembasia (Napoii di Malvasia) surren- 
dered to prince Cantacuzeno, and Nava- 
rino to Demetrius Ypsilanti ; but the ra- 
pacious Moreots did not observe the arti- 
cles of capitulation. Some details of 
what happened afler the capitulation of 
Navarino are related in the editor's Jour- 
nal in Greece (in German, Leipsic, 1823). 
Demetrius, disgusted at this disorder, de- 
clared his mtention to leave Greece, un- 
less he were invested with power to put 
a stop to this licentiousness, which he re- 
ceived at least nominally. At the same 
time, the senate of Calamata united with 

persons, wlio would otherwise have become the 
victims of Turidsh or Greelc fanaticism. 

that of Hydra, in order to assemble a con- 
gress of deputies from all Greece, at Ca- 
lamata. Whilst Mavrocordato and others 
were making these preparationa, Deme- 
trius Ypsilanti was closely besieging Tri- 
jmlizza, the chief fortress of the Turks, 
atuated in the plain of Mautinea, in the 
centre of Greece. The garrison was on the 
point of surrendering, when the appear- 
ance of the Turkish fleet, in the waters of 
the Peloponnesus, gave them new cour- 
age. But in order to induce the Tiukish 
troops to make an obstinate resistance, 
from feiar of the vengeance of the Chris- 
tians, the Turkish commanders, at Tripo- 
lizza, ordered 80 priests and noble Greeks, 
who had been brought there, in part, by 
the treacherous invitations of the bevs, to 
be all murdered, excepting two. October 5, 
afler 2000 Albanians nad received permis- 
sion to depart, and the negotiationB with 
the Turks were broken ofl*,Tripolizza was 
taken by storm. The last post was sur- 
rendered, on terms of capitulation, by tlie 
gallant Kiaja Bey; but the Moreots 
could not be restrained, and 8000 Turks 
perished. Even the Albanians were at- 
tacked, and some of them pltmdered. In 
Tripolizza, the Moreots earned their first 
heavy cannon, and the place became the 
seat of the soi-diaant Greek government, 
until it was transferred to Argos. 

Ulysses was equally successfiil in Thes- 
sally. He and some other guerilla lead- 
ers, or ctmitanif among whom was Pere- 
vos, on September 5 and 6, near Ther- 
mopylae, defeated a Turkish army, which 
had advanced from Macedonia. January 
26, 1822, the Acrocorinthus (q. v.| fell into 
the hands of the Greeks by capitulation. 
On the other hand, the ])acha of Saloniki 
took the peninsula of Cassandra, Nov. 11, 
by storm, the Greeks having become en- 
feebled by dissensions. 3000 Greeks were 
put to the sword, women and children 
carried into slavery, and the flourish- 
ing peninsula made a desert The monks 
and hermits on mount Athos (Monte San- 
to), alone saved themselves by a heavy 
ransom, and remained imd]8turii>ed, be- 
cause the Turks consider these rockv her- 
mitages sacred. At the same time, iCliur- 
shid Pacha, November 13, assaulted All's 
fortress Zathariza, and the old tyrant of 
Epinis in vain expected succor fix>m the 
Greeks in his last place of refuge, a castle 
in the lake near Yanina. The Greeks, to- 
wards tlie end of November, having occu- 
pied Arta, without obtaining possession of 
the citadel, were obliged to leave the city 
in the middle of December, when Omer 
Vrione returned fix>m Livadia, and di»- 


perse themselves in the mountains. Dur- 
ing this irregular war, the government be- 
gan to acquire some form, as the separate 
senates established connexions with each 
other. They invested Demetrius Ypsilanti 
with the chief command in the Morea, 
Ulyases with the same office in Thessaly, 
and somewhat later abo in Attica. Prince 
Havrocordato received the chief command 
in the Albanian provinceSb They final- 
ly sent prince Cantacuzeno to the empe- 
ror Alexander, to implore his assistance ; 
but the prince could not obtain passports 
for SLPeterabufg, because the system of the 
holy alliance was neutralUy(wi they called 
it)y and discouragement of the Greek 
insurrection. EquaUy unsuccessful were 
the navarckSf in Hydra, in their attempts 
to sectBPe the neutrality of the viceroy of 
Egypt by aea, as he now hoped for an op- 
portunity of uniting Crete with Egypt 

Fint Men^ iowanii a Politteai Or- 
gamzaUonjtfthe Grtehj Janvarv 13 (/oit^ 
1101^ 1), 1838, m JSpidoiiriw, imM tie 
ATaHonid Autmbty in Astro, March 14, 
182a. With the greatest difficuhy, M«v- 
Tooordato and some prelates had suc- 
ceeded in giving somewhat of a Men^ 
tive constitution and a central govenunent 
to a eoimtry which was by no means yet 
entirely freed from the Turks, and was oc- 
cupied bv parties often hostile to each 
ether. The western part of Greece — 
Acarmmia, iEtolia and Epirus, sent thirty 
deputies to Bliasolonghi, who, under the 
preridency of Alexander Mavrocordato, 
ronned a government or gerousia, Nov. 
4, 1821, consisting of ten members ; the 
eastern part of the main-land, comprising 
Attica, BoBotta, Euboea, Phocis, Locris, 
Dcyris, Ozohe, Thessaly and Macedonia, 
sent thirty-three deputies to Salona, who, 
under the presidency of Theodore Negria, 
formed, on the 16tn of November, the 
areo}Migus of fourteen membera. The Mo- 
rea, or the Peloponnesus, with the islands 
of Hjrdra, Ipsara, Spezzia, &c., sent six^ 
deputies to Ar^os, who assembled, Dec 1, 
under the presidency of prince Demetrius, 
and estab&shed the Peloponnesian gtrot^ 
sia of twenty members. These three gov- 
enunents were to prepare a permanent 
constitution, which was to receive, in fu- 
ture, such amendments as experience 
sfaouid suggest. For this purpose, 67 
deputies fiom all the provinces of Greece 
fomed the first national assembly in Epi- 
daunis, Jan. 10, 18S22, under the presi" 
dency of Mavrocordato, which, Janu- 
ary 13, the Greek new year's day, pro- 
clainned a provisionary constitution. Its 
principles were the follo^ving: the annual 

election of all chief magistrates of the 

Erovinces, districts and communities; 
iws were (a be made by the concurrent 
vote of the delilienitive and execudve 
councils ; the execution of laws ^vas to 
rest with the executive coundl, which 
appointed the ei^t ministen; the inde- 
pendence of the judiciary was to be pro- 
vided for ; this branch of government wa^ 
to be exercised by the district^ proiincia) 
and supreme courts. The congress then 
elected the thirty-three memben of the 
legislative and the ^y^ members of the 
executive council Mavrocordato was 
elected proidna, or president ; Theod. Ne- 
gris, secretaiy of state of the executive 
council ; Ypsilanti, who had expected this 
place, was appointed preodent of the 
legislative council, but never discharged 
the duties of his office. Finally, the con- 
mss c^ Epidaurus issued a manifosto, 
Jan. 27, 1822, in which they pronounced 
the union of the Greeks under an inde- 
pendent federative govetnment The 
operadon of this was not so beneficial as 
had been expected. A people so l6ng en-- 
slaved, and so deficient in civilization, 
could not at once establish a wise and 
firm government. The central govem- 
ment fixed its seat at Corinth, and, at a 
later period, again at Argos. The Porte was 
now obliged to divide its forces. One 
army was unsuccessfully employed in Ap- 
menia on the Euphrates, against the Per- 
nans ; another was stationed on the 
Danube, to observe the Russian army in 
Bessarabia. But All's foil enoourased 
the Porte, and it was with difficuky 3mi 
the Austrian and English ministerB could 
ccmvince the divan of the peaceaMe in- 
tentions of Alexander. But, in 1832; at 
the request of Runia, the sultan ordered 
die restoration of some Greek churches, 
and the elecdon of a new patriareh in 
the usual way. The choice feD upon An- 
thymos, bishop of Ohalcedon. He was 
treated with respect, for the purpose of 
inducing the Greeks to mccept the amnes- 
ty. The Aoatic hordes, in May, 1822, 
evacuated the principalities of Wakchia 
and Moldavia, after committing eveiy kind 
of excess ; in July, new hospodars were 
appointed— Ghika for Walachia, and 
Sturdza for Moldavia ; both were Boyards, 
and Greeks were excluded from aU ofiSces 
in the principalities. The new hospodan 
were under tlie superintendence of Turicish 
seraskiers, and European Turks continued 
to occupy the principalities; they were, 
however, withdrawn fix>m Jassy, which 
they burned and pillaged, Auffust 10, 1832; 
enraged at the or&re of the divaik 



Meanwhile, the year 1832 hod produced 
important results in Greece, because both 
parties had followed, in some soil, a 
militarv plan of operations. After Ali'b 
&U, Khurshid Pacha in Thessaly deter- 
mined to collect reinforcements from Ru- 
melia, in order to conquer Livadia and 
Morea, whilst, in February and March, 
1822,a Turkish fleet, under tiali Bey, was 
to reinforce the sarrisons in the Morea, so 
that Jussuf Pacha, from Patros and Le- 
panto, could support Khurshid's attack up- 
on the isthmus and his invasion of the Mo- 
rea. But the attempt of the Tuikish fleet 
to reduce the Morea by fresh troops, to- 
tally failed, and the opposition of the 
Suliots kept back the seraskierin Epirus. 
These events gave Colocotroni time to 
shut up the troops, which had been land- 
ed in Patzas, and to send assistance to 
Acamania. At the same time, new insur- 
rections broke out in several places, which 
ajgain divided the power of the Tuiks. 
The misfortune of Scio saved the Greek 
main-hmd. The numerous Greek popu- 
lation of the flourishing and deitoceless 
island of Scio (see Scio) had declined 
eveiy invitation to engajie in the revolu- 
tion ; but, March 23, 1 822, a Gredt fleet 
from Samos, under Logotheti, having ap- 
peared on the coasts, the peasants^ who 
labored under the greatest oppressions, 
took up arms. Great disorders occurred, 
and the Turks, after having taken 80 ho»- 
tapes from amone the richest inhabitants 
ofthe city, retired mto the citadel. At this 
moment, the ffreat Turkish fleet made its 
appearance. In order to punish Scio, the 
capudan pacha abandoned his dian of 
operations against the Morea, and landed 
(April lltfa) 15,000 of the most barbarous 
of the Asiatic troops, after the Sciots had 
rejected the ofier or amnesty. The island- 
ers were beaten, and in a few days the 
paradise of Scio was changed into a scene 
of fire and blood. It was with great dif- 
ficulty, and at the risk of their own lives, 
that tike European consuls (among whom 
the courageous French consul Digeon 
was distinguished), and the captains of 
some European vessels, were able to save 
a few hundred Greeks. Part of the peo- 
ple escaped to their vessels ; otiiers con- 
tinued tne struggle of despair in the 
mountains. The European consuls, by 
means of a ppstoral letter of the arch- 
bishop, and by the written assurance of 
the surviving hostages, that the Sciots 
might trust the oflbred amnesty, if ttiey 
would deliver up their leaders and their 
arms, finally effected the submission of 
the peasants. Still, mlirders, burmugs and 

did not eease. According to 
le 'iXirtcish lists, down to the 25th of 
Mav, 41,000 Sciots, mostiy women and 
children, were sold into slavery. A sim- 
ilar late was prepared for Ipsara, Tine and 
Samoa. But the Ipsariots, having already 
made preparations to send their ftunilies 
to the Morea, hovered roimd the Turkisli 
fleet with 70 small vessels, among which 
were several ifire-ships, called hq^JuBOiaj 
which were as ingeniously constructed 
as they were skUfiilly directed^ Forty- 
three Ipsariots and Hydriots devoted 
tiiemselves to' death, rowed with their 
scampamas (a kind of runboats) into the 
midst of the fleet of tne enemy, which 
still lay in the road of Scio ; and in the 
night of June 18, 1822, captain George 
attached fire-ships to the ship of the cap- 
udan pacha ana to another vessel of the 
line. The former blew up, vrith 2286 
men; the latter was saved. The capu- 
dan pacha was mortally wounded, and 
carried on shore, where he died. The 
Turks were at first stupified; but their 
rase soon broke out, and the last traces of 
ctutivation, the mastic villages, so lucra- 
tive to the Porte, were destroyed. In 
Constantinople, Turics bought Sciots 
merely for the purpose of putting them 
to death at pleasure. The merchants of 
Scio, resident at Constantinople, and the 
hostages which were carried thither, were 
executed in secret or in public, unthout 
any kind of local process. Thus the 
Morea and the Archipelago were taujriit 
what fiite they were to expect "Iiie 
Porte, however, began to perceive that it 
was destroying its own resources by the 
^stem of devastation. The jpacha of 
Smyrna, therefore, received stnct injunc- 
tions fix>m the sultan to maintain order 
and to protect the Greeks. In Scio, the 
new governor, Jussuf Bey, gave b^k the 
lands to those Greeks \^o returned. In 
Cyprus, where the murder of the Chris- 
tians had been continued until the end of 
1822, Salih Bey, a humane officer of the 
pacha of Effypt, finally protected the dis- 
trict under his commana from utter devas- 
tation; and, in 1823, the new governor, 
Seid Mehemet, endeavored to restore or- 
der in the whole island. The insursents 
also occupied the Turiush troops in Mace- 
donia. The enormities of the Anatio 
troops, who traversed this province, to 
join Khurshid's army, excited an insur- 
rection among the mountaineers, who had 
previously remained quiet Under the 
ca{^itani Dlamantis, Taasos and others, 
they occupied tiie passes ofthe Ohrmpus, 
and, March 24, 1822, captured the im- 



place of CanirVena, the ancieDt 
But the pacba of Shdoniki, Ab- 
bohibuc, finally defeated them with lua 
caTafay at Niausta ; the peasants diaperaed, 
and about 150 villages experienced the 
ftte of Scia 5000Christian fiunilies per- 
ished, and the pacha boasted that he had 
munkored in one day 1500 women and 
children. Even the Porte disapproved 
these measures, and the pacha was con- 
demned to be strangled ; but, surrounded 
by his body-guard, m the fortress of Sa- 
loniki, he esoiped the exeicution of the 
sentence. (The Poite afterwards, how- 
ever, appointed him aeraakier of Rumelia, 
and in November, 1883, he marched with 
15.000 men fiom Lariasa to Zeitun.) 
Whilst Scio was desolated, and Macedonia 
bled, the central government at Corinth, 
under Mavzocordato, president of the 
executive council, was engaged, in con- 
nexioii with the provincial goveromeuts, 
in oiganizing the administration of the 
country, proviaionally, by the law of April 
30,18^ (the first year of independence), 
innnoducin^ order into the army, nusioff a 
loan, promisuig the soldiers land (by me 
law of May 7, 1833, May 19, new style), 
and, as there existed no taxes except cus- 
tomia, in laying a tax on the productions 
of the soil ; but they met with resistance 
in almost all their attempts, particularly 
fiom the old capitani, who had been en- 
tirely independent durinfj^ the government 
of the Tuiks. Each desued to command 
and to fight on his own account, and for 
hia own profit Thus the avaricious and 
ambitious Colocotroni, the fierce Ulysses,* 
and the haughty MavromichaJis, and 
even Ypsilanti, yielded with reluctance to 
the new order Of things. The deficiency 
of human language, which oblig^ us to 
use the same word for things which are 
very different, constantly creates misun- 
dentanding, and we must warn our read- 
en not to connect with the words gov- 
ammeniy mimstarsy 2air, &c^ applied to 
Greece at this time, such ideas as they 
annex to the words when used of Euro- 
pean or North American afiairs. If a 
naiicMi, which has been for centuries in a 
state of oppression and lawlessness, rises, 
it must undergo many changes before the 
dements of order are developed. Under 
the Tuiks, the Greeks had no connexion 
with each other; how could they be ex- 
pected to form at once apeacefiil whole? 

* Uljnei ev«ii ordei»d a brave officer, the col- 
enel Haverino Palaaca, and a capitaoo, Alexis 
HuaOf tent by govenuneot to induce the wild 
caiMtaoo to act in conceit with a general plan of 
' fi, to be put to death. 

The bravest soldiers among them were 
the capitani fii>m Maine and Suli, but 
these bad been, mostly, cUphtes or rob- 
bers, totally independent, and vrished to 
continue the war independently, for their 
own interests, as they had previously 
done. Of this class is Colocotroni. Sub- 
mission to anjr sort of national organiza- 
tion was foreign to their habits. The 
inhabitants of the Morea were mosdy 
wretched peasants, who had always tived 
in such a state of bondage, that they were 
only fit to engage an enemy under shelter^ 
or when their numbers were gieatly supe- 
rior, but could never be brought to fight 
in open combat on equal terms. They 
were, moreover, poor, and few among 
them could be induced to make any sac- 
rifices. At the same time, they thought 
liberty delivered them fiom all taxes ; and, 
indeed, what had they to pay ? War, put- 
ting a stop to production, left the govern- 
ment without resources, and without the 
means of exercisinff authority. Add to 
this, that the Greeks were continually 
quarrelling among themselves. The ed- 
itor was present at a fight between the 
eapitano Niketas and some Moreots, for 
the possession of some cattle. Under 
these circtmistanees, the words ktw and 
got^emifietit must be understood in a very 
restricted sense. The editor^s Journal, 
above referred to, relates particulal-ly to 
the state of Greece at this period. All 
that enabled the Greeks to continue their 
straggle was the wretchedly undisciplined 
character of their Turkish enemies. 
Mavrooordato had a difiicult part to per- 
form, because he had not ootained his 
dignity oi proidras on the field of battle. 
Yet, by the influence of Negris, he receiv- 
ed the command of the expedition to 
Western Hellas (Epirus), with full civil 
and military power. The proedros, with 
2000 Peloponnesians and the corps of 
Philhellenes* (about 300 men, under gen- 
eral Nermann, formerly a general in the 
Wfirtembeig service), loined, on June 8, 
the Albanian bands of the brave Marco 
Botzaris, for the piupose of covering Mis- 
solonghi, the strong-hold of Western Hel- 
las, of relieving Sidi, and capturing Arta. ,' 
Here they had to contend with the pacha 
of Yanina, Omer Vrione, and the pacha 
of Arta, Ruchid, whilst the Turidsh com- 
mander-in-chief(seraskier) Khurshid/who 
had made an imsuccessfiil attack on Ther- 
mopylsB in Ma^, had forced his way ( Jime 
17) through llicala to Larissa. Siili, in 

* Those Europeans and Anericans who bad 
gone to Greece to serve io tha insarrection. 



AUmuub, was reiieyecl ; but, after the 
btoody bfitOe of Peta (July 16, 1823), 
where ^ camtano Gozo treacherouely 
jQed, and the PtiilheUeiiistB, who made the 
longest stand a^[ain8t the enemy, lost 150 
men, with thdr artiUeiy and baggage, 
RotsBBiis and Nonnann were obliged to 
throw themselves into the mountains. 
Mavrocordato in vain called the people to 
arms ; the other commanders remed to 
'assist him; general Vamakioti went over 
to the enemy, and the internal dissen- 
sions among the Albanians enfeebled the 
strength of die Greeks. The oastle of Suli 
was surrendered to the Turks on Sept 
90. Part of the Suliots (1800 men, with 
their wives and children) took refuge un- 
der the protection of the British in €eph- 
alonia ; the rest fled to the mountams. 
Mavrocordato, with 300 men, and Marco 
Botzaris, with 22 Suliots, finally threw 
themselves (November 5) into Missolon- 
ghi. ^Here," said the former, ** let us 
mil with Greece." Omer Vrione now 
considered himself master of ifitolia, and 
advanced, with Ruchid, at the head of 
11,000 men, to Missolonghi. Jussuf Pa- 
clim sent troops from Patras and Lepanto 
against Corinth, and Khurahid, who, in 
Lariss^ had received reinforcements from 
Rumelia and Bulgaria, determined to ad- 
vance £rom Theasaly, through Livadia 
(where the Greeks, June 19, 1822. had 
reduced the Acropolis by &nune, aner a 
siege of four months), agamst the isthmus ; 
and then, afier fornung a union with Jus- 
suf and Omer Vrione, to crush the insur- 
gents in the Morea. His main body, 
25,000 strong, composed principally of 
cavahy, had aheady passed Thermopylae, 
which Ulysses had defended so valiantly in 
May and June, without opposition. On 
his march through Livadia, he laid every 
thing waste, proclaimed an amnesty, and 
occupied Corinth, which a priest of the 
name of Achilles, who sAerwards killed 
himself, had basely surrendered on July 
19 ; but when KhurBliid attempted to 
penetrate the passes in person, he was 
three times repelled by Ulysses, nearlA- 
rissB, where he died, November 26, just 
before the arrival of the capidgi bachi, 
wha brought his death warrant That 
body of cavalry, however, whieh had so 
rasmy pushed forward without in&ntry, 
and was unable to obtain food or proven- 
der, perished in the defiles of the Morea. 
When it advanced against Areos (from 
which tlie central government had fl^), 
fbnned a junction with 5000 men of Jus- 
suTs army, and sent reinforcements to 
Napoli di Ramania, the danger united all 

the capitani. Nioholas Niketas, who was 
on the point of taking Napoli di Romanu 
by capitulation, Mavromichalis and Ypsi- 
lanti retreated to the heights of Aigos, 
laying waste the open country ; Ypsilanti, 
m the ruins of the casde of Arsos, held 
the enemy in check ; the Greek fleet pre- 
vented the relief of Naijplia, or Napou di 
Romania, by the great Turkish fleet, and 
took an Auman store-ship, bound to Na- 
poli di Romania ; Ulysses occu|Hed the 
defiles of Geranion ; Colocotroni hasten- 
ed fix>m Palras, which he was besieg- 
ing, to the scene of danger, called the 
people to the standard of the cross, as- 
sumed the chief command, and, in the 
latter part of June, occupied the defiles 
between Patras, Aigos and Corinth, by 
which he cut ofiT the connexion of the 
Turks m Thessaly with Khurshid. The 
skirmishing began on all sides, and con- 
tinued day and night, from August 1 to 
August 8. On the latter day, the Turkish 
commander-in-chief, Dram Ali (or Tshar 
Hadgi Ali Pacha), whose troops liad noth- 
ing but horse-flesh to cat, oflered to evac- 
i^ate the Morea ; but Colocotroni refused 
the offer. The pacha then determined to 
break through to the isthmus of Corinth ; 
but Niketas fell upon the separate corps 
of the Turks, on the night of August 
9, in the defile of Tretes; so that 
hardly 2000, without artilleiy or bag^pnge, 
reached the isthmus, where Ypsilanti en- 
tirely destroyed them.* Another corps, 
which fled towards Patras, was destroyed 
by Colocotroni ; the remaining corps was 
routed by the Mainots, August 26, near Na- 
poli. Thus more than 20,000 Turks disap- 
peared, in four weeks, fh)m the Greek soil. 
Some thousands still held the isthmus and 
the Acrocorinthus, but were soon obliged to 
evacuate the isthmus, and were destroyed 
by Niketas, in the defiles, in an attempt to 
break through to Patras. 500 Turks re- 
mained in the Acrocorinthus until No^ 
vember, 1823. The conquerors and the 
Moreots now perceived, that they must 
not seek safety behind the isthmus, but 
must push the war under Ol^pupus. Tlie 
Turkish fleet, which had lain at anchor 
for four weeks in the gulf of Lepanto, and 
had attacked Missolonghi witnout suc- 
cess, set sail, September I, with the plague 
onboard. After an unsuccessful attempt 
to break through the line of 57 Greek 
brigs, which blockaded Nauplia, it finally 
came to anchor at the entrance of the 
Dardanelles, ofTTenedos. November 10, 
17 daring sailors, of the band of the 

* Hence Niketas received the tonnune of 
IStrkophagos, the Turk-eater. 



40 IpeariotB, dreased like Turin, conduct- 
ed two fireships under foil sful, as if 
they were flying fit>m the Greeks, whil^ 
two Ipsariot yeflBeb pursued them, firing 
on them with blank cartridges, into the 
inidst of the Turkish fleet, and fastened 
one of them to the admiral's ship, the 
otho- to the ship of die capitanarbey. 
Both were soon in flames ; the former 
narrowly escaped ; the latter blew up 
with 16d0 men ; the capudan pacha, Cara 
Mehmet, however, cot on shore, before 
the explosion took puoe. Three frigates 
were wrecked on the xroast of Asia Minor ; 
one Teasel of 36 guns was captured ; 
A0I1I18 and terror destroyed a part of the 
Ottoman fleet, and of 35 vessels only 18 
retmnoted, much injured, into the Dardai* 
nelles^ The 17 Ipsariott anived safely 
at Ipsani, where tlie ephori rewarded 
their leaders, Constantine Kanaris and 
Geoive Minauly, with naval crowns. 
The Greeks were once more masters of 
the sea, and renewed the blockade of the 
Turkish ports, which Great Britain now 
fbrmally acknowledged. The British 
govenunent seemed to have changed their 
policy cowards the Greeks, from the time 
of Canning's entrance into the ministry, 
and Maitland, lord high commissioner of 
the Ionian isles, dismayed less hostility 
against them. Even Austria and France, 
who had previously protected neutral ves- 
seb against ^ the aroitrary and unlawful 
measure of the blockade," now seemed 
to acknowledge the right of blockade 
1^ the Greeks. Greek vessels delivered 
IttisBcJoDj^ on the sea side, November 
30. The Suliots maintained themselves 
in the defiles of the Chimcera, and the 
remains of the army of Mavrocordato on 
the coast of the gulf of Lepanto. The 
amnesty, proclaimed by Omer Vrione, met 
witli no confidence among the mountain- 
eea ; had he not ah-eady betrayed two of 
bis former mteters ? His expedition 
agaiBBt ^tolia entirelv Med. Wherever 
his troops appeared, the peasants burned 
their vulages, collected m bands in the 
mountaina, and continued the guerilla war- 
fiu«.* Near Missolcmghi, finally, which, 
finora Nov. 7, 1822, to the assauh of Jan. 6, 
1823, he had repeatedly attacked, Omer 

• "Hie war. as we have already said, was not 
carried on ^y regular battles, but coosisted of 
skimiishes, surprises, d&c, as every insurrection 
of aa aodisdpfined people must 3 and/generallv 
" r, it is the way u which men can most ef- 
.. r defend their own soil against well ap- 

^ d' iavaden. The Greeks were well fitted for 

tJas sort of war, by their uncommon activity. Their 
iwiftaess in rornimg is such, that many of them can 
overtake a well mounted honeman in a long race. 

VOL. VI. 3 

YrioBe was repulsed by Mavrocordato 
and Marco Botzaris, with great loss ; he 
was obliged to raise the siege, lost his * 
ordnance, and retreated to Vonitza. The 
most important consequence of this im- 
successflil campai«rn of the Tmrks, was 
the fiiil of Napoli di Romania, (q. v.) On 
the day of St Andrew, the patron of the 
Morea (November 30, old style, Decem- 
ber 12, new style), a band of volimteers 
took the fort ralomidi by assault. This 
brought the city into the power of the 
Greeks, who observed the tenns of the 
capitulation, and transported the Tturkish 
garrison to Scala Nuova. The seat of 
l^v^mment was to have been established 
m this bulwark of Peloponnesian inde- 
pendence, when the old discord among 
the capitani broke out anew, and Coloco- 
troni became suspected of the de^gn of 
becoming prince of the Morea imder 
Tiuidsh protection. 

Meanwhile, Constantinople was dis- 
tiubed by the riots of the janizaries. The 
unsuccet^ul campaign in the Morea, the 
disasters in Asia, the scarcity in the capi- 
tal (caused by the interruption of impor- 
tations by the Greeks), the severe sumptu- 
ary orders of the sultan, and the command 
to deliver up the gold and silver to the 
mint, the debasing of the coin, and the 
obstruction of commerce, caused general 
dissatisfaction among the Mussulmans. 
Halet Effendi, die faitbftil fiiend of the 
siUtan from his youth, who had become 
obnoxious on accoimt oi' his plans for 
quelling the mi|tinous spirit of the ianiza- 
ries (who refused to puu-ch to the Morea) 
by means of Asiatic troops and European 
discipline, and on accoimt of his influ- 
ence, which excluded the grandees of the 
empire from the confidence of the sultan, 
fell a victim to the hate of the soldiery. 
Sultan Mahmud II (q. v.) found himself 
constrained to discharge tne adherents of 
Halet— the grand-vizier Salih Pacha, the 
mufti, and other high officers. He hoped 
to save his friend by an honorable ban- 
ishment to Asia (Nov. 10) ; but he was 
obliged to send his death warrant after 
him, and Halet's head, with those of his 
adherents, was exposed on the gates of the 
seraglio (Dec, 4, 1822). The hatti-sheriff, 
which appointed Abdtdlah Pacha, a friend 
of the janizaries, grand-vizier, concluded 
with the words, " Look well to your ways, 
for, God knows, the danger is great" 

AdopHonofa Constiiuhonm Greece, and 
third Mnavuicessfid Campcdfcn of the Turks 
against the Greeks, w 1823. The central 
government of Greece, in which Mavro- 
corda^ and Negris were distinguished, 



aimed at two objects. Fully sensible of 
the truth of the words of a Greek author, 
"as all the states of Greece wished to 
rule, all have lost the sovereignty," they 
endeavored to establish union at home ; 
on which, at the same time, they founded 
their hope that Europe would, at length, 
look witn approbation and confidence on 
the restoration of an independent Greek 
state. In this view, the Greek govern- 
ment at Corinth issued a proclamation to 
the Christian powers (April 15, 1822) ; 
but the negotiations on the Greek affairs, 
at Vienna, and afterwards at Verona, took 
a turn unfavorable to the Greeks, or rather 
remained unfavorable, when the Porte, by 
its declarations of February 28 and Apnl 
18, 1822, seemed to be disposed to be more 
lenient The ''holy alliance'* then thought 
that the continuance of the Porte as a 
legitimate power, and the acknowledg- 
ment of Greek independence, were incom- 
patible; yet tlie powers thought tliem- 
selves obiijsed to interpose with the sultan 
in favor of the Civil and religious security 
of the Greeks. Count Metaxa was sent 
as envoy of the Greek government to the 
congress of Verona (see Congress) ; but . 
he was only permitted to go to Roveredo. 
Jan. 2, 1823, he wrote m>m Ancona to 
pope Pius VII, describing the miserable 
condition of Greece, imploring his inter- 
cession with the monarchs, and declaring 
at the same time, that the Greeks were 
willing to submit their rights to the exam- 
ination of the congress, and to be ruled by 
a Christian sovereign, under wise and 
firm laws, biit would never again consent 
to any sort of coimexion with the Turks. 
The government of Argos declared the 
same, in a memorial of Aug. 29, 1822, 
directed to the congress. The answer to 
these entreaties is contained in tlie follow- 
ing passage of the circular of Verona 
(Dec. 14, 1822): Les mmcarques^ dkidh a 
repousser le pnncipe de la r^voUe, en qud- 
que lieu d sous qudqiiefornve qu^il se num- 
trat, se haUrent de le frapper d^une igale et 
unamme rhjrobaiiofL Mais icovtaiii en 
mhne terns la voix de lew conscience et d^un 
devoir sacri^ its plaidkrent la cause de Vim- 
TnaniUy en javeur des victimes d'une eivtre- 
prise ausst irr^chie que coupable (The 
monarchs, decided to suppress the princi- 
ple of revolt, in whatever place or under 
^ whatever form it might appear, hastened 
to condemn it >vith equal and unanimous 
disapprobation. But, open at the same 
time to the voice of their conscience and 
of a sacred duty, they have pleaded the 
cause of humani^ in favor or the victims 
of an undertaking as inconsiderate as 

guilty). The dissensions in Greece, it 
cannot be denied, were a strong objection 
to the acknowledgment of Greek inde- 
pendence. Colocotroni refused the cen- 
tral government admisaon into Napoli di 
Romania, and deliberated, with other am- 
bitious capitani in Tripolizza^ on a divis- 
ion of the Morea into hereditary princi- 
palities.* The central government, how- 
ever, succeeded in preventing the dangers 
of a civil war, and called a second national 
assembly at Astro, in Januaiy, 1823. In 
regard to the election of deputies, the laws 
of Nov. 21 and Dec. 3, 1822, had akeady 
established two divifflons, that of ^eronXts 
or elders, for from 10 to 50 famihes, and 
that of senators according to eparchies. 
Mavrocordato principally contriouted to 
the restoration of concord, at the time 
when the declaration of the congress of 
Verona was communicated by the British 
embos^ at Constantinople to this efiect : 
**The Greeks must submit to their lawful 
sovereign the sultan." At the same time, 
information was received of n new Tuik- 
ish expedition, destined to attack theMorea 
by land and sea. The number of deputies 
was now increasing at Astro ; even Ulys- 
ses and other capitani repaired thither, 
with their bands, from Tripolizza; so 
that the national assembly at Astro con- 
fiisted of 100 deputies, at the opening of its 
sesnons (March 14). Mavromicbalis was 
elected president ; Theodore Negris, sec- 
retary. Even Colocotroni submitted to 
the asseniibly. The members of the legis- 
lative and executive councils were then 
elected. Condurioti of Hydra was cho- 
sen preddeht of the former; Petro Mavro- 
raichalis, bey of Maina, of the latter. 
Both bodies determined to raise from 
40,000,000 to 50,000,000 of piastres for 

^ It has been oiie of the causes of the misfor- 
tunes of the Greeks, that the capitani, ^ith little 
in view but their own interest, nave been, gen- 
erally speaking, the only leaders who coincided 
in spirit and fcclings.with the great body of tho 
people. The ollior leading men, educated abroad, 
and imbued with foreign opinions, have, in many 
cases, shown great isnorance of the state anci 
character of the people with whom they acted. 
The abortive trials to establish a form of govern- 
ment for Greece, at different times, have given 
proof of this. The ill success of these trmls. 
However, has been, in no small degree, owii^ to a 
want of sound political elements in the people. 
The same cause has given rise to' the dimculties 
which have so oAen obstructed the establishment 
of wise and settled forms of government in France 
and South America. On llie other hand, the 
orderly character of the people in the North Amer- 
ican colonies, and theiV long exercise, in fact, of 
the rights of freemen, gave success to their ex- 
periment when they instituted an independeui 



the purpose of levying & force of 50,000 
lucDy and equippuig 100 large men-of-war. 
The principles of the constituent resohi- 
tions of Epidaurus were adopted for all 
Greece, with some uninq)ortant modifica- 
tions, and eparchs substituted for provin- 
cial goyemmentB. The French military 
code was adopted, with some changes, 
and the preparation of a new criminal 
code decreed. The aasen^bly then pro- 
claimed the new constitution of Astro 
(April 23, 1823), and dissolved, aiier the 
nationaJ government established by it hod 
cone into operation at Tripolizza (April 
SO). Thus order was, in some degree, 
restored, but not concord among the capi- 
tani. This produced several changes of the 
ministeis and the presidents of the two 
councils. Mavrocordato was made presi- 
dent, and Colocotroni vice-president, and 
Demetrius Ypnlanti was removed, as un- 
qualified for public afiSiiis. The secre- 
tary Negiis, also, received his discharge. 
Tlie Greeks continued united only in 
refiising an amnesty, and such an inde- 
pendence as that of Moldavia and Wala- 
chia, offered to them by British agents. 
The British policy now permitted at least 
an indirect support of the cause of Greece, 
fi^m Mahaand the Ionian Islands. The 
French cabinet no longer attempted to 
pierent Frenchmen from participating in 
the caose of the Greeks. But no power 
was willing to declare itself openly in their 
favor, before Russia had manifested her 
sentiments. The emperor Alexander had 
faKoken off direct diplomatic relations with 
the Porte. He insisted upon the en- 
tire evacuation of Moldavia and Wala- 

The e\'«:nt8 of the year 1823 were not 
less bloody ^d confused than those of the 
preceding yea^^ Whilst, in Thessaly and 
Eprus, mere wa^ a suspension of arms ; 
and the Greek fiag (''ight blue and white 
hfxrizontal stripes) comnianded the sea, 
the populace in Constantinople manifested 
their rage by setting fire to different parts 
of the city, because they were prevented 
fiom committiiig massacres. Afarch 1, 
1S23, an attempt was made to pillage and 
bum the Greek suburbs; but the wind 
drove the flames against the Turkish 
quarters. Four times the sea of fire rolled 
against the Greek quarters, and four times 
a fi!esh north wind rolled it back against 
the Tuiitish houses. Pera was saved; 
but 6000 Turkish houses, part of the can- 
non foundenr (Tophana), and part of the 
naval arsenal, were reduced to ashes. The 
Muflsulmans finally cried out, "€rod is 
widi the Giaours." The grand-viuer 

Abdullah was dismissed in consequence 
of this conflagFaticuQ, and Ali Bey, a pacha 
hostile to the janizaries, succeeded him. 
These troops, therefore, meditated ven- 
geance ; and, July 13, a new fire Inoke out, 
which consumed 1500 private houses, and 
three frigates. Order was, however, re- 
stored by severe measures; more &vor- 
able nevfrs arrived fix>m Asia; and the 
sultan resolved on a general war of exter- 
mination against the Greeks, on account 
of which he called all Mussulmans, from 
15 to 60 years, to arms. On the other 
hand, Greece endeavored to organize an 
army and a financial system. The dis- 
solved battalion of Philhelleiusts became 
the nucleus of the first Greek regiment 
Mavrocordato was placed at the head of 
the land forces. The minister of die ma- 
rine (Orlandi, a Hydriot) organized the 
navy, which consisted, m 1823, of 403 
sail, vrith cannon. The largest (the Her- 
cules) carried 26 ffuns. The rich Hydri- 
ot Miaulis was admiral; Manuel Turn- 
basis of Hydra, George Demitracci of 
Spezzia, and Nicolas Apoistolos of Ipsara, 
vice-adxnirals. A Greek order, of merit 
(a light blue cross) was established. The 
financial department met with sreat diffi- 
culties every where, particukuny on the 
islands. The disputes of the government 
with the Hydriot navarchs,on the sub- 
ject of arrears of pa^ and the booty of Na- 
Sili, which the capitani were unwilling to 
vide with the isCuiderB, had a bad effect 
on the naval operations. The Greek fleet, 
ho wever^sained a victory (March 22, 1823) 
over an £§;yptian flotilla destined for Can- 
dia ; but it was unable to prevent the land- 
ing of Turkish troops; and the daring 
expeditions of the Ipsariots and Samiots 
on the coast of Asia Minor were without 
important results. When the fleet of the 
capudan pacha finally appeared, in June, 
the Greek ships retireid, and supplied Ca- 
risto and Negropont in Eubcea, Patras, 
Coron and M^on in the Morea, and Le- 
paiito, with fiesh troops and provisions. 
The land forces of the Greeks were now 
systenuticaUy distributed. Mavrocordato 
was at the head of the whole. He had 
prevented the trial of Colocotroni, who was 
accused of treachery, and won over that 
capitano by promotmg his election to the 
vice-presidency and to the post of second in 
command. Of the forces, the command 
in chief in Western Hellas was given to 
the Suliot Marco Botzaris; in Eastern 
Hellas Ulysses commanded. The Suliots 
were fiuthful and trusty allies. The Alba- 
nian tribes, who had caused the defeat of 
Omer Vrione by their desertion of hin^ 



were less to be relied on. These tribes 
mM themselyes to the highest bidder; 
some bands accepted the offen of the 
pacha of Scutari, who marched against 
the Greeks in 18^ The insuirection of 
the inhabitants of Eastern Thessaly had 
obliged Mehemed Pacha (the murderer of 
Ali), the second successor of the seraskier 
Khun^d, who had collected the ruins 
of Khurshid's army after the defeat at La- 
rissa, to retreat fit>m the southern port of 
Thessaly. In his rear, Saloniki and Seres 
were threatened by the Greek officer Dia- 
mantis, who had taken possession of the 
psninsula of Cassandra (Feb. 23, 1823). 
But the troops from Rumelja soon drove 
him back. The army under the seras- 
kier of Rumelia (25,000 strong), after five 
months' preparation, finally opened the 
campaign, in June, fit>m Larissa. It ad- 
vanced with caution, in two masses, to- 
wards Livadio. But the Greeks, tmder 
Mavromichalis and Mavrocordato, instead 
of waiting for them behind the isthmus, 
took a {jositran near Megoio, and Ooloco- 
troni received a command over the fbrces 
of UlvBses and Niketas, with whose bands 
ihe Peloponneflian army united near Pla- 
tteo. From this place they advanced 
ogainst the enemy, towards the end of 
June. After some nffhting in detail, Ulys- 
ses defeated one of the main bodies of die 
Tnrks, under Mehemet Pacha, at Ther- 
mopy Lb. He then joined the army under 
Oolocotroni, who attacked (July 7) the 
Tuikish camp near the monosterv of St 
Luke (between the cities of Thebes and 
Livadia), which was captured by Ulysses 
and Niketas, after a bloody fight The 
Turks retreated with great loss. Ulysses 
overtook them (July 17), ond routed them 
in the plains of Cheronea. But the seras- 
kier collected new forces, and advanced 
again, whilst, at the same time, Jussuf and 
Omer Vrione, supported by the fleet of the 
capudan pacha, off Patros, were destined 
to odvonce on Missolonffhi,and the pacha 
of Scutari was to enter Sie Morea through 
Western Greece, by Vrachori, Vonitza and 
Salona. But the attack of tlie seraskier 
on Volos and the peninsula of Tricon 
ftiled ; JussufS march was delayed by the 
desertion of 8000 Albanians, and the van- 
guard of the pacha of Scutari fwho, with 
90,000 men, partly Albonians, had occu- 
pied the heights of Agrapha, and threat- 
ened iGtolia) was surprised at midnight 
(Aug. 20, 1893), in the camo of Carpinissi, 
bjr Marco Botzaria Whilst the moun- 
taineers, ftom Thessaly and Epirus, at- 
tacked the camp on four sides, on a signal 
given by Botzoris, the breve commander 

himself penetrated, with 500 Buliott, to 
the tent of the pacha ; but, at the moment 
of making the pacha of ]>elvino prisoner, 
he received a mortal wound, and his 
brother Constantine completed the victoiy. 
The Turks lost all their ortiileiy and bag- 
gage, and the dying Marco exchiimed, at 
me moment of victoiy, *< Could a Suliot 
leader die a nobler death ?^ The Alba- 
nians of the pacha dispersed ; he himself 
returned to Scutari, in cons^uence of the 
desertion of the Montenegrins to the 
Greeks. At the same time, the Turkisli 
fleet, again having the plague on board, 
left (Aug. 90) the gulf of Patras, and re- 
turned to the Archipelago, avoided the 
Greek islands, delivered Saloniki from its 
blockade, and returned, in October, to the 
Dardanelles, after a few indecisive en- 
gagements with the Greeks. But bloody 
Quarrels soon broke out between the Hy- 
riots and Spezziots, relative to the divis- 
ion of the booty taken from some vessels. 
While Livadia and the Morea were threat- 
ened, the inhabitaints of Athens had fled 
to the island of Salamis ; but Gvouras still 
maintained possession of the Acropolis. 
The members of government, with the 
deliberative council, were also at Salamis, 
fiiom whence they returned to Argos in 
November, 1823. Mavrocordato ccmduct- 
ed a division of the Hydriot fleet to tiio 
gulf of Leponto, in Novemb^, and com- 
pelled the Barbery fleet, which was block- 
ading Missolongiii, to withdrew. The 
Acrocorinthus wos taken, in November of 
the same year, by the Greeks, and the last 
attack of Jussuf Pacha, supported bv Mus- 
tapha Pacha, on AnatoHco and Missolonghi, 
where Andreas Metaza commanded, en- 
tirelv failed, in consequence of the defeat 
of Mustapha in November, 1823. Mustapha 
Pacha retreated to Yanina. The campaign 
was finished; but the partisan warcontmued 
in Thessaly and Epirus, and Greek ves- 
sels advonced as for as the gulf of Smyr- 
na. The Porte, though much exhausted, 
still hod greater resource for the next 
campaign (1824) than the Greeks. The 
peace with Peraa (concluded July 28, 
1823), and the voluntary submission of the 
rebellious pacha of St Jean d'Acre, en- 
abled the rorte to send into Greece the 
troops from Asia, and those previouslv 
stationed in Moldavia and Wakcliio, which 
were now evacuated. In Constantinople, 
the influence of the janizaries on the de- 
crees of the divan had ceased By the 

* Marco Botxaris, a Suliot, lerved in the 
French amy^ reUiroed in 1890 to Epinis, where 
Ali Pacha restored Soli to hira, that he might 
" n against the Porte. 



aj^poimmem of Galib Pacba as grand- 
Tizier (the fifth since 1831), and of Sadik 
as leis efiendi, in December, 1823, the 
more moderate party obtained the ascen- 
dency. On the other hand, the diasen- 
siona among the Greeks daily increased. 

A Rusman char^ (Tcffaires in Constan- 
tinople, Mr. de Mmziaky, tried to restore, 
in January, 1624, the connexions between 
the cabinet of St Petersbui^ and the Porte, 
which had been broken off since 1821. 
The principal subject of negotiation was 
the complete evacuation of me two prin- 
cipalities of Walachia and Moldavia by 
the Turkish troops, m conformity with 
the treaties of Kuiuardgi, Jaasy and Bu- 
charest. The British ambassador, lord 
Strangfbrd, and the Austrian internuncio, 
the baron von Ottenfels, supported tlie 
demands of Russia. Lord Strangford was 
treated with great regard by the rorte ; for 
it vras owing to British influence that the 
Porte had been able to conclude its last 
treaty of peace with the court of Persia 
(Jan. 28, 1824). But the support which 
certain societies in England, and indi- 
viduals, like lord Byron, had given the 
Greeks^ by means of loans, by send- 
ing arms, and by asrastance in person, 
made the Porte indignant; and it re- 
quired (April 9), that the British govern- 
ment should forbid their subjects to take 
any part in the affiiirs of the Greeks. In 
the mean while, the British officers who 
had fought under the Greek standard, hod 
been recalled to England. The good un- 
derstanding with Russia appeared still 
more complete, when a great number of 
neutral transport ships, Russian, Austrian 
and othera, were hired by the capudan 
micha, who sailed, April 28, out of the 
Dardanelles to destroy Ipsara and Samoa. 
At the same time. Dervish, pacha of 
Widden, as commander-in-chief of the 
Ottoman troops, received an order to en- 
ter the Morea, whilst the pacha of Negro- 
pont, on the coast of Attica, and Omer 
Vrione (who was afterwards pacha of 
Salooiki), were to open the campaign on 
the west coast of Greece. The Forte had 
succeeded, too, in inducing Alohammed 
Ali, the viceroy of Egypt, to send from 
his troops, which had Oeen trained in the 
European discipline by French officers, 
20,000 men, under the command of Ibra- 
him Pacha, his son, besides a fleet with 
tran^KHt sldps, consistiug of hired Rus- 
sian, Austrian, Spanish and Italian vessels, 
to assist the gnuid-signior in reducing the 
Greeks to submission. A fire in Cairo 
delayed, for some months, the departure uf 
this expedition. In the mean time, after 

the glorious issue of the oampaigns of 1893, 
dissensions had broken out anew in Gt^oeee. < 
The party of Mavrocordato, which had 
taken the place of the heads of the /felot- 
niay was composed of Hvdriot merchants, 
and the most enlightened men of the na- 
tion. It endeavored to establish an oixlerly 
and legal odministration, and to regulate 
the finances. Mavrocordato was presi- 
dent of the legislative body ; but, retiring 
from the military party, which had the 
preponderance in the Morea, he went 
towards Western Greece. The hoods of 
thcu miMtary parw, the ci^itani, appeared 
to wish to take the places of the former 
Turkish pachas, and oppressors of the 
country. One of the most eminent of this 
party was Oolocotroni, who, through the 
&me of his victories (in 1822), was the 
most powerful in the executive council. 
From Tripolizza, in the midst of the pen- 
insula, his jfiiction extended itself on all 
sides. Panes, his son, commanded at 
Nauplia (Napoli di Romania! the seat of 
govenuneut. The garrison of the Acroco- 
rinthus consisted of the adherents of that 
bold, proud and rich general After Oo- 
locotroni, came Mavromichalis, formerly 
bev of the Mainots, and now the nomi- 
nal president of the executive council. 
Ne^ris, the former minister of foreign 
afuirs, had joined Ulysses, who main- 
tained himself in Athens and Eastern 
Greece, almost independently of the cen- 
tral govemmenu These capitani raised, 
without regard to rules and orders, all 
that they wanted for themselves and dieir 
soldiers; so that only in the marine at 
Hydra, and in Westem Greece, where 
Mavrocordato commanded, a well ordered 
government was maintained. In Misso- 
longhi, lord Byron was taking an active 
part. He and colonel Stanhope organ- 
ized the ardllery. Byron himself estab- 
lished schools and printing-offices. In the 
mean time, the legislative senate at Kranidi 
(on the eastern shore of the gulf of Ai^- 
lis) endeavored to check the arbitrary 
proceedings of the executive council. 
The report of the causes of complaint 
against the president, Mavromichalis, and 
other counsellors (Dec. 31, 1823^ disclosed 
such striking instances of arbitrary and 
selfish conduct, that the senate dissolved 
the existing executive council, and named, 
as the members of the new, the Hydriot 
George Conduriotti as president, and the 
Spezziot Panajotis Botassis as vice-presi- 
dent Both were good patriots, and the 
most influential men of their islands, but 
without disdnguiahed talents Jolm Co- 
letti was the third, and Nicholas Londos 


the fourth member. The fifth place, 
which AnagDoetis Spiliotakis received af- 
terward^ had been destined for Coloco- 
troni, who, notwithstanding lord Byron's 
mediation, jiersisted in refusing to recog- 
nise the senate and tlie executive council. 
The latter now declared Najpioli di Roma^ 
nia (March 14, 1824) the capital of Greece, 
and the seat of the central government. 
But Panos closed the sates. He was 
therefore treated as a rebelj and Napoli 
invested by sea and laud. The garrison of 
the Acrocorinthns and several capitapi (Ni- 
ketas and others) surrendered to the gov- 
ernment. Colocotroni himself evacuated 
Tripolizza (April 15). Hereupon the sen- 
ate and (May 22) the executive govern- 
ment took Argos for their place of session. 
At length, the acceasion or the garrison of 
the chief fott of Napoli to the cause of the 
government, occasioned the conclusion of 
a treaty with Colocotroni, who submitted 
^vith all his followers, under the security 
of a general amnesty. Panos now gave 
up Napoli and the citadel Palamedes (19th 
or June), to which the senate and the gov- 
ernment immediately transferred them- 
selves. A general amnesty terminated the 
' civil war. During this time, tlie Greeks 
in Western Greece were laboring to im- 
prove the fortifications of Anatouco, and 
of Missolonghi, the bulwark of Pelopon- 
nesus. A conspiracy was discovered in 
^is town to deliver up the place to the 
pacha Jussuf. The Suliots began to 
commit great excesses, being excessively 
discontented with lord Byron's new regu- 
lations, and with the influence of foreign- 
ers in general. A great number of them 
were sent out of the place. These, nnder 
the guidance of a certain Karaiskaki, took 
possession (April 12) of the fort Wassiladi. 
The people took no port in this rebellion ; 
and a body of troops, under the command 
of Botzaris, Stumaris and Trokos, defeated 
the insurgents, and recovered Wassiladi ; 
upon which the traitore fled to Omer Vri- 
one. This insurrection firustiated the 
siege of Lepanto, which had been under- 
taken. Lord Byron's health jsuflei^d fix)m 
these events, and he died after a sioltness 
often days (April 19, 1824). Easter, gen- 
erally a season of festivity, was solem- 
nized by a general mourning for 21 days; 
The heart of the poet remains in Misso- 
longhi, and his child was adopted as a 
daughter of Greece. The campaign was 
now to begin. The Greeks were divided 
among themselves. Their connexion with 
England was broken off, and the lord 
high commissioner of tlie Ionian Islands 
did not permit tlie money loaned to be 

deposited for any time in Zante. The 
Turkish eommander also met with great 
obstacles: the pacha of Saloniki would 
not obey ; the pachas of Scodra and Yani- 
na, exhausted by their late losses, were 
not able to join him immediately with 
fresh troops. He remained, therefore, for 
more than a month, inactive at Larissa. 
The capudan pacha attempted a landing 
on the iriand of Skiathos, in which he 
ftiiled ; but he threw some thousand jani- 
zaries into the fortress of Neeropont, where 
Ulysses and the distingui^ed Diamantis 
had defeated the Turks several times in 
the winter. Dervish now first entered 
the field. Pacha Bekir,who commanded 
under him, was beaten ( Jime 1| near Zei- 
tuni, by Ulysses and Niketas. But another 
corps joined the Turks in Negropont,and 
tbok possession of the province of Attica. 
Gouras, an officer under the command of 
Ulysses, wbb obliged to retuni to the cita- 
del of Athens. At the same time, Ish- 
mael GHbralter, admiral of the Egyptian 
fleet, had subdued Candia. The gov- 
ernor, Tumbesis, saved only a few of the 
old men, women and children, and sent 
diem to Hydra. Some bands of Can- 
diots scattered themselves among the 
mountains. Ishmael Gibralter then ttn- 
dettook the attack of the island of Kassos. 
The brave inhabitants drove back the 
enemy, June 8 ; but on the 10th they were 
attacked by a greater force, at a diflferent 
point of the island, where they had not 
expected it Their obstinate resistance 
ended in tiieir destruction. The enemy 
carried away immense booty. Whilst this 
was iiappeninff, Khosru, the capudan 
pacha, was making preparations, on the 
island of Mitylene, for an attack on Ip- 
sara and Samoa. 20,000 soldiers fix>m 
Asia, destined for the invasion, encamped 
on the coast of Smyrna, where, being un- 
furnished*' with supplies, they committed 
the greatest ravages, and murdered tlie 
defenceless Greeks. The small but strong- 
ly fortified rocky island of Ijisara had made 
itself formidable to the Porte by the num- 
ber of its vessels and fireships, in winch 
the most daring of the islanders carried 
terror and destruction into the I)arda> 
nelles. Khosru possessed exact informa- 
tion of the fortifications of the island . Ish- 
mael Pliassa, nephew of the well known 
Ali Pacha of Yanino, commanded under 
him 14,000^ choice troops, mostly Albani- 
ans, But * before Khosru invaded die 
island, he offered pardon and protection 
to the Ipsariots three times. They reject- 
ed all his proposals. 5000 Greeks and 
Albanians took posseenon of the most ini- 



portant points; even the Women prepared 
themselvee for the combat. Khosru left 
the shores of Mitylene ear^ on July 3d, 
with two ships of die line, six frigates^ ton 
correttes, several briss and galliots, a great 
number of newly-built gun-boats, and 
more than 80 European transport-shins. 
His fleet surrounded the island. The 
inen-of-wtr began to fire upon the town 
and the forts. Whilst the principal at- 
tack appeared to be made here, a landing 
was effected on the opposite coast, upon a 
sandy point of land, where an Albanese 
betttlion, under the tndtor Goda, deserted 
the battery, after a short resistance. The 
Turks took by storm the heights back of 
the city. They were not able to maintain 
themselves there. The primates and 
ephori had the old men, women and chil- 
dren put on board the vessels in the har- 
bor. Some vessels sunk, others were 
taken by the Turks. Some fugitives were 
received by two French frigates ; the rest 
eai^ped, tmder the guidance of Apostolis, 
to Hydra. In the mean time, the cl^ was 
attacked on all rades ; the Greeks K>ught 
fi^m street to street, from house to house ; 
the work of destrucdon was kept up 
through the whole night On the morn- 
ing of July 4, they held only two small 
ft»rtB and the convent of St. Nicholas. 
After a hard struffgle, these brave men 
resolved to die all together in fheir last 
fort, Tabia. While the Turks were storm- 
ine the walls, they set fire to the mine, 
vraich had been prepared ; the earth shook, 
and Ipsara became the grave of its own 
heroes and the conquerors. This blow 
opened the eyes of the Greeks. The 
people and the authorities rose up for 
united resistance. Hydm and Spezzia 
manned their ships. Ipsara was retaken 
by the brave Miaulis (July 15)^ and the 
shine there saved. The enemy was re- 
pulsed by inferior forces at Samoe, Cos 
and Chioe ; he suf&red some loss at Can- 
dia, and the Greeks opposed him at St.Ru- 
mili,Ti7piti,MirabeiroandLassidl. Equal 
snceess attended the Greeks upon the 
main land. Gouras conquered the barba- 
rians at Marathon. The Turkish psneral- 
in-cbief, Dervish Pacha, beaten m July, 
August and September, at Gravia, at Am- 
}^ni»in the province of Phocis, retreated, 
with the loss of his baggage, to Laziiea. 
His plan of joining Omer Vrione, at Salo- 
na, vras thus whol^ defeated. In Westem 
Greece, Mavrocordato's vigorous meas- 
ures firustrated all the plans of the bold 
and artful Omer Vrione, who had invaded, 
fi>r the third time, Acaroania and iGtolia. 
The (jkeeks then undertook the offensive, 

and pressed upon Arta. In tlie mean 
tiin6, the authorities at Nauplia made loud 
complaints against the agents of some 
Christian powers in the Archipelago, who 
kindled the flame of discord, and checked 
the improvement of the internal adminis- 
tration. Nevertheless, order was con- 
stantly increasing in the Grecian govern- 
ment The taxes were raised according 
to a just distribution, and the public lands 
regularly leased. The public credit was 
confirmed by a loan. Trade again re- 
vived, and tlie Greek flag was to be seen 
in Ancona, Leghorn, Marseilles, and even 
on the banks of the Thames. The gov- 
ernment began again to omnize an avmy 
according to the rules of European disci- 
pline. The French military code was 
introduced in Greece. The administra- 
tion of justice received a fixed character. 
A lower court of justice and a court 
of appeals were held at Missolonghi. 
The discussions before the courts were 
public. Freedom of the .press was every 
where allowed. Four newspapers ap- 
peared twice a week: — ^in Missolonghi, 
the Grecian Chronicle and the Telegraph ; 
at Hydra, the Friend of Law (the oflScial 
paper) ; and at Athena, the t^phemerides. 
Education was also provided for. In the 
mean time, the second part of the bloody 
campaign began. The Egyptian fleet set 
sail fiiom Alexandria, Julv 19, comprising 
9 frigateS) 14 corvettes, 40 brigs and galli- 
ots, and 240 transports, with 18,000 land 
forces. Ibrahim Pacha was to bring re- 
inibreements to Candia, and then invade 
the Morea. The Greek sovemment had 
put themselves in a hostile position with 
regard to the European poweist llie 
secretary of state, Rhodios, in a letter to 
Canning, declined the proposal of a treaty 
with the Porte. On the other hand, Eng- 
land, through their lord hi^ commissioner 
of the Ionian Islands, air Frederic Adam, 
forced the Greek government to revoke 
(September 15) the "proclanuition issued 
June 7, in which they treated the Euro- 
pean transports employed by the enemy, 
not as neutral, but hostile vessels. The 
Greek government issued a manifesto, in 
which they complained greatly of the 
shamefiil avarice of the Christian mer- 
chants, yrho violated so openly the law of 
neutrali^, m fiivor of the Turks. The 
English government then acknowledged 
the right of blockade, property exercised 
b^ the Greek government, and the Aus- 
trian internuncio issued a command to the 
consuls of his ffovemment to prevent all 
letting out of ships contraiy to the neu- 
trality. Some UhristiiBm captains, how- 



ever, partioularly the Frencli, did sub- 
sequently let their ehiiw to the Egyp- 
tians, and carried Christian captives n^m 
Greece as slaves to Africa — a proceedins 
which was denounced in the French 
chamber of peers (18261 by Chateaubri- 
fmd, and then profajbitea by law. Mean- 
while, the Egyptian and the Turkish £eet 
united in the gulf of Bodroun (Septem- 
ber 4), and some battles were now rought 
with the Greek fleet The batde at Naxos 
(September 10| lasted the whole day. It 
was, perhaps, tne first durinff the war that 
deserved the name of a naval engagement 
The intrepid Kai^aris blew up, with his 
fire-ships, an Esyi^n frigate of 44 guns, 
and a brig. The Greeks lost ten small 
ahips. At length, the Ottoman fleet 
broke off tlie engagement, and retired to 
Mitylene, with Uie loss of several trans- 
port-ships. Khosru then turned back to 
Constantinople, with 15 sail, and Ibrahim 
Pacha, with the rest of the fleet, to the 
gulf of Bodroun. He supplied the islands 
anew ^vith troops and provisions, particu- 
lariy Candia, which his father alr^y re- 

rled as apart of his viceroyalw. Miau- 
soon after attacked him on Candia. 
Ibrahim lost a frigate, 10 small vessels, 
and 15 transport-sliips. Weakened by 
the plague, which had ai^)eared on board 
the ships, he drew back to the harbor of 
Rhodes, where the weU known admiral 
Ishmael Gibndter died. His plan of at- 
tacking the Morea wns frustrated for this 
year. Ailer such exertions on the part of 
the Greek fleet, the insolent ambition of 
the mUitaiy faction once more disturbed 
the harmony of the peninsula. When 
the elections for the third term of the 
government began, in October, the execu- 
tiye council at Napoli di Romania con- 
sisted of 63 members. Mavrocordato re- 
signed his place as president of the senate, 
and Panuzzo Notaras became his succes- 
sor. Colocotroni and his followers were 
disappointed in the choice of the execu- 
tive counciL The former membeis were 
reelected. But unfortunate events checked 
the activity of the government A con- 
tagious fever broke out in Napoli, of 
which the vice-president, Botassis^ and 
Manuel Tumbasis, died* The presadeDt, 
Conduriotti, went, therefore, to Hydra. 
At the same time, a civil war arose (No- 
vember, 1824). Colocotroni had openly 
declared against the reelection of the ex- 
ecutive council, and had drawn the mili- 
tary commanders to his side. The gener- 
als KanellaSjPapaganopulos, Andreas Lon- 
dos and Notarapinos immediately left the 
siege of Patras, which had been intrusted 

to them. Their troops dispersed. They, 
with their followens, placed themselves 
under the insui^nt standard at Tripo- 
lizza, where Panes Colocotroni took the 
command of them. Conduriotti then 
turned back to Napoli di Romania (De- 
cember 9), and summoned Gouras, Tassos 
and other commanders, from Attica t6 
Corinth. Coletti received the chief com- 
mand ; Christoe and Maurogeni appear- 
ed before Tripolizza. The rebels were 
beaten in several batdes. Panes Coloco- 
troni fell, and his followers were dis- 
persed. The well knovm Amazon Bobo- 
lina, a follower of Colocoti^ni, fell bv the 
dagger of a Greek, as it is said, the lover 
of her daughter, whose hand she had 
refused him. Ulysses, who had formed a 
secret union with the Tuiks at Negropont, 
was defeated by Gouras, taken prisoner, 
and confined in a tower, built by himself 
for the defence of Athens. In attempting 
to escape fit>m it, he fell to the bottom, 
and was killed. Colocotroni, the ftther, 
saw himself deserted by all, and surren- 
dered in December, 1824. The other 
leaders of the rebellion fled to the Ionian 
Islands. Some surrendered ; others were 
seized and (together with the elder Coloco- 
troni) carried to a convent, where tliey 
were judged by a commission. The Mainot 
bey rietro Mavromichalis was acquitted. 
The government now labored to secure 
the obedience of the armies by law, and 
made preparations to invest Patras, Ma- 
don and Coron anew. Omer Vrione 
entered into a negotiation viritli the Greeks^ 
but it was broken ofif (1825^ and he re- 
ceived the pachalic of Saloniki. The dte- 
astrous issue of the campaisn of 1824, by 
sea and land, excited in Constantinople 
again the hatred and anger of the fac- 
tious. Hussein Aga, commander q£ the 
troops of the Bosphorus, the a^ of the 
janizaries, the mufti, and Janib Eflfendi (a 
man 76 yean of age, the most obsti- 
nate follower of the old Ottoman policy), 
united for the ruin of the grand-vizier. 
This fiiction would permit no und of inter- 
vention of the Christian powers in die 
internal af&irs of the Porte, and demanded 
loudly that, before the Porte evacuated the 
two principalities, Rusna should restore 
the fortresses in Asia. The grand-signior 
saw himself obliged ta dismiss the grand- 
vizier, GhaUb Pacha, who was universally 
esteemed, althoush not very enei|;etic. 
His successor, Meliemet Selim, pacha of 
Silistria, was a creature of Janib Effendi. 
Hitherto, the Ekiglisli envoy had urged 
the evacuation of the principalities ; but, 
being put off continually with promises, 



he at last left Coostaotiiiople (Oct 18, 
1824V, haviDjjr shortly before effected the 
conclusion of a treaty between the Porte 
and the king of Sardinia, and obtained 
some commercial privileges. He went, 
the following year, as Britifidi minister to 
Petersbuig. The Porte felt constantly 
more sensibly the consequences of the 
war. It lost the revenue wnich had come 
irom the provinces in rebellion. The 
tribute which the Peloponnesus alone 
used to pay, amounted yearly to 35,000,000 
Turkish piastres. The grand-vizier de- 
termined to lay an extraordinary tax of 
13,000,000 piastres upon Moldavia and 
Walacfaia, as a compensation for the oc- 
cupation of the same since 1821. Most 
of the boyards withdrew themselves by 
flight In vain the hospodars represented 
the unhappy condition of the provinces, 
which could hardly play the custoroarv 
tribute. The Turkish commanders took 
away all the money and other valuables 
which they found in the public treasuries 
or among the possessions of the rich. 
Some Turkish troops now withdrew Grom 
the provinces, ana Minziacky, who ap- 
peared as the Russian a^nt, aimounced 
the approach of a Russian ambassador, 
the marquis de Ribeaupierre, with fidl 
powers; but new troops soon marched 
again into the principalities ; for more than 
100,000 Russian soldiers remained on the 
frontiera, ready for instant service. The 
campaign of 1825 was opened in the 
Morea by the landing of Ibrahim Pachti. 
Reschid Pacha besieged Mii»olonghi at 
the same tim6, and 3ie capudan pacha 
^dided both by his fleet. While these 
dangeis threatened Greece, her ruin was 
accelerated by the capitani. Ibrahim 
Pacha, before mentioned, was pennitted 
to land (Feb. 22, 1825), with 4500 men, be- 
tween Coron andModon,and was strength- 
ened in the beginning of Mareh, so that 
Ins force amounted to 12,000 men. Hisar- 
my,owing to thehr European tacticB,French 
leaden, Sie use of bayonets, and a disci- 
plined davalry, was far more to be dread- 
ed than the undisciplined host of Turks. 
Thus Ibrahim began the siege of Navarino, 
the key of the interior of the Peloponnesus. 
In vain Miaulis attacked with his fleet 
that of the enemy, on the night of the 
I2th of May, when he burned an Egyp- 
tian frigate, two corvettes, three brigs and 
many transport-ships. In vain Mavrocor- 
datodid every thing, by personal ex|K>sure, 
to animate the courage of the garrison of 
Navarino, which was reduced to extremi- 
ty. Conduriotti found no obedience as he 
approached for the relief of the place. 

The inactivity of the capitani, who would 
give no aid to the Hydnots and the gov- 
ernment, was the cause of the capitulation 
of Navarino ; after which Ibrahim pressed 
on, without resistance, to Tripotizza. In 
this danger, the government saw them- 
selves compelled to pardon the old Coloco- 
troni, and, afler receivuig a solemn prom- 
ise of fidelity from him, to give him the 
command of the Peloponnesus, ^bia 
happened in the last of May, 1825. In 
the mean time, Reschid Pacha fon^ his 
way into Acamania and iEtolia, after he 
had beaten the (Greeks at Salona. April 
22, the third siege of Missolonghi and 
Anatolico began. The capudan pacha 
did not arrive sufficiently soon to support 
the atuick on the side of the sea. He lost 
several ships in May, near capo dH^ro, 
in an engagement with the Greek admii^ 
Sactouri, and reached Modon at the end 
of this month. Ibrahim had already 
taken Calamata, and occupied TripoKzza, 
which the Greeks, in their retreat, sel 
on fire. He pressed on, destroying every 
things and reached even Argos. Napoli 
di Romania itself was threatened by him. 
But, after the battle of the mills, at the 
distance of two leagues from the capital, he 
was obliged to draw back to Tripotizza, in 
the midst of repeated attacks from Coioco- 
tronl's army. This continued to be the 
centre of his enterprises. Not one Greek 
villape obeyed his command to submit and 
receive his protection^ so that he laid waste 
every thing, put to death the men, and sent 
the women and children as slaves to 
Egypt In the defence of MiflBokMigh^ 
the spirit of the Greeks appeared more 
clearly than ever. The gamson refused 
every exhortation to surrender. Noto 
Botzaris stood first among the brave. The 
Turks, with 35,000 hmd forces and 4000 
sea forces, were wholly defeated (Aug. 2, 
1825), after a contest which lasted seveial 
days. The Turks lost 9000 men. Dur- 
ing the struggle, Miauhs arrived, burned 
several Turkish ships, and forced the fleet 
to retire. The siege was raised Oct. 12, 
1825, four months and a half after the 
opening of the trenches. Ibrahim Pacha 
spread more and more widely the teiror 
of his arms. The government found it- 
self in great danger. It had lost, almost 
entirely, the confidence of the auxiliaiy 
societies, even in England, l)ecause the 
money fixim the English loan had not 
been properly laid out. The English 
party then exercised much influence over 
the Greek government, through their sec- 
retary of state, Mavrocordato ; and, after 
an interview with the British commo- 



dore (HaiiiiIton)» they detemmied to throw 
themselves on the protection of England. 
But before the Greek deputy arrived in 
London, the British govemmeut (Sept 30, 
1^25) issued a decided declaration of neu- 
trally. The whole state of European 
politics forbade any single power m>m 
promising direct intervention. Yet the 
English government permitted their con- 
sul at Alexandria to forbid Britisli sliips to 
carry anmiunition from Egypt to Greece 
for the assistance of the pachas. England 
even seemed to recognise the right of 
search on the part of the Greeks. The 
English declaration of neutrality appeased 
the divan, and the neW Euglisu ambassa- 
dor (Stratford Canning) set out, at last, 
upon a journey to Constantinople; but he 
stopped a long time on the way, and had 
an interview (Januaiy, 1826) \nth Mavro- 
cordato, and other Greek statesmen, at 
Hydra, in order to inform himself of the 
general state of affairs. He then went 
to Smvma, and sailed from that place 
through the Dardanelles (Januaiy 15), and 
arrived at Constantinople in the last of 
Febniaiy. About this time (March, 1826), 
the duke of Wellington, as envoy extraor- 
dinary ai St Peterwur^, and lord Strang- 
ford, then resident minister there (who 
had formerly been minister to Constanti- 
nople), discussed the aficurs of Greece 
with the Russian cabinet ; for, at the 
end of the year 1825, the idea of restoring 
independence to the Greek states seemed 
to be gaining strengdi in the principal Eu- 
ropean cabinets. The unsuccessful issue 
orthe Turkish-Egyptian campaign, begun 
under such fevorable auspices, contrib- 
uted much to this. The capudan pacha 
liad received the command of the Egyp- 
tian fleet at the end of August, m Alexan- 
dria, where the brave Kanaris (August 10| 
had, with three fire-ships, in vain forcea 
his way into the harbor, with the inten- 
tion of burning the Egyptian fleet; the 
nacha had also landed friesh troops at 
Navarino (Auffust 5) ; he had afterwards 
directed his enbrts against MiB8olonghi,in 
order to invest this place on the sea side. 
Reschid Pacha thus began, in connexi<m 
with Ibrahim, a winter campaign. Yet 
this did not eflect any thing decisive. 
The affiiirs of Greece appeared to be 
hastening to rum. The Greek fleet (73 
men-of-war and 23 fire-ships) arrived too 
late before Navarino. The government 
had hardly 6000 men under arms. The 
capitani squandered the money with which 
they were to provide troops. General 
Roche, manager of the French committee 
for the assistance of the Greeks, worked 

ly and secretly against the measures 
of the English party, which had the upper 
hand in the government The members 
of the senate and of the executive council 
had no confidence in each other. The sec- 
retary of state, Mavrocordato, who labored, 
with litde aid but that of his own foresight 
and prudence, to maintain order, was, for 
this reason, held in ill will ^ aU parties, 
and had litde influence. The islanders 
presented the last bulwark for the defence 
of the Mocea, but were obliged also to 
provide for their own security. Notwith- 
standing this, their fleet succeeded in en- 
tering MisBoIongfai (November 24), now 
besieged for the fourth time, and in pro- 
viding it with ammunition and provisions, 
after the garrison had again repulsed an 
attack m^e by sea and land. At the 
same time, Gouras had advanced firom 
Livadia to Saloua, and had expelled the 
Tiu-ks from this important point (Novem- 
ber 7), after which he attacked Reschid 
Pacha's besieging army in the rear. A 
body of troops, a&>, sent by Ibrahim Pa- 
cha acainst Cforinth, was wholly destroyed 
by Niketas. Hereupon the provisional 
ffovemment, in December, 1825, called 
for a voluntary contribution for the equip- 
ment of a new naval force at Hydra, in 
order to save Missolonghi. Strengthened 
by the accession of these vessels, Miaulis 
appeared, in January, 1826, in the waters 
of Missolonghi, and successfully encoun- 
tered the capudan pacha on the 8di of 
this month. In the mean time, Reschid 
and Ibrahim Pacha ^ere making arrange- 
ments for a new siege. Ibrahim, as gov- 
ernor of the Morea, had taken possession 
of Patras with this view, after the brave 
JusBuf Pacha had been appointed gov- 
ernor of Aidin (Magnesia) in Natolia. The 
capudan pacha appeared anew before 
Missolongni The attempts of the Grecian 
fleet to supply it again with provisions and 
ammunition fiiiled; the capudan pacha 
(Januaiy 27) summoned the authorities 
of the town to surrender, if they did not 
wish the place to be taken 1^ storm. 
They refused the ofler. Soon after, there 
was an engagement between the fleets, 
in the gulf d* Patras, on the 27th and 28th 
of January, when the Greek fire-sliips, 
under Kanaris, destroyed a frigate and 
many small vessels. The capudan pa- 
cha soon gave up his command, after a 
disagreement witn Ibrahim Pacha (who 
had desired his recall by the divan), and 
went by land from Yanina to Constanti- 
nople. In consequence of that battle, tlie 
Greeks succeeded in ftmiishing Misso- 
longhi witli provisions and ammunidon« 



sufficient for a few weeks. A later attempt 
(February 12) was fhistrated by the Tiuk- 
ifih-Egyptiaxi fleet CommiaBionetB were 
sent, at the end of the year 1825, from the 
divan to Greece. Hubbdi Bey and Ned- 
Bchib Eflfendi (the agent of the viceroy 
of Bgypt) entered the camp at Missolon- 
ghi, to await the &11 of this place, and 
to take their meamires according to circum* 
8tance& Soon after, Reschid Pacha left 
Acamania, and went to Livadia, in order to 
occupy Ckiiuas and colonel Fabvier, who 
had trained a body oflOOO Greeks in the Eu- 
ropean discipline. Ibrahim then conduct- 
ed ^ siege alone. He had 25,000 men, 
among them about 9000 regular troops, and 
48 cannon, bought in France, with which 
Pierre Boyer (a former Bonapartist, and a 
general well known bv bis cruelties com- 
mitted in E^pt, St. Domingo and Spain) 
bombarded Miaolongfai, from February 24. 
Afker the bombardment had continued sev- 
eral days, Ibrahim repeatedly offered the 
commander of the fortress larse sums if he 
would surrender the place. lie was wil- 
ling even to permit the garnson to take 
the cannon and all the movable property 
with them. His proposals were rejected, 
and the garrison prepared themselves for 
death or victory. Ibrahim assaulted the 
works of Missolonghi from February 28 
to March 2. On this day, be attacked the 
place by sea and land, but was whoily 
repulsed, with the loss of 4000 men ; so 
that MiBBolonffhi was, for the fifth time, 
freed by Greek valor, when it had but a 
few days* provision. Ibrahim now directed 
his attacks against the outworks of Misso- 
ionghi on the sea side. He forced bin 
way, with fun-boata and floating-batteries, 
into the u^^ns. March 9, 1826, he 
stcHmed the litde island of Wassiladi, im- 
portant as a fishing place, where 110 men 
met the death of heroea A bomb, which 
feu into the powder-room of the fort, and 
kindled the ammunition, decided the fate 
of this place. Then Ibrahim took, by 
capituUition (March 13, 1826), the fortified 
island of Anatolico, near Missplongbi, afier 
he had stormed a fortified monastery, 
called Kundro, which nrotected the island, 
where a garrison of 400 men were cut to 
pieeea. After these misfortunes, Misso- 
kmgfai, the bulwark of the Pek)ponnesu8, 
feUglorioudy,April 22,1826. The founda- 
tion of an Egyptian- African military state 
now seemed to be laid in Europe. Ibra- 
him had removed the capudan pacha, 
JufBuf Pacha and Reschid Pacha. He 
was in poesessiou of Modon, Coron, Nava- 
rino and Patras. If he should succeed in 
gaining Napoli di Romania, he would be 

master of the islands of the Archipelago. 
The Porte would then be wholly unable 
to keep its mighty satrap in subjection ; 
and the viceroy of'^Egypt owed all this to 
French artillery officers. Tliis danger 
roused the attention of the governments 
and people of Europe. The fate of Mis- 
solonghi, of whose garrison 1800 men, 
under Noto Botzaris and Kitzoe Isavellas, 
cut theu- way to Salona and Athens, while 
the rest buried themselves voluntarily un- 
der the ruins of the place, excited eveiy 
where the liveliest interest In France, this 
interest was loudly and acdvel v expressed. 
The Philanthropic Society to aid the Cause 
of the Greeks, comprised among its mem- 
bers Chateaubriand, Choi^eu^ Dolberg, 
Matth. Dumas, Fitz-James, Lafitte, Laine, 
Alex, de Lameth, Larochefoueault-Llan- 
court, Cas. Peirier, Sebastiaui, Temaux, 
Villemain, and many others. They had 
contributed, in February, 60,000 francs, to 
furnish supplies to MissolonghL They 
obtained at Amsterdam, for the same ol^- 
ject, dO,000 fiancs. The German Epard 
contributed 12,000. The duke of Or- 
leans aubecribed, several times, consider- 
aUe sums. 40 ladies of hi^ rank made 
contributions individually, and it was soon 
the custom, in all the drawing-rooms m 
Paris, for the lady of the house to make a 
collection for the Greeks. Then followed 
Germany. King Louis of Bavaria signed 
the Greek subscription, and permitted bis 
soldiers, with colonel Heidegger at their 
head, to fight for the cause .'of Greece. 
Poetry, too, lent her aid. New societies 
for assisting the Greeks were formed; 
for example, in Soxonv. All cooperated 
with the noble Eynard. The Greek or- 
phans were educated in Germany, Swit- 
zerland and France. Thus, at last, when 
the voice of lamentation was loudest in the 
land, deliverance was slowly approaching 
the Greeks. Wellington hod, by Can- 
ning's order, subscribed at Petersburg 
(April 4, 1826) the protocol which pro- 
vided for the interrorcnce of the three 
great powers in favor of the Greeks. The 
emperor of Russia (q. v.) wished first to 
arrange his own difficulties with the 
Porte. This was done by the treaty of 
Ackermon (Oct 6, 1826), and England 
conduded with him and Prance, at Lon- 
don (July 6, 1827), the treaty for the 
pacification of Greece. Canning niished 
to decide the Question between Greece 
and Turkey without involving Russia in a 
quarrel with the Porte, and thereby en- 
danfpering the peace of Europe. His 
deatn frustrated, in part, his noble design. 
In the mean time, the Egyptian army 



ovemm almost all parts of the Morea, and 
chan^ it to a dsaopt, without obtaiDUig 
submission firomaansle village. Fami- 
fies from all parts of Greece pressed for- 
ward together under the walls of Napoli 
di Romania, and suffered all the horrors 
of poverty and hunger, rather than en- 
ter into a treaty with their Mussulman 
oppressors. Despair drove many of these 
unnappy people to piracy ; but most of the 
corsaiis, in the Greek seas, were composed 
of criminals and persons banished from 
the Ionian Islands, Dalmatia and Italy, 
who did not even spare the Greek flag. 
New bands of warriors came forth from 
the mountains, and Colocotroni several 
times attacked Tripolizzo, which was de- 
fended by 3000 Egvptians, under Soliman 
B^ (La S^ve, the French renegade). The 
influence of the climate and disease had 
weakened the Egyptian anuy, yet Tripo- 
lizza could not be taken, in the mean 
time, an assembly of the pe<>FJOi convoked 
at Megara, in Januaiy, 1826, proposed 
several measures for tlie improvement of 
the internal administration, particularly in 
regard to the administration of jusdce 
and the public revenue. At the same 
time, an ezpediuon was fitted out for Ne- 

Sopont, and support was rendered to 
e vnsurrdctiou of the Greeks, which 
had again broken out in Candia (1825), 
where Carabuaa was taken by them. 
Want of money and provisions, and the 
dissensions between the commanders ; the 
mistrust of the palikaris, who had been de- 
ceived by their oflicers ; and the uigratitude 
of the Greeks towards the Phlmellenes, 
or foreign officers in their service, were the 
causes Uiat nothing important was accom- 
plished. Owing to these circumstances, 
Athens, afler the army which should have 
relieved it had fled m a dastardly man- 
ner, capitulated to Reschid Pacha (June 7, 
1827). In vam did lord Cochrane (who 
had long been detained in England by the 
defective construction of the steam ves- 
sels, for which the Greeks had paid so 
dear) at last arrive in Greece, and take the 
chief command of the sea forces, while 
ffeneral Church stood at the head of the 
land forces. The Turks remained in 
possession of the whole of Eastern and 
Western lEIellas. The distress was in- 
creased by a violent strunrle of parties in 
Napoli di Romania itseK^ Here Grivas, 
being in possession of the fortress called 
Palainedes, began to cannonade the city, 
in order to compel the payment of arrears. 
The national ffovemment fled to the island 
of iEgina. They now cast their eyes to 
Rusna. They chose count Capo d'lstria 

(<}» V.) ast their president This statesman 
reedved fiis dischai^e from the Russian 
service July 13, 182^ but could not entei 
upon his high office until Jan. 22, 1828. 
Meanwhile the ambassadors of the three 
powers had, on the 16th of August, pre- 
sented to tlie Poite die treaty concluded at 
London, for the pacification of Grreece, 
and waited for an answer till the .31st. 
"Greece" tiiey said, *< shall govern itself, 
but pay tribute to the Porte." Europe had 
now more reason than ever to demand 
fi:om the Porte the independence of 
Greece, by which piracy in the Grecian 
and Turush seas might be prevented; 
an Afiican slave-holding ana piratical 
state should not be allowed to rule the 
beautifiil Archipelago of Europe; and 
ovder might take die place or bloody 
anarchy, which the Porte had neither sa- 
fflusity nor strength to suppress. The 
Greek govenunent immediately proclaim- 
ed (August 25) an armistice in conformity 
to the treaty of London. But the reis ef- 
fondi rejected the intervention of the 
three powers (August 31).. The Greeks 
then commenced hostilities anew, and the 
Turidah-Egvptian fleet (Sept. 9) entered 
the bay of Navarino. A Bntish squadron 
appeared in the bay on the 13th, under 
admiral Codiington. To this a Freneh 
squadron, under admiral Riffny, and a 
Russian, under count Hevden, united 
themselves on the 22d. They demand- 
ed fix>m Ibrahim Pacha a cessation of 
hostilities. He promised this, and went 
out with part of his fleet, but was forced to 
return into the bay. As he now continued 
the devastations in the Morea, and gave 
no answer to tiie complaints of the aomi- 
rals, the three souadrons entered the bay) 
where the Turkish-Egyptian fleet was 
drawn up in order ofDattie. The first 
shots were fired firom the Turkish side, 
and killed two Englishmen. This was 
the sign for a deadly contest (Oct. 20, 
1827), in which Codrington neaiiy de- 
stroyed the Turkish-Egyptian armaaa of 
110 ships. One part was burned, another 
driven on shore, and the rest disabled. 
None struck their flaff. The news of the 
victory was received with exultation in 
Europe. An involuntary Suspension of 
hostilities now ensued, during which the 
depredations of pirates became more se- 
rious. The admirals of Uie three united 
squadrons, tiierefore, sent a warm remon- 
strance to the legislative council of the 
Greeks, and, after a number of capital 
punishments, the safe^ of the seas was 
restored, paiticulariy after the British had 
destroyed tl^e head-quarters of the corsairs 



(Kaiiibi]aB,uiC«ndia,Feb.28»18a8). Tbe 
Greeks now remimed the oflfena^ againoi 
the TinkB ; but their attempt upoD Scio 
(where they vainly beeie^ the citadel, 
from November, 1827, till Mareh 13, 1828) 
was productive of nothing but injury to 
the inbabitanta. Enraged at the battle of 
Navarino,the Porte seized all the ships of 
the Franks in Constantinople, detained 
them from Nov. 2 to Nov. 19, and, on the 
8th, stopped all communication with the 
miuisteiB of the allied powers, till indem- 
ni^caidou shoukl be made for the destruc- 
ttoQ ijf the fleet At the same time, it 
prepared for war. Since the aboUtion of 
the janizaries (q. v.), in June, 1826, the 
saltan had exerted himself, with great 
zeal, to establish a new anny, train^ in 
tbe European discipline. He conducted 
their exercises in person, and used all the 
means in his power to iniSame the passions 
of the Moslems. For this reason, the 
Russian ambassador, Ribeaupierre, left 
Constantinople on the 4th of December, 
1827 ; the French, Guilleminot, and the 
British, Stratford Canning, on the 8tb. 
UpcHi this tlie Forte adopted conciliatory 
measures^ and sent a note, on the 15th, to 
count Rib^upierre, who was detained in 
tbe Bo^orus by contrary winds ; but the 
hatti-sheriff addressed to the pachas (Dec. 
20], demanding war, and heapmg many re- 
proaches on Russia, forbade the idea that 
the intentions of the Porte were j&iendly. 
From all parts of the kingdom, the Ayans 
were now called to Constantinoi^e (a 
measure quite unusual), and discussed 
with the Porte the preparations for war. 
Aii the Moslems, from the age of 19 to 50, 
were called to arm. On the 30th, Mah- 
mood, on hearing that Persian Armenia 
had fiJlen into the power of Russia, mis- 
led by the artfbl representations of one 
part of this intolenmt and disunited peo- 
1^, caused all the Catholic Armenians to 
be driven fiom Galata and Pera, so that 
within 14 days (January, 1628) 16,000 
penous were obliged to emigrate to Asia 
in the most deplorable condition. lu tbe 
mean time, the president of the Greeks, 
count Capo d'Isdia, appointed the able 
Tricoupi nis secretaiy of state, and estab- 
liabed a high national council, called Pan- 
hdUnum, at Napoli di Romania ; Feb. 4, 
1836, took measures for instituting a na- 
tional bank ; and, Feb. 14, put the milittuy 
deportment on a new footing. The im- 
prorements, however, could go on but 
slowW. Without the assistance of France 
aod KuBsiB, each of which lent the young 
efiOOfiOO fiancs (as is represented 
1 die Courier of Smyrna, or, as others 

▼OL. VI. 4 

state, paid a monthly subsidy of 500,000 
fiancs), nothing couM have been effeeitod^ 
The attempts at pacification were fruits 
less, because the Porte rejected every pro- 
posal, and England appeared to disap* 
prove the battle of Navarino. Codrinc- 
ton was recalled, and Malcolm took hm 
place. In this state of uncertainty, Ibra- 
nim was allowed to send a number of 
Greek ciqptives as slaves to Esypt In 
March, 1^, the war between Ruraa and 
Turkey broke out, and gave the PortMiU 
occupation. In the mean time, the French 
cabinet, in concurrence with die Rn gTiab , 
to cany into execution the treaty of Lob- 
don, sent a body of troops to the M<nea, 
whilst the British admiral Codrington 
concluded a treaty with the viceroy <^ 
Egypt, at Alexandria (August 6), the 
terms of which were that Ibrahim Pacha 
should evacuate the Morea with his troops, 
and set at liber^ his Greek prisoners. 
Those Greeks who had been carried into 
slaveiv in Ecypt, were to be freed or ran- 
somed. 120O men, however, were to be 
allowed to remain to jBnrrison the for- 
tresses in the Morea. To force Ibrahim 
to comply with these terms, the French 
ffenersl Maisou arrived, on the 29th of 
we following August, with 154 transport- 
ships, in the Morea, in the bay of Coron, 
near Petalidi. After an amicable* negoti- 
ation, Ibrahim left Navarino, and sailed 
i October 4) with about 21,000 men, whom 
le carried with the wreck of the fleet to 
Alexandria ; but he left garrisons in the 
Messeman fortresses, amounting to 2500 
men, consisting of Turics and Smptjans. 
Maison occupied the town of 'Navarino 
without opposition. He then attacked 
the Turkish fortresses in Messenia. The 
garrison made no resistance, and, on> the 
other hand, the commanders would not 
capitulate. The French, therefore, almost 
without opposition, took possession of the 
citadels or Navarino (October 6), of Modon 
(on the 7th), and or Coron (on the 9th}. 
The garriscMis were allowed free omasi 
Patras, with 3000 men, capitulated (Octo- 
ber 5) also, without resistance; and the 
flags of the three powers, parties- to the 
treaty of London, waved with the na- 
tional flaff of Greece, on the >^Us of the 
cities. Only the earrison of the casde of 
the Morea, on the Little Dardanelles, north 
of Patras, and opposite Lepanto, rq^eoted 
the capitulati6n of Patras. They mur- 
dered the pacha, and the French seneral 
Schneider was obliged to make a breach 
before the Turks surrendered at discreti<» 
(October 90). The Turks were all now 
carried to Smyma by the French admiral 


Rigny. The commandeFB of Coron, Mo- 
don and Patras, AchmetBey, Mustapha 
and Jacobi, fled to France, to escape the 
anger of the sultan. The gulf of Lepanto 
was declared neutral ; yet the fort of Le- 
panto, in Rumelia, was not prevented from 
taking the customaiy tolls. Nothing ho»- 
tile was undertaken against the TuKs by 
the French out of the Morea, because the 
sultan would, in that case, have declared 
war against France. England and France 
carefully avbided such a- result, that they 
might be able to mediate between the 
Porte and Russia. To defend the Morea, 
however, from new invasions from the 
Turics, the three powers at London, by 
their ministere, Aberdeen, Polignac and 
Lieven, agreed to send a manifesto to the 
Porte (Nov. 16, 1828) to this effect: that 
«they should place the Morea and the 
Cyclades under tlielr protection till the 
time when a definitive arrangement should 
decide the fate of the provinces wliich the 
allies had taken possession of, and that 
they^ should consider the entrance of anv 
mihtary force into tills country as an attack 
upon themselves. They required the 
Porte to come to an explanation with 
them concerning the final pacification of 
Greece." The French agent, Jaubeit, 
carried this note to Constantinople. The 
Greeks; in the mean time, continued hos- 
tilities. The Greek admiral Cochrane 
came, after an absence of eight months 
(September 90), on board the new Greek 
steam-ship Hermes, at Poros; and Deme- 
trius Ypolanti, having under him Coloco- 
troni, Tsavellas, Dentzel, Bathros and 
others, forced lus way into HeUas Proper 
(LivadiaV, at the head of 5000 men, beat 
the Turks at Lomotico (November 3), 
took Salona (December 3)^ then Lepanto, 
Livadia and Vonizza. Reschid Pacha 
had been recalled to Constantinople. An 
insurrection had broken out again in Can- 
dia, which occasioned the massacre of 
many Greeks in Kanea (August 14). Haji 
Michalis, a Moreot, who perislied after- 
wards in battle, excited this unfortunate 
contest Mustapha Pacha, who com- 
manded the Egyptian troops at Candia, 
could with difficulty check the anger of 
the Turks against the Greek inhabitants. 
This massacre induced the English to 
close the port 6f Kanea. The Greeks 
took possession, however, of all the open 
countiy of Candia. Tlie Russian admiral 
Ricord, with one ship of the line and three 
frigates, at Tenedos, had blockaded the 
Dardanelles, from the 14th of November, 
1628, in order to prevent supplies of pro- 
visions and militaiy stores nom reaching 

Constantinople. The Greeks now fitted 
out a great number of privateers. The 
sultan, on this account, banished from Con- 
stantinople all the Greeks and Armenians 
not bom in the city or not settled there, 
amounting to more tiian 25,000 persons. On 
the 29th, he announced in all the mosques, 
that the Mussulmans should remain all 
vrinter under arms and in the field, which 
had never till now been the case. At the 
same time, he called all the men, from 17 
to 60 years of age, to arms. Meantime 
tiie French were preparing to return to 
Toulon. A third of the troops, in Janua- 
ry, 1829, lefl the Morea, where diseases 
and privations had destroyed many men. 
At this time, a scientific expedition of 17 
Frenchmen, in three sections, under the 
direction of the royal academy, was pre- 
pared, by the French minister of the in- 
terior, to visit the Morea. The French 
g>vemment ransomed several hundred 
reek slaves in Egypt, and the king of 
France undertook the education of tiie or- 
phan children. Thus, after strugcling for 
seven years, Greece was placed under 
the protection of the three chief European 
powers. Mahmoud, however, still de- 
clined to recall the edict of extermination, 
which he had pronounced when he com- 
manded Dram Ali, a few years before, to 
bring him the ashes of the Peloponnesus. 
Ibrahim had wantonly burned down the 
olive groves as ftr as his Arabians spread, 
and the Greeks were sunk in the deepest 
misery and confusion. Afier unnum- 
bered difiiculties, the greatest obstacles to 
a well ordered government were in part 
overcome by Capo d'Istria. For this ob- 
ject, he divided (April 25, 1828) tiie Greek 
states into 13 departmente, seven of which 
formed the Peloponnesus (280,000 inhab- 
itants, 8543 square miles) ; the eighth, the 
Northern Sporades (6200 inhabitants, 106 
square miles) ; the ninth, the B^astem Spo- 
rades<58,800 inhabitants, 318 square miles) ; 
the tenth, the Western Sporades (40,000 
inhabitants, 169 square miles); the elev- 
enth, twelfth and thirteenth, the North, 
Central and Soutii Cyclades (91,500 in- 
habitants, 1176 square miles^: the whole 
amount, therefore, was 476,500 inhabitants 
and 10^12 square miles. The first diplo- 
matic agent to the Greek government, the 
British plenipotentiary, Dawkins, delivered 
his credentials to the president Nov. 19, 
1828, and tiie French cotonel Fabvier 
returned from France to the Morea, to 
organize the Greek army. The French 
envoy, Jaubert, delivered the protocol of 
the conference of the threegreat powers 
to the Porte in January, 1829. The ver- 


bal anewer of the leie eflfendi wa% that 
the Porte wished for peace, and would 
appoint negotiaton on the arrival of the 
Tmach ml Enghah plenipotentiaiiea ; 
but that RuBBia could not be admitted to 

r I in the mediation, nor ahoukl thia act 
conadered as a renunciation of the 
aultan'd rights upon the Morea. This an- 
swer was the foundation for the confer- 
enoe of the mmisterB of England, France 
Aid Russia (March 23, 1829), the protocol 
of which sets forth what course the pow- 
ers intend further to pursue respecting the 
Porte. It was a{peed tliat ambasBadors 
from Great Britain and France should 
immediately proceed to Constantinople, 
and open a negotiation for the pacinca- 
tion m Greece, in the name of the three 
powers. The first subject proposed for 
the axHideration of the Poite was the 
boundaiy of Greece. A line, beginning 
at the gulf of Volo, running thence to the 
head of the Othryz, following the course 
of that river to the summit east of Agra- 
fe which fonns a junction vrith the 
Pindus, descending the valley of Aspro- 
potamoe by the south of Leontis, travers- 
ing the chain of the Macrinoroe, and ter- 
mituifiwg ^ at the gulf of Ambracia, was 
proposed as the northern boundary of 
Greece ; the islands adjacent to the Morea, 
EubcBa or Negropont, and the Cvclades, 
were likewise to form a part of the new 
state. It was also to be proposed, that the 
Qffedw ^ould pay an annual tribute of 
1^500,000 piastres; the first year's tribute, 
however, to be not less than a fifth, nor 
more thm a third, of this amount, and to 
be craduaily mcreased for four years, till 
it flihoukl reach the maximum: a joint 
commnaon of Turks and Greeks was to 
determine the indemnification of the 
Turks for the loss of property in Greece; 
die allied powers to appoint a committee 
of appeal, m case the former committee 
could not agree : Greece should enjoy a 
qualified independence, under the sove- 
reignty of the Porte: the government to 
be under an hereditary Christian prince, 
not of the fiunily of either of the allied 
sovereigns : at every succession of the 
hereditary [xince, an additional year's 
tribute to be paid : mutual amnestv to be 
required, and all Greeks to be allowed a 
year to sell their property and leave the 
Turkiah territorie& The ambasBadors 
were also to require a prolongation of the 
armistice already declared by the Turks, 
and a like cessation of arms from the pro- 
ynkmal government of Greece, and the 
recall of the troops, which had jpone be- 
yond the line drawn as above fi:om Volo 

to Arta. The three powers were to guar- 
anty all these pointa Thou|^ Russia 
vras to have no minister present at these 
neffotiations^ they were to be conducted 
in her name, as well as in diose of France 
and England. It was near the middle of 
July, bdbre sir Robert Gordon and count 
Guil]eminot(the two ambassadors) arrived 
at Constantinople. Their reception de- 
viated fiiom former usages, paiticulariy in 
the omisBion of the hu miliating ceremo- 
nies to which Christian ambessadois were 
formeriy obliged to submit, which would 
have been somewhat out of season at this 
time, when Diebitsch had already de- 
scended the southern slope of the Rftlfcant 
The history of their negotiations is of no 
importance, because count Diebitach sign- 
ed, with the Turkish plenipotentiaries^ a 
treaty, by the 6th article of which the ' 
sultan formally acceded to the treaty <^ 
July 6, 1827. (See Russia, and Turkey.) 
The protocol or the conference of March, 
1899, could be considered by the Greeks 
onh as a calamity. 

The situation of the president, Ciqpo 
d'Istria, had been extremely difiicult, as 
the reader can eaaly imagine. He was 
vrithout means, in a land torn by discord ; 
yet his attention had been directed to eve- 
ry thing usefid — the suppression of piracy ; 
tne formation of a regular army; the 
establishment of courts of justice; of 
schools of mutual instruction ; of a sys- 
tem of coinage ; of means for coUecting 
the revenue, and providing for the subost- 
ence of the vnetched remnants of the 
population. In November, 1828, he pro- 
posed to the Panhellenion, to take imme- 
diate measures for calling together the 
fourth luitional assembly. The assembly 
met at Arvos, and the president, in a long 
address (July 23, 1829), gave an account 
of the state of the country and of his 
measures. He directed the attention of 
the asseiifoly particularly to the organi- 
zation of the forces and the revenue.* 
He says in the speech, **The decree re* 

* The ibUowing accountof the Greek land and 
sea forces is coatained in the Austrian Observer 
of March 21, 1830, a paper which, as the semi- 
official joonia] of the Austrian cabinet, was, of 
courae, always hostile to the Greek insurrectioo, 
but which ffenerally gave truer accounts of the ac- 
tual state of things in that unfortunate country, than 
were contained in those European papers which 
were favorable to the cause of humanity and lib- 
erty. Many of the commanding officers are for- 
eigners; a neat pari of them French. General 
Church anaDemetrius Ypsilanti, the command- 
ing officen in Easlem and Western Hellas, had 
then resigned. The Greek land forces amounted 
to lS,789inen. The navy had greatly declined, 
comsiiiting only of one irigate of M guns, one cor- 



Bpecdng the omnization of the Tegiinents, 
the edict retetmg to the raarioe aeirice, 
and the measures to eatahfah a DatioDal 
bank and a geneFal college, were the first 
atepa towards the regulation of the inte« 
rior. The Archipelago has been fireed 
from pirates ; our warriois are again unit- 
ed under their standards; one division, 
under the command of admiral Miaulis, 
has assured the icee navigation of the 
ArdKpelago, and conveyed to our dis- 
tressed brethren in Scio every consola- 
tion which it was in our power to offer. 
A second division, under vice-admiral 
Sactouri, was destined for the blockade, 
which the admirals of the allied powers 
compelled us to abandon.^ The address 
further refers to the plague brought by 
the army of Ibrahim Pacha, which ex- 
tended from the islands to the Peloponne- 
sus ; to the expulsion of this pachia ; the 
efSbtta of admiral Codrington, and the 
landing of the French; addinf^, "The 
Greeks of the continent, watching ear- 
nei^y to see the borders of the Peloponne- 
sus passed, manifested their wishes it this 
regard. We ourselves hoped to see them 
accomplished, for we were far fix>m ap- 
prehending the diplomatic act which de- 
cided it otherwise.'' It acknowledges, with 
warm gratitude, the succors of the French 
in men and money, and alludes, in general 
terms, to the conferences with the ambas- 
sadors of the allied powers at Poroe. A 
statement of receipts and expenditures, 
from January, 1828, to April 30, 1829, is 
also given. It is evident, from this ad- 
dress, that, since theprotocol of the con- 
ference of March 22, 1829, the militaiy 
operations of the Greeks, both b^ sea and 
land, had been arrested by the mterposi- 
tion of the allies. In January, however, 
general Church had taken the town of 
Vonitza, and the citadel surrendered in 
March; as did the casde of Romelia, to 
Augustin Capo dTstria, the brother of the 
prendent, March 26. On Februaiv 9, 
Mahmoud, pacha of livadia, with 3500 
men, attacked the Greeks, commanded by 
die chiharch Vasso, in their camp near 
TolantL The pacha was defeated. Li- 
vadia and Thebes, where Omer Pacha 
commanded, were evacuated soon afler 
by the Ottoman troops. Lepanto surren- 
dered, April 22, and Missolonghi and Ana- 
tolico on May 29. Afler the former had 
surrendered, 3000 Greeks marched to re- 
inforce the corps then besieging Athens ; 

vetle of 36, three steamers (of which two cany 8, 
aad one 4 guns), nine brigs of from 4 to 12 guns, 
£ve gunboats, and 28 smaller vessels and trans-, 

but the opezfttioiis were soon after arreit- 
ed, in deference to the wishes of the 
allied povrers. Immediately afler the 
meeting of the assembly at Argos, general 
Chinch resigned his commission as com- 
mander-in-(3iief of the forces of Greece. 
Such was the state of thinss when the 
peace between Russia and the Porte was 
signed at Adrianople, Sept 14, 1829, and 
ratified by the Porte, Sept 20. The con- 
ferences between the ministers of the 
three powers, at London, had now for their 
object to select a prince to wear the crown 
of Greece. It was ofiered to prince Leo- 

Eold of Saxe-Coburg, who had been the 
usband of the late princess Charlotte, 
daughter of George I V, Feb. 3, 1830, and 
was accepted by hun, as ** sovereign prinoe 
of Greece,^ February 20. However, he 
resigned this honor in a declaration dated 
May 21, 1830. The two reasons which 
the prince alleges for his resignation are, 
the unwillinipessof the Greeks to receive 
him, and their dissatiafaction at the aetde- 
ment of the boundaries. He says that the 
answer of the president of Greece to the 
communication of his apoointment, in his 
judffment, announces a forced submission 
to the aUied powers, and even that forced 
submission is accompanied by reserva- 
tions of the highest importance. The 
president of Greece states, that the pro- 
visional govemmeut, according to the de- 
crees of^the council of Arvos, has no 
power to convey the assent of the Crreek 
nation ; and the ffovemment reserves to 
itself the power ofsufamitting to the prinee 
sach observations as they cannot conceal 
from him, without betrayinj^ their trust 
towards Greece and the prinee. In re- 
gard to the boundaries, his language is, 
that the uncompromising determination 
expressed by the Greek senate, to retain 
possession of the provinces which the 
allied powers wish to exclude from the 
limits of the new state, will oblige him 
either to compel his own subjects, by 
force of foreif^n arms, to submit to tjhte 
cession of theur estates and properties to 
their enemies, or to join with them in 
resisting or evading a part of that very 
treaty which places him on the throne 
of Ch!eece. That one or the other alter- 
native will be forced upon him is certain, 
because the part of the countrv refetied to 
( Acamania and a pan g£ ifitolia, which is 
now to be given up to the Turks) is, to- 
gether with the fortresses, in the peace- 
able possession of the Greeks. It is the 
country finom which Greece can best sup- 
ply herself with timber for baildini; ships. 



It B the oountiy which has funiiflhed the 
belt soldiera during the war. The chief 
nulitafy leaden of the Greeks have been 
of Acamanian or iEtc^ian famitiea. Sub- 
sequently to the arrival in Greece of the 
protocel of the 22d March, 1839, and the 
pubfication of the assent of the Turks to 
the ezchided frontier in the treaty of Adri- 
anopie, all the fiunilies which had sur- 
vived the war returned, and commenced 
rebuilding their houses and towns, and 
cultivating their lands. These people 
will never submit again to the Turkish 
yoke without resistance, and the other 
Greeks will not, cannot abandon them to 
their fiue.* The British journals loudly 
reproached the prince for his resignation, 
ascribing it to m^x at the picture which 
the president, Capo d'Istria, drew of the 
Btate of the country, or to the hope of be- 
oominff regent of the British empire, in 
caseofthe accession of the minor princess 
Victoria, ft is hardly necessary, how- 
ever, to look for motives beyond the dis- 
taste which a man of good feelings would 
naturally feel to assuming the government 
of a nation contrary to their will, and 
becoming, as he must become in such 
case, a tyrant Since the resisnation of 
Leopold, several princes have oeen pro- 
posed as candidates for the throne of 
Greece, vrithout its ever seeming to have 
occurred to the powers that a Greek might 
be raised to that honor, or that it would 
be wordt while to pay any attention to the 
wishes of the nation. According to the 
latest accounts, it seems that prince Paul 
of Wfbtembeigt is the most prominent 
candidate. By the protocol of Feb. 3, 
1830^ the boundary or Greece was settled 
as follows : On the north, beginning at the 
moiith of the Aspropotamos (Achelous), 
it runs up the southern bank to Angelo 
Castro ; thence through the middle ofthe 

* The coirespondeQce of prince Leopold with 
thenuDislerSy and with presidlcnt Capo cPIstriaj is 
h^jr interesting, as snowing the anntrary spirit 
wiifa which the powers of Europe have been dis- 
posed lo act towards (Sreece. It is to be found 
B the American papers of the middle of July, 

f Prince Paul (Charles Frederic Augustus) is the 
brother of the king of Woneniberg : bom Jan. 
19^ 1786 ; mairied, 1806. to Cbarlott£(Gatharine), 
DfioeeM of Saze-AltenDorg-. bom 1187. He has 
fenr children. His eldest oaiu^ter is married to ' 
ihe jErand-prince Michael, brother to the emperor 
of RiKsia : his eldest son Frederic (Charies Au- 
gnslns) was bom Feb. 21, 1808. Prince Paul 
Wilfiam of Wortembexg (tne traveller), who re- 
tomed Nov. 29, 1830, to New Orleans, finom a 
jonraey into the western regions of North Ameri- 
ca, ii toe 8on of Eugene Frederic Henry, the sec- 
ond brother of the reigning king oT wertem- 

lakes Sacarovista and Vrachori to motmt 
Artoleria; thence to mount Axiros, and 
along the valley of Culoiui and die top of 
CEta to the gulf of Zeitun. Acamania 
and a great pan of iEtoIia and Thessaly 
are thus excluded from the Greek state, 
and a Turkish barrier interposed between 
Greece and the Ionian Islands. Candia, 
Samoa, Psana, &C., are not included. The 
popuktiou of the state is estimated at 
about 635ft00: 280,000 in the Pelopon- 
nesus; 175,000 in the islands; 180^000 
on the Greek main-land.— Andeison's 
Obgerpations oh tht Pdqponnetus and Uie 
Greek hland», made in 1»29 (Boston, 1890). 
For further information, we refer the 
reader to Greece m 1823 and 1824, by 
colonel Leicester Stanhope (Philadelphia, 
1825); also, the Fietwre of Greece in 1825 
(2 volis., New York, ISSS) ; the Hittory 
Modem Greece, with a View of the 
AniiiqmHes and present Con- 
dUioh of Biai CowOry (Boston, 1827); the 
ISHoncal Sketch of the Greek Reoolvr 
Hon, by Samuel U. Howe (New York, 
1828); TravelB m Greece, by J. P. Miller 
(Boston, 1828); Visit to Greece and Coii- 
MtantinMle, in the Years 1827 and 1828, 
by H. A. V. Post (New York, 1830} ; Raf- 
fenel's (editor of the Soeetateur Oriental 
at Smyrna, continued atxerwards by TVi- 
comi) lEstoire des Enhtemens de la Gr^ 
(Paris, 1822) ; Considiraiions star la Guare 
actuelle entre Us Grecs et les Turks, par 
un Grec (Paris, 1821) ; colonel Voutier's 
(who fought, in 1821 and 1822, in Greece) 
Mhnoires sur la Guerre aetudle des Grecs 
(Paris, 1822^; Agrotis' Pricis des CMra- 
tions de la Flotte Grecque, durant la lUwh 
hdion de 1821 et 1822 (Paris, 1822), (chiefly 
after the log-book or the Hydnot Jacob 
Tumbasis, who commanded a fleet, and 
fbll in an engagement, in 1822) ; several 
publications by eye-wimeases, interesting 
as historical memoirs, by Mtiller, Lieber, 
&c. Ed. Blaqui^re wrote, on the spot, 
the Greek Revolution, its Origin and 
Promss, together with some Remarks on 
tte Reunion, &c., m Greece (London, 
1824), with phites. Maxime Raybaud, an 
officer in the corps of Philhellenes, pub- 
lished Mimoires star la Gr^eepow servir d 
VlSstoire de la Guerre de PBuUpendance, 
1821 et 1822, with topographical maps, 
(Paris, 1825, 2 vols.). See, also, Pouque- 
ville's HisUnre de la RigenSratum de la 
Grice, &c, or the Histoiy fi^m 1740 to 
1824, witii maps (Paris, 1^ 2d ed., 1828, 
4 vols.); ViUemain'sLoMorw (Paris, 1826); 
La Grhe en 1821 et 1822; Ckmtspond' 
enu poUiimie, pubU6e parvn Grec (Paris, 
1823). The Cornier de Smyme m often 



quoted bb an authority iu regard to Grsek 
afiairs. Of its truatworthinesB we may 
judge from a letter addreaaed by count 
Ca^ d'ktria, March 1% 1830, to the 
French reaident, baron de Rouen, in 
which he mentions the. pubheadon of 
tiro decreea, attributed to the Greek 
govenmieut, which are mere forgeries, 
and requesiB that proper measures may 
be taken to compel the editor to avow 
their fidaehood 

Modem Oreek Lmuniage (called Roma^ 
ie)a9yi IMeraJturt, The manly attitude, 
assumed by the Greeks since 1821, has 
attracted attention to their language, which, 
even in its dej^neracy, recalls the beau- 
ties of the ancient tongue. Grateful for 
the culture bestowed on it, the Greek lan- 
guage seems to have preserved its purity 
K>nger than any other known to us ; and 
even lone after its purity was lost, the 
echo of 3us beautiiul tongue served to 
keep alive something of the spirit of an- 
cient Greece. All the supports of this ma- 
jestic and refined dialect seemed to fail, 
when the Greeks were enslaved by the 
M of Constantinople (A. D. 1453). All 
the cultivated classes, who still retained 
the pure Greek, the language of the By- 
zantme princes, either perished in the 
oonffict, or took to flight, or courted the 
fiivor of their rude conquerors, by adopt- 
ing their dialect In the lower ckusses, 
ODiy, did the common Greek survive (the 

«iMry^/tii)^;, ilirXj;, Ihmnai ^ioX»ro(] the Vul- 
gar dialect of the poliahed claases, the 
traces of which occur, indeed, in eariier au- 
thors, but which first appears distinctly in 
the sixth century. This Gredc foUAs de- 
parted still more from the punty of the 
vnitten langua^ which took refuge at 
•ourt, in tte tribunals of justice, and the 
haUs of instruction, when the Frank cru- 
saders augmented it by their own peculiar 
expressiona, and the barbarians in the 
neighboriiood engrafted dieire also upon 
it This popular dialect first appears as a 
complete wntten language in the chroni- 
cles of Simon Sethos, in 1070^-80. After 
the Ottomans had become masters of the 
country, all tlie institutions which had 
contributed to preserve a better idiom 
periahedatonce. The people, left to them- 
selves, oppressed by the most brutal despot- 
ism, would finally have abandoned tneir 
own dialect, which became constantly 
more corrupt, had not the Greeks pos- 
sessed a sort of rall^ff point in tneir 
church. Their patnanm remaining to 
them at the conauest of their capital 
(taiagiotacclii, who was appointed, iu 
1500, mterpreter of the sultan), they turn- 

ed to him as then* head, and saw, in the 
OTBod of their church, his senate, and io 
the kmcuage of the works of the fiithecs 
of the church, and the Old and New Tes- 
taments, a standard which tended to give 
a uniform character to the different dia- 
lects. Neglected and exposed to the vi- 
cissimdes of fortune, destitute of a creed 
which could elevate their moral senti- 
ments, thvrarted in all their pursuits, urg- 
ed by the state of things around them to 
indolent voluptuousness or vindictive mal- 
ice, the unpoverished institutions for in- 
struction were of little efficiency. As the 
proper guardians of morality and educa- 
tion, the deifgy and monks were them- 
selves ijporant and corrupt The debase- 
ment of this fine dialect continued till the 
middle of the last century ; for the few 
writers of that period disdained to use the 
language of the people, and resorted to 
the ancient Greek, then, unhappily, an ex- 
tinct dialect The Greek spirit, not yet 
extinffuished by all the adversities the nar 
tion had undergone, finally revived with 
increased vigor ; for the mildest of cli- 
mates, ever maintaining and cherishing a 
sei-enity of feeling, the imperishable heri- 
tage of hallowed names and associations, 
and even the love of song, kept alive some 
sparks of patriotic sentiment . With Rhi- 
zos, we ma^ divide this revival into three 
disdnct penods. The first, fiom 1700 to 
1750, gave the Fanariots influence and 
efficiency in the seraglio, especially after 
Mavrocordato (Alex.) became dragoman 
of the Porte, and his son first hospodar 
of Moldavia and Walachia. During the 
second period, fiom 1750 to 1800, the 
Greelffl resorted for instruction to the uni- 
versities of the west, and returned thence 
to their native country. Naturallv in- 
clined to commerce, they soon manifested 
a dexterity and shrewcuiess, which ena- 
bled many to amass considerable wealth. 
Kept together by external pressure, it be- 
came neccssaiy for them to rely on their 
own countrymen. Necessity taught them 
the value of education, and their admis- 
sion to the administration of the govern- 
ment of Moldavia and Walachia raised 
their views to political lifb. They became 
desirous of making nearer approaches to 
the more civilized luuions of Europe, so 
as IKH to remain behind in the general 
progress. The Greeks began to pay more 
attention to their mother tongue, and this 
tendency was increased by intercourse 
with the more refined West, bv means of 
more finquent vints from inteUigent men 
of that quarter to the ruins or Greciar 
greatness. The patriarch (Samuel £u 


TlMOtDOO0) of Corfb, and 
I unibrtunBte Rhi^aa, may be mentioD- 
edaaenuiiem aft tii0 period. Butmllie 
tfeoM Boiod, from WOO to die preaeut 
tiine, tma increaae of ihe meanaof educa- 
tioB fim exerted a powoful infliience on 
tbe BBtkii, which, nvored by exfieinal cir- 
eum i ten c ca , now reafly be|^ to be oon-^ 
aema of die oppreaaon uider which tbey 
auflered. Sehoms were Ibtined at Odea- 
aa, Yemoe, Viemia, Jaaay, Buchaieat, and 
in the Ionian Ldanda, most of which have 
once ceased to enst Even in CkMiatan- 
tiaople, in the reiga of Selim III, aome 
FanaiiotB (q. y.), eapecialty the noble 
prince Demetrina Merouri, who ibimded 
a natiofi'tl academy at Kuru Tacheeme in 
1805, rendered great aemcea to the mod- 
em Greek language and Ifleratiiie. (viat- 
itude to die mother waa, widi the reet of 
Europe, a motire fyr attention to the 
dau|mter ; and the language gained alike 
by die influence of the nativea and of 
Ibrragneffib The worica pimted at Jaaay, 
Boclwreat (where Spiridcm Valetaa, the 
ornament of thecouit in that place, trans- 
lated, under the name of AriBloniene8,the 
celebrited treatise of Romaeaa, Siar Phi- 
goHU det Gtmddumt), Venice and Leip- 
■c were, at first, moad^r theological ; but, 
with the increaae of mduatty and eeoEi- 
merce, particidariy amon^ die Hydriota, 
and of the wealth of individuaJa, the cir- 
cukdon of bookawas also enluged by 
the aarifllance of foreim and cordial 
fiiends of the nation. 'Hie language it- 
ael^ which in its degradation waa not dea- 
titme of melody and flezibBity, gained en- 
ei^ and riraeity from their eflbrta, al- 
though the attempts of aome individuals 
lo bring it nearer to the ancient dassic 
dialect, did TiQlaice to its idiomatic char- 
icter. (Sec'CoTD^.) The attempt to 
bring die existing idiom nearer the JB^- 
zaotme Greek and die language of the 
pitriaicfas, made by the Atheman Codri- 
c%-4fae waim adversary of Corey,— Jaco- 
fadoB Rlusos, and many odien, waa more 
rational ; and the periomcal '^^m Xoyws, es- 
labGabed at Vienna Ir^ the influence of 
Cony , with the other sunilar worioB which 
it caued into exiBtence, was not without 
cflect But every attempt will be vam 
to deprive die modem Greek language of 
its nectifiar character, especially after a 
eenffict which has excited so violend v 
the frefings of the natioD. The wealth 
•f the modem Greek language, which 
famer d&etionariea show but venrimper- 
Ibcdy, because it can oi^ be fu^ exhib- 
ited by the assistance of manv gtoesaries 
— Vendoti, Mod. Gr. Ital. and French (Vi- 

enna, 1790); Weigel,Mod.Gr. GeraiL and 
ItaL (Laipaic,1796); Cumae, Mod. Gr. 
RoBi. and French (Moacow,iail); Vkai, 
Mod. Gr.andItaL(Venice,ld06); £)chnudt*a 
Mod. Gr. andGemn. Diet (Leqiric, 1835)^ 
— woidd have been mora fiiUy displayed 
by the large dictionary, intended to fill ax 
folio volumes^ the superintendence of 
which was undertaken at Conslantinopla 
in 1821, by the patriarch Gregory (q. y,\ 
but which was mtenrupled bythe murder 
of the old maI^ April 22» 1821, widi the 
destruction of so many inatitutiona of 
learning foatered by him.* For aflsquur- 
ing a knowledge of the language itwll^ 
which difiere fiom the ancient cniefly in 
the foraiatioa of the tensea and in die 
teraainationa of the nouna, die means 
have now increaaed. The granunar of 
Christopylua, puhhshed in Vienna in 1805» 
which conaiaers the modem Greek as 
.fiohc-Doric, Schmidt's Modem Greek 
Grammar (Leipsic, 1808), and another 
Greramn and Greek grammar, by Bqiads- 
chi (Vienna, 1821 and 1823), beaidea Jides 
David'b veiy vahiaUe Af»Me pour ihu^ 
laLangue OncqntModem^ (Paris, 1821), 

and a SviwriMr wh^aSXatkia^of nis AW'^nps «« 

y^MuoK yXmcant (Paria, 1820), W. MOn- 
nich's Mod. Greek Gnmmar (Dreaden, 
1826lVonLfldeniann'b Manual of dioMod. 
Greek Language (Leipaic, 1826),flumBh 
important assistance. CJenoan philologiali^ 
Buch as Friedemann and Poppo, have, 
moreover, conaidered the relations of the 
modem GredL to the ancient A worit 
which ia highly impoftant for the Ian- 
ffuace, as it exists, is the Remarics of 
£l Leake oh the Lanffuagea apoken in 
Greece at the present Day, lo he found 
in hia Researches in Greece (18141 (See 
also the DUaon. Fhm^ais OreeAMnnt 
vrMdi <f an Diawun but la Gromnunre if 
fa Sjfniaxe de Pune d Pautn Langvevar 
Gr^. ZdlieflgiM; Ptois, 1824.) Tliefite- 
rature of the modem Greeks, which had 
consisted chiefly of transbtioos fiom tlie 
French, could not very much elevate the 
spirit of the people, as the matter ova- 
aented was, in most cases, uncongenial ta 
their character; but after the noble Go- 
ray, and othen of siroihr 
had devoted themaelves to its 
ment,ahigheractivi|vwasperoeptible. The 
school at Scio (unhappily destroyed bf 
the maasacre of Apnl 11, 1822), which 
had existed since 18iX> ; the academy at 
Yanina, whose director, Adianaaiiis Paali- 

* The fint and second volumes of Uiis Ark of 
the Chrttk Languagef n>peaced at CoBStantioo- 
pie ia 1819, etc. from die posif pf ttaa patriaKh 
u the Faaar. 


da, was regaidfad as the first modem 
Groek sohour; and the academy founded 
by the French on the Ionian Islands, were 
points of union for the Greek youih, not 
without influence on the Gre^ people. 
Under the protection of England, and 
lord Guilford's wise care, me Greek 
8|Hrit was gradually dev^oped. An Ion- 
ic Ghreek univenity was opened at Cor- 
fu, by the direction of Canning, May 19, 
ISSa, It consistB of four ftcultie^ for 
theology, law, medicine and philoso^y. 
' Its chancellor was lord Guilford. The 
lectures are in the modem Greek language. 
The most distinguished professors are, 
Bambas of Scio, Asopios, and Piccolo 
(who delivers lectures on modem philoso- 
phy). In Paris, a distinct professorship of 
die modem Greek has existed for several 
years, and M. Clonaris deliveiB a course 
of veiy popular lectures on it Those 
delivered by Jacobakis Rhizos Nerulos, 
at Geneva, were printed in a French 
translation (Geneva, 1827). In Munich, a 
professorship was afterwards established. 
In Vienna, Petersburg, Trieste, wealthy 
Greeks afforded important aid to the lite-, 
rature of their countrymen. In Odessa, 
a Greek theatre has existed for several 
ysan, where ancient Greek tragedies^ 
translated into the modem langua^ de- 
light the spectators. Such expenments 
w«re followed by original productions of 
Jacobakis Rhizos (Abasia and Polyxena)^ 
of Piculos, and by translations of modem 
dramatic works by Oiconomos, Coccina- 
kis, &c The inspiring strains of Rhigas 
(q. V.) and Polyzois roused the military 
spirit of their countrvmen. Christopylus, 
in the style of the Teian bard, pours out 
his cheerfid sdnins ; nor must Kjdbo and 
Salomo of Zante be fonotten ; the tone 
of the productions of ^nnacateky Tia- 
nites, of Constantinople, is more melan- 
choly. Sakellario's muse is grave (Vien- 
na, 1817), and Perdicari's, satiricaL As an 
mpromtatan, Nicolopylus met with ap- 
plause at Paris. Andreas Mustoxidi (q. v.), 
historian of the island of Corfo, is an or- 
nament of modem Greek literature, equal- 
ly distinguished as an Italian author, bv 
his Life of Anacreon. Among the mul- 
titude of tmnslators engaged on political 
works, Iskenteri, who trai^ted Voltaire's 
Zadig into modem Greek, is hi^y es- 
teemed. Bambas, Cumas (the translator 
of Krug's System of Philosophy), Alex- 
andridis, Anthimoe Gazis, DuCas, Gubde- 
las, Codricas, Condo8,Mich. Schinas, Spy- 
ridon Tricoupi, Solyzoides, were names 
distinguished before the beginning of the 
late desolating troubles. The Mdisaa 

(the Bee), a modem Gtaek jounal, pub- 
lished by Spyridon Condos and Agc^o- 
I^iron, in Pans, in 1821, was discontinued 
when the contnbutors engaged in the war 
of liberty. On the whole, about dOOO 
works in the modem Greek language 
have appeared within 50 yean. Fauriel, a 
Frenchman, collected all the popular mod- 
em Greek songs (Paris, 1824--2Ss 2 vols. ), 
and in them has given the public a com- 
mentary on the events of the day. For more 
minute inforaoation, we refer to Ikon's 
HeUemon and Lmeotiieoj and to the peri- 
odicals. Consult JuL David's Compari- 
son of the Ancient and Modem Greek 
Languages (translated fit>m the modem 
Greek by Stmve, Berlin, 1627) ; Minoides 
Mines, IhtUisurlavintabU Prvnoneiaiion 
de ia Langue Grecque (Paris, 1827). Co- 
ray's system is at present generally adopt- 
ed, to enrich and ennoble the modem 
Greek language from the treasures of the 
ancient Greek, avoiding the too difficult 
inflections,' and removmg the German- 
isms and Gallicisms intrwluced by trans- 

Greek Omrch ; that portion of Christians 
who conform, in then- creed, usages and 
church government, to the views of Chris- 
tianity introduced into the former Greek 
empire, and perfected, since the 5th cen- 
tuiy, under the patriarchs of Constantino- 
ple, Alexandria, Antioch.and Jerusalem. 
Christendom, which, with difficulty, had, 
been broti^ht to a state of ponoord in the 
4th and wi craituries, already contained 
the germ of a fUture schisni, by reason 
both of its extent, as it embraced the 
whole east and west of the Roman em- 
pire, and of the diversity of language, 
modes of thinking and manners, among 
the nations profesong it The foundation 
of a new Rome in Constahtinople ; the 
political nartition of the Roman empue 
mto the Oriental, or Greek, and the Occi- 
dental, or Latin ; the elevadon of the bii^- 
op of Constantinople to the place of sec- 
ond patriareh of Christendom, inferior 
only to the patriarch of Rome, effected in 
the councils of Constantinople, A. D. 381, 
and of Chalcedon, A. D. 451; tbe jealousy 
of the latter patriarch towards the grow- 
ing power or the former, — were circum- 
stances, which, together with the ambigu- 
ity of the edict known under the name 
of the fTenottcon, mnted by the Greek 
emperor Zeno, Al D. 482, and obnoxious 
to the Latins on account of the appearance 
of a deviation from the decrees of the 
council of Chakedon, produced a formal 
schism in tlie Christian church. Fehx II, 
patriarch of Rome, pronounced sentence 



•f fflMommunicaiion agunst the polri- 
arelw of GoBBtaatiiiople and AlezandnB, 
wbo had been the leading agente of the 
HenotKOD, A. D. 484, and thus aeverod att 
eodeaaadcal i^]o^nliq> with the congr&* 
gttdoDB of the East, attached to these patri- 
archs. The aentimoitBof the imperial couit 
bemg diBDged,tbe R<»nan patriarch Hot* 
midas was aUe, indeed, to eompel a re* 
union of tHe Gfeek chinch widi tne Ladn, 
in 519; but thia nnion, never aerioualy in- 
tended, and kwsely compacted, was again 
dteolved by the obstinacy of both parties, 
tad the Roman sentence of ezcommuni- 
cation a^^ainst the Iconoclasts among the 
Gteefca, A. D. 733; and against Photius, 
the patnarch of Constantinople, A. D. 
9SL The aogmentation of the Greek 
chorch, by tb» addition of newly conrert- 
ad natkMQti, as &e Bulgarians, excited 
anew, about this time, the jealousy of the 
Roman pontiff*; and his bearing towards 
the Gveda was the more hau^ty since 
he bad renoonced his allegianoe to the 
Gfe^ emperor, and had a iSire protectioii 
against him in the new FrankiBh-Roman 
empoe. Pholius, on the other hand, 
chaiged the Latins with ari^itraiy conduct 
in insetting an unscriptural addition into 
die creed respecting the origin of the 
lioiy Ghoflt, and in altering many of the 
usages of the ancient orthodox church; 
for example, in foriiiddin^ their priests to 
marry, repeating the chnsm, and fasting 
on Satniday, as the Jewish sabbath. But 
he complained, with justice, in particular, 
of the aanniptionB of the pope, who pre- 
tended to be the sovereign of all Chris- 
tendom, and treated the Gre^ patriarchs 
as his inl^riois. The deposition of this 
pabiaieh, twice efiectad by the pope, did 
not tenninatB the dispute between the 
Gredn and Lrans ; and when the patri- 
aich of CcMistantinople, Michael Cenila- 
riuB, added to the charges of Photiua, 
agshist the Latins, an accusation of here- 
sy, in 1054, on account of thehr use of 
unkafened bread at the communion, and 
of the blood of animals that had died by 
stmngulation, as weU as on account of the 
immmlity of the Latin clergy in general. 
Pope Leo IX, having, in retaliation, ex- 
communicated him, in the most insulting 
manner, a total separation ensued of the 
GrecJc church from the Latin. From 
this time, pride, obstinacy and selfishness 
frastrated all die attempts which were 
made to reunite the severed churches, 
pardy by the popes, in order to annex the 
East to their see, pertly by the Greek em- 
peroiB (equidly oppressed by the crusadem 
and Mohammedans), in Older to secure tho 

of the tnincca of die West. 
Neither would yidd to die other in re- 
spect to the contested points, en wi^ch 
we hove touched aboie. While the 
Catholic religion acquired a more com- 
plete and peculiar character under Gmg- 
oiy VII, and through the scholasde pm- 
Iqsopby, the Greek church retained its 
creed, as ainnged by John of Damascus, 
in 730, and its ancient constitution. The 
conquest of Constantinople by the French 
crusaders and the Venetians, A. D. 1204, 
and the cruel oppresBions which the 
Greeks had to endure from the liadns 
and the papal legates, only increased their 
exasperation ; and aldiou^ the Greek em- 
peror Michael II (Pialfleologus, who had 
reconquered Constantinople in 126n 
consented to recosuise die supremacy or 
the pc^ie, and by his envoys and some of 
the clerey, who wesn devoted to him, ab- 
jured tSe points of separation, at the as- 
sembly, at Lyons, A. D. 1274; uid thoimh 
a i^t synod was held at Constantinople, m 
1377, for the purpose of strengthening the 
union with the Latin church, the mam of 
the Greek church was neveftheless op- 
posed to this step; and pope Martin iV, 
having excommunicated the emperor 
MichMl,in 1261, from political motives^ 
the councils held at Constantinople, in 
1263 and 1265, by the Grade bishq), re- 
stored their old doctrines and the separa- 
tion from the Latins. The last attempt 
was made by the Greek emperor John 
VII (Palseoldgus, who was veiy hard 
pressed by the Tuiks)^ together with tho 
patriarch Joseph, in the councils held, 
met at Fenara, in 143& and the next 
year at Florence, pope Kugene IVpre- 
si£ng; but the union concluded theie 
had the appearance of a submission of 
the Gre^s to the Roman see, and was 
altogether rejected by the Greek clergy 
and nation, so that, in &ct, the schism of 
the two churches continued. The eflforfis 
of the Greek emperors, on this point, who 
had always had most interest in these at- 
tempts at unicm, ceased with the over- 
throw of their emfMre and the conquest 
of Constantinofrfe by the Turks, A. D. 
1453; and the exertions of the Roman 
Catholics to subject the Greek diurch, ef- 
fected nothing but the acknowledgment 
of die supremacy of the pope by some 
congregations in Italy (whither many 
Greeks had fled before die Tniks), in 
Hunsaxy, GaBcia, Pofend and Lithuania, 
whien c6ngregations are now known un- 
do^ die. name of DnUed Qrteks. In the 
7di century, (he territoiy of the Greek 
church embraced, beskles East lUtyria^ 



<Sreece Proper, with the Morea and the 
Archipelago, Ataa, Minor, Syria, ifrith Pal- 
estine, ArSbia, Egypt, and numeroue con- 
negations in Ik^opotamia and Persia; 
DQt the cooqueats of Mohammed and his 
sucoesBorB have deprived it, since 630, of 
ahnoet all itsprovinces in Asia and Africa ; 
and even in Europe the number of its adhe- 
rents was considerably diminished by the 
Tuiks in the 15th century. On the other 
hand, it was increased by the accession 
of several Sclavonian nations, and espe- 
cially of the Russians, who were com- 
pelled by the great prince Wladimir, in 
the year 988, to adopt the creed of the 
Greek Christians. To this nation the 
Greek church is indebted fer the symboli- 
cal book, which, with the canons of the 
first and second Nicene^ of the first, sec- 
ond and third Constantmopolitan, of the 
Ephesian and Chalcedonian general 
councils, and of the , Tndlan council, 
h<dden at Constantinople in 609^ is the 
sole authority of the Greek Christian in 
doctrinal matters. After the learned Cy- 
rillus Lascaris, patriarch of Constantino- 
ple, had tftoned, with his li&, fi>r the ap- 
proach to Protestantism perceptible in Us 
creed, A. D. 1629, an exposition of the 
doctrine of the Russians was drawn up, 
in the Greek language, by Pet Mogislaus, 
biriiop of Kiev, 1642, under the title 
the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic 
and Apostolic Church of Christ, signed 
and ratified, 1643, by all the patriarchs of 
the Greek church, to whom had been 
added, in 1589, the fiilh patriart;h of 
Moscow. It was printed in Holland, in 
Greek and Latin, 1662, with a pre&ce by 
thepatriarch Nectarius of Jerusalem. In 
1690, it was published by the last Russian 
patriarch, Adrianus of Moscow; and, in 
1722, at the command of P^r die Great, 
b^ the holy synod ; it having been pre- 
viously declared to be in all cases valid, 
as the ritual of the Greek church, by a 
council at Jerusalem, in 1672, and W the 
ecclesiastical rule of Peter the Great, 
drawn up, in 1721, by Theophanes Proco- 
wicz. lake the Catholic, this church 
recognises two sources of doctrine, the 
Bible and tradition, under which last it 
comprehends not only those doctrines 
which were orally delivered by the apos- 
tles, but also those which have been ap- 
proved of by the fathers of the Greek 
church, especially John of Damascus^ as 
well as by the seven above-named general 
councils. The other councils, whose au- 
thority is valid in the Roman Catholic 
church, this church does not recognise; 
nor does it allow the patriarchs or synods 

to introduce new doctrines. It treats its 
tenets as so entirely obligatory and neces- 
sary, that they cannot to denied without 
the loss of salvation. It is the only 
church which holds that the Holv Ghost 
proceeds fiY>m the Father only, thus dif- 
fering fix)m the Catholic and Protestant 
chufches, which agree in deriving the 
Holy Ghost firom the Father and the Son. 
Like the Catholic church, it has seven sa- 
craments— inptiam, chrinifthe eucharist 
preceded by con&saon, penance, ordina- 
tion, marriage and extreme unction \ but 
it is peculiar, 1. in holding that fiill purifi- 
cation fix)m original sin in baptism re- 
quires an immersion three times of the 
whole body in water, whether infimts or 
adults are to be baptized, and in joining^ 
chrism (confirmation) with it as the com- 
pletion of baptism ; % in adopting, as to 
the eucharist, the doctrine of transubstain- 
tiation, as well as the Catholic views of 
the host ; but it orders the bread to be leav- 
ened, the wine to be mixed with water, 
and both elements are distributed to every 
one, even to children, he^re they have a 
true idea of what sin is, the communi- 
cant receiving the bread broken in a 
r>on filled with the consecrated wine; 
all the clergy, with the exception of 
the monks, and of the higher c)er^ chosen 
fix>m among them, down to the bishops 
inclusive, are allowed to many a virgin, 
but not a widow ; nor are they allowed 
to many a second time; and therefore 
the widowed clergy are not permitted to 
retain their livings, but go into a clois- 
ter, where they are call^ JderomcnackL 
Rarefy is a widowed clergyman allowed 
to preserve his diocese; and fixim the 
maxim, that marriage is not suitable for 
the higher clergy in general, and second 
marriage at least is iroprof^r for the low- 
er, there is no departure. The Greek 
church does not regard the marriage of 
the laity as indissoluble, and finequentiy 
grants divorces; but is as strict as the 
Catholic church with respect to the for- 
bidden degrees of relationship, especially 
of the ecclesiastical relationship of god- 
parents; nor does it allow the laity a 
fourth marriage. It difiers fix>m the 
Catholic church in anointing with the 
holy oil, not only the dyinff, but the sick, 
for the restoration of their nealth, the for- 
^veness of their sins, and the sanctifica- 
tion of their souls. It rejects the doo- 
trine of purgatory, has nothing to do with 
predestination, works of supererogation, 
indulgences and dispensations (to the liv- 
ing; but a printed fonn for the forgive- 
ness of flin is sometimes given to the de- 


. at the requert and for the com- 
foit of the flurvivore); and itrecogniaes 
neither the pope nor any one else as the 
viaiUe vicar of Chnat on eaith. It more- 
over allowB no carved, sculptured or 
molten image <^ holy persona or auljectB ; 
but the repreaentationB of Christ, of 
die viigin Mcgry and the sainta, which are 
objects of religious veneradon in churches 
and private houses, must be merely paint- 
. ed, and, at most, inlaid with precious 
stones. In the Russian churches, how- 
ever» works of sculpture are found on the 
ahan. In the invocation of the saints, 
and especi^ of the virgin, the Greeks 
are as zealous as the Catholics. They 
also hold reficfi^ graves and crosses sacred ; 
and croaainff in the name of Jesus, they 
consider as having a wondeifid and bless- 
ed influence. Amonff the means of pen- 
ance, fiuts are particujarihr numerous with 
them, at which it is not lawful to eat any 
thing but fruits, vecetables, bread and 
fish. They fast Wednesday and Friday 
•f every week ; and, besides, observe four 
great annual ftsts, viz., 40 days before 
Easter, from Whitsuntide to the days of 
3t Peter and Paul; the ftst of the virgin 
Mary, from the 1st to the 15th of August ; 
and the apostle Philip's fast, from the 15th 
to the 26tn of November ; besides the day 
of the beheading of John, and of the ele- 
vation of the cross. Hie services of the 
Greek church consist abnost entirely in 
outward forms. Preaching and catechis-' 
ing ccHMBDtute the least part of It; and, in 
the 17th century, preachinc was stiicdy 
forbidden in Russib, under the czar 
Aiexis^ in order to prevent the di Aiaion 
of new doctrines. In Turkey, preaching 
was confined almost exclusively to the 
higher clergy, because they alone possess- 
ed some degree of knowledge. Each con- 
gregation lue its appointed choir of sing- 
as, who sing psalms and hymns. The 
congregations themselves do not, like us, 
sing firom books ; and instnunental music 
is excluded altogether from the Greek 
worship. Besides the mass, which is re- 
garded as the chief thing, the liturgy con- 
sistB of passages of Scripture, prayers and 
leeeods of the saints, and in the recitation 
<H the creed, or of sentences which the 
officialiDg priest begins, and the people in 
a body continue and finish. The con- 
yeats conform, for the nooet part, to the 
strict rule of St. Basil The Greek ab- 
bot 18 termed fttnoneiuw, the abbess kigvr 
■Kne. The abbot of a Greek convent, 
which has several others under its inspec- 
tioD^is termed orcftMwmMe, and hasa rank 
next below that of bishop. The kmer 

[V in the Greek church onaislB of 
ers, sinipen, deacons, &C., and of 
priests, such as me popes and protopopea 
OF arch priests, who are the first clergv in 
the cathedrals and metropoUtan churSies. 
The members of the lower deny can 
rise no higher than protopopes; for the 
bishops are chosen from amonff the 
mordtis, and from the bishops, archbish- 
ops, metropolitans and patriarchs. In 
Rtiasia, there are 31 clioceses. With 
which of them the arch-episcopal dignity 
shall be united, depends on the will of the 
emperor. The seats of the four metro- 
oolitans of the Russian empire are 
Petersburg, with the jurisdiction of 
Novgorod; Kiev, with that of Galicia; 
Kasan, with that of Sviiaschk ; and 
Tobolsk, with diat of all Siberia. The 
patriarchal dignity of Moscow, which tha 
patriarch Nikon (died in 1681) was said to 
have abused, Peter the Great abolished, 
by presenting himself before the Iwaho^ 
assembled, after the death of Adna, 
170SL to choose a new patrisfch, with the 
words, "I am your paoriarch;^ and, in 
1721, the whole church govenmient of 
his empire was intrusted to a coUepe of 
bishops and secular clergy, called the 
hoUf Mynodf first at Moscow, now at Pe- 
teiwurg. Under this synod now stand, 
b^ide the metropolitans, 11 archbishops, 
19 Inshops, 12,500 parish churches, and 
425 convents, 58 of which are coimected 
with monastic schoob for the educati<« 
of the clergy, and, for the better efifecting 
of this object, are aided by an annual pen« 
sion of 300,000 rubles fix>m the state. The 
Greek church, under the Turkish domin- 
ion, remained, as fiur as was possible imder 
such ciroumstances, faithful to the orimnal 
constitution. The dignities of patriarcn of 
Coofitantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and 
Jerusalem still subsist The former, how- 
ever, possesses the ancient authoriQr of 
the former archbishop of Constantinople ; 
takes the lead as oecumenical patriairch, 
in the holy synod at Constantinople, com- 
posed of the four patriarchs, a number of 
metropolitans and bishops, and 12 principal 
secular Gredra ; exercises the highest ec- , 
clesiastical jurisdiction over the Greeks in ^ 
the whole Turkish empire, and is recog- 
nised as head of the Greek churcn, by 
the (not united) Greeks in Galicia, in the 
Bukowina, in Sclavonia and the Seven 
Idands. The other three patriarehs, since 
almost all the people in their dioceses are 
Mohammedans, have but a small efhete 
of action (the patriarch of Alexandria has 
but two churches at Cairo), and live, for 
die most part, on the aid afiforded them 


by the Mtriaroh of Cknstantinople. lliig 
patriarch has a oonriderable income, but 
us obliged to pay neariy half of it as a 
tribute to the miltaiL The Greeks, under 
die Tufkish goveinilient, are allowed to 
build no new churchee, have to pav dear- 
ty fiM" the permianon to reiiair the old 
ones, are not allowed to have steeples or 
bells to their churches, nor even to wear 
^ the Turiuflh dress, generally perfoim re^ 
' lisious service by ni^t, and are moreover 
obliged, not only to pay tolls, from which 
theTurios are firise, but the males also pay 
to the sukan, af^er their 15th year, a heavy 
poU tax, under the name o£ exeawHonfrom 
IdteatUng. For a long time, the attach- 
ment of this church to old institutions has 
sUkkI in the w&y of all attempts at im- 
provement Such attempts have oven 
rise to a number of sects, which the Kua- 
aian government leaves unmolested. Ab 
eariy as the 14th centuir, the party of the 
Strigolnictans seceded trom hatred of the 
deiigy, but, as they bad no other peculiar- 
ity, soon perished. The same was done, 
with more success, by the Roskolnicians 
(L e., the i^Mstates), about 1666. (See 
RoMhucians.) This sect, which, by de- 
grees, Yns divided into 20 different par- 
ties, by no means fonns a regular eccle- 
siastical society, with symbols and usages 
of it^ own, but consistB of single cfmffe- 
gations, independent of each ower, which 
are distinguished from the Greek church 
by preserving, unaltered, the ancient Scla- 
vonian litmgy, &c. ; have a oonsecratad 
cleigy; and, having retired from aariy 
persecution, have become numerous in 
the eastern provinces of the Russian em- 
pire. The different pardea^onfonn, more 
or less, to the peowlarities attributed to 
the Roskolnicians in general, such as de- 
claring the use of toDa<;co and of strong 
drinlES sinful, fiisting yet more strictly 
than the oithodox churck refusing to 
tedce oaths; and are, from a nnatical spirit 
similar to that of the fonner Anabaptists, 
inclined lo rebeHion against their nilera. 
Pugatschew, himself a Roskdnidan, 
foimd most of his adherents among them 
in his rebellion. At present, they have re- 
laxed much of their stricmess on these 
pmnts, as well as their ftntastic notions 
vrith respect to marriage, dress, the priest^ 
hood and martyrdom, and seem to be 
gradually merging among the (nihodox. 
The Philippones (q. v.) were exiled Ros- 
kolnicians, who settled in lithuania and 
East Prussia, under Philip PastoswisBL 
Farther removed from the belief of the 
Greek church are the Duchoboizy, a sect 
settled on the steppes (q. v.), beyond the 

Don, which rejecti the doctrine of tka 
Trinity, and receives die Go^wb only, hM 
no churches nor nriesis, and regaida oatbi^ 
as well as wamre, unlawfrd. Antitrin- 
itarians, of a similar kind, are the iZus^ 
sian Jetcs, as they are called in the gov- 
ernment of Archansel and Katharinodav, 
of whom it is only known that they wor- 
ship neither Christ nor the saints, reject 
baptism, and have no priests nor church- 
es. (Re^ctinf^ the ancient scfaianuitic 
and heretical religious parties in Aoa and 
Africa, that have proceeded from the 
Greek church, see Vopta, JSysstma^ Jaeo- 
Utef, Maionani, MatranUea^ JShrmadans.) 

Greek Fire. (See Fire, Greek.) 

Green, a river of Kentucky, which rises 
in Lincoln county, and flows into the Ohio, 
61 miles ab9ve the Wabash, 173 below 
Louisville. Its course for about ISOmUes 
iswesterfy; it afterwards hasa comae N. 
by W. Us whole length is upwards of 
200 miles, and it is navigable for boats, at 
some seasons, neariy 150. The tract 
through which it flowa, calted the €ireen 
ricer cwmJtry, is remarkable for its fertihty, 
beautifril scenery and stupendous caves, 
in which are foiind great quantities of ni- 

Green Bank ; one of the banks near the 
island of Newfoundland, 129 miles bng 
and 48 wide. Lon. 53° 30^ to 5S° 50^ W. ; 
lat 45^30^ to ie^SCN. 

Green Rat, or POAN Bat ; bay on W. 
ode of lake Michigan, about 100 milea 
long^ but in some plaoes only 15 miles, in 
others from 20 to 30, broad. It lies nearly 
from N.E. to S. W. At the entrance of 
it from the lake is a string of islands ez- 
tendinffN. to S., called the Qrand TVoo- 
er«e. These are about 30 miles in length, 
and serve to flicilitate the niaaace of ca- 
nooa, as they shelter them m>m ue vrindi^ 
which sometimes come vrith violence 
across the lake. Grran Bay is termed 
by the inhabitanis of its coasts, the ^etio- 
wimi hay. The country around is occu- 
pied chiefly by the Menominy TwHi^ing, 

Green Bat ; a poet-town, military post, 
and seat of justice for Brovim county, Auch- 
igan, at 8. end of Green Bay, near the en- 
trance of Fox river ; 160 S.WJtf ichilimack- 
inac,220 N. by W. Chicago, 366 £.Ptairie 
du Ghien, by the Fox and Ouisconsin riv- 
ers, W. 972. Lon.8r58'W.;lat.4SPN. 
Here is a setdement, extending about four 

Green Cloth ; a board or court of jua- 
tioe, held in the counting-house of the 
king^ household, composed of the knd 
stevrau!d and officers urider him, idto ait 
daily. To thia court is oommitled tlie 


thxtge and oveniriit of die king's houM- 
hold in matters oijustieefiiidjrovenuneDty 
with a power to conect all o&ndera, and 
to maintain the peace of the verge, or ju- 
nadiction of the court royal, which is ev- 
erj way about 200 yards from the last 
gate of the palace where his majesty re- 
sides. Without a wanant first obtuned 
from this court, none of the king's servants 
can be arrested for debt 

GasENE, Nathaniel, a major-general in 
the American arihy, was bom, May 22; 
1742; near the town of Warwick in lUiode 
Isiaiid. His father was an anchor smith, 
and, at the same time, a Quaker preacher, 
whose ignorance, combined with the &- 
naticism of the times, made him pay little 
attention to the worldly leanung of his 
children, though he was very careful of 
their moral and religious instruction. The 
fondness for knowledge, however, of 
young Greene was such, that he devoted 
aO the time he could spare to its acquisi- 
tion, and employed all his trifling gains in 
procuring books. His propensity for the 
life of a soldier was early evinced by his 
iwedilection for woiks on militacy subjects. 
He made considerable proficiency in the 
exact sciences ; and, after he had attained 
Ins twentieth year, he added a tolerable 
Rtock of lesal knowledge to his other ac- 
quisitions. In the year 1770, he was elect- 
ed a member of tne state legislature, and, 
in 1774, enrolled himself as a private in a 
company called the Kentish Guards. Af- 
ter the batde of Lexington, the state of 
Rhode lalttid raised w^ was termed an 
array of observation, in order to assist the 
forces collected in Massachusetts, for the 
purpose of confining the British vrithin 
the Emits of Boston, and chose Greene its 
commander, with the title of major-gene- 
ral. His elevation from the ranks to the 
hc»d of three regiirients, may give some 
idea of the estimation in which his milita- 
ry talents were held. June 6, 1775, he 
aasumed his command before the lines of 
Boston ; and, not long afterwards^ general 
Wariiingtoo arrived, to take the command 
in chief of the American forces. Between 
these two distinguished men an intimacy 
moo connmenc^ which was never inter- 
rupted. Grreene accepted a commission 
from congress of bngadier-general, al- 
though, under the state, he held that of 
major-general ; preferrbig the former, as 
it promised a lai^r sphere of action, and 
the pleasure of s^rvins^ under the imma- 
diatie command of Washington. When 
the American army had followed the ene- 
my to New Yoric, after the evacuation of 
BoflUm, they oicamped, partly in New 

VOL. VL 5 

Yoifc and partly on htms Island. Tha 
djvioon posted upon the iSand was under 
the orders of Greene ; btit, at the lime of 
its unfortunate afiSiir with the enemy, he 
was suffering under severe sickness, and 
seneml Sulhvan was hi command. When 
Be had sufiiciendy recovered his healdi, 
he joined the retreating army, having pre- 
viously been promoted to the rank of ma- 
jor-general, and was appointed to com- 
mand the troops in New Jersey destmed 
to yratch the movements of a strong de- 
tbchment of the British, which had Deen 
left in Staten island. December 26, 1776^ 
when Washington surprised ^e English 
at Trenton, Greene commanded the left 
wing of the American forces, which wa^ 
the nrat diat reached the town, and, hav- 
ing seized the enemy's artiUeiy, cut off 
their retreat to Princeton. Next summer, 
sir WiUiam Howe havinr embariced widi 
a large force at New York, for the purpose 
of landing on the eastern shore of the 
Chesapeake, and thence marching to Phil- 
adelplua, Washington hastened to expose 
him ; and, September 11, the batde of the 
Brandywine took place, in which the 
Americans were defeated. In this afiair, 
Greene commanded the vanguard, togeth- 
er with Sullivan, and it became his duty to 
cover tlie retreat, in which he fuUy suc- 
ceeded. After ffcnoral Howe had obtain- 
ed possession of Philadelphia, the British 
army, in consequence of this victory, en- 
camped at Germantown, where an attack 
was made upon it by Washington, October 
4, 1777, in which Greene commanded the 
lefl wing. The disastrous issue of this at- 
tempt is well known ; but it has been as- 
serted, that the lefl wing was the only part 
of the American army which had the good 
fortune to effect the service allotted it that 
day. The next service upon which ffen- 
eral Greene was engaged, was that oi en- 
deavoring to prevent lord Comwallis fiiom 
collecting supplies, for which he had been 
detached into the Jerseys, with 3000 men; 
but, before Greene could bring him to ai) 
acdon, he -had received reinforcements, 
which gave him so great a superiority, that 
the American general was recalled by the 
commander-in-chief. In March of the 
following year, Greene, at the solicitation 
of Washington, accepted the appointment 
of quarter-master-general, on two condi- 
tions; that he should retain his right of 
command in time of action, and that he 
should have the choice of two assistants. 
At the batde of Monmouth, in theensuinff 
month of June, he led the r^ht wing of 
the second line, and mainly contributed to 
the partial succesB of the Americans. Af^ 



ter this, he coDtinuod Qn|;aged in discharg- 
inff the duties of his station until Aqgust, 
when he was sent to join Sullivan, who, 
with the forces under his command^ aided 
l^ the French fleet under D'Estaing^ was 
preparing to moke an attempt upon New- 
port in Khode Island, then in possession 
of the enemy. The command of the left 
wing of the troops was assigned to Greene. 
The enteiprise, nowever, &iled, in conse- 
quence of some misunderstanding be- 
tween SuDiyan and D'Estaign; and the 
consequent retreat of the American army 
was covered by Greene, who repulsed an 
attack of the enemy with half their num- 
ber. When general WashlD^on, alarm- 
ed for the suety of the inmsoDs on the 
North river, repaired to West Point, he 
left Greene in command of the army in 
New Jersey. The latter hod not been 
long in that command, before he was at- 
tacked, near Spriu^eld, by a force much 
superior to his, under sir fieniy Clinton ; 
but the enemy were renulsed. though they 
burned the village. This amur happened 
June 23. October 6^ he was appointed to 
succeed the traitor Arnold in the com- 
mand at West Point In this station, how- 
ever, he continued only until the 14th of 
the same month, when he was chosen by 
general Washington to take the place of 
general Gates, in the chief direction of the 
southern army. From this moment, when 
he Avas placed in a situation where he 
could exercise his senius without control, 
dates the most briluant portion of Greeners 
career. The ability, prudence and firm- 
ness which he here displayed, have caused 
him to be ranked, in the scale of our revo- 
lutionary generals, second only to Wash- 
ington. December 2, 1780, Greene arriv- 
ed at the encampment of the American 
forces at Chariotte, and, on the 4th, assum- 
ed the command. After the batde of the 
Cowpens, jrained b^ Moigan, January 17, 
1781, he enected a junction with the vic- 
torious general, havm^ previously been en- 
gaged in recruiting his army, which had 
been greatly thinned by dea^ and deser- 
tion ; out the numbers of Comwaliis were 
still so superior, that he was obliged to re- 
treat into Virmnia, wluch he did witli a 
degree of skin that has been the theme of 
the highest eulogy. He, soon afterwards, 
however, returned to North Carolina, with 
an accession of force, and, March 15, en- 
countered Comwaliis at Guilford court- 
house, where he was defeated ; but the 
loss of the enemy was greater than his, 
and no advantages accrued to them from 
the victory. On the coutraiy, Comwaliis, 
a few days afterwards, commenced a ret- 

rograde movement towaxds Wilmington, 
leaving inany of his wounded behind nlin, 
and was followed for some time by Greene. 
Desisting, however, from the pursuit, the 
latter marched into South Carolina, and a 
batde took place, April 25, between him 
and lord Rawdon, near Camden, in which 
he was again unsuccessful, though again 
the enemy wore prevented by kim from 
improving their victory, and, not long after, 
were obliged to retire. May 22, having 
previously reduced a nuoiber of the forts 
and garrisons in South Carolina, he com- 
menced the siege of Ninety-Six, but in June 
the approach of lord Rawdon compelled 
him to raise it, and retreat to the extremity 
of the state. Expressing a determinatioo 
*^to recover South Carohna, or die in the 
attempt," he again advanced, when the 
British forces were divided, and lord Raw- 
don was pursued, in his turn, to his en- 
campment at Oraugeburg, where he was 
offered battle by his adversary, which 
was refused. September 8, Greene ob- 
tained a victory over the British forces un- 
der colonel Stewart, at Eutaw Springs, 
which completely prostrated the power of 
the enemy m South Caroluia. Greene was 
presented by congress with a British stand- 
ard and a gold medal, as a testimony of 
their sense of his services on this occasion. 
This was the last action in which Greene 
v^ras engaged. During die rest of the vmr, 
however, he continued ui his command, 
stmggling with the greatest difficulties, in 
consequence of the want of all kinds of 
supplies, and the mutinous disposition of 
some of his troops. When peace released 
him from his duties, he retumed to Rhode 
Island ; and his journey thither, almost at 
every step, was marked by some private 
or public testimonial of gratitude and re- 
gard. On his arrival at Prmceton, where 
congress was dien sitting, that body unan- 
imously resolved, that "two pieces of field 
ordnance, taken from the British army at 
the Cowpens, Augusta, or Eutaw," should 
be presented to him by the commander-in- 
chief. In October, 1785, Greene I'epaircd, 
with his famil}'^, to Grcoraia, some valuable 
grants of lands near savannah having 
been made to him by that state. He died 
June 19, 1786, in his 44th year, in conse- 
quence of an inflammation of the brain, 
contracted by exposure to tlie rays of an 
intense sun. General Greene possessed, 
in a great degi^e, not only the common 
quality of physical courage, but that forti- 
tude and unbending fli'mness of mind, 
which are given to few, and which ena- 
bled hun to bear up against the mostcmel 
reverses, and stmggle perseveringly witlv 



and finaly flurmoiint, the most formidable 
dfficuhieB. He was eror collected in the 
most trying aitiiatioiia, and prudence and 
judgment were distinguiahing traits m. his 
cfauacter. In his disposition, he was mild 
and beneirolent ; but when it was necessa- 
ry, he was resolutely severe. No officer 
of the rBYC^utiouafy army poeaessed a 
higher place in the confidence and affec- 
tion of Washington, and, probably, none 
would have been so well calculated to suc- 
ceed him, if death had deprived his coun- 
tiy of his services duiing the revolutioua- 
ly struggle. 

Grebn Gaoe ; a variety of the plum, the 
rema daude of the French, usually consid- 
ered the most delicious of all. It is large, 
of a green or slightly yellowish color, and 
has a juicy, greenish pulp, of an exquisite 

6REK!n.Ain> (Groerdand); an extensive 
country of North America, belonging to 
Denmark, the extent of which is un- 
known. Since lieutenant (now ci^rtiun) 
Pany advanced fit>m Baffin's bay into 
IjifMaiHter sound (1819), it has been sup- 
posed to be SB islfmd. As far as it is now 
known, it extends fh>m]at 59° 38^ to78°N. 
Its soatfaem point is cape Farewell On 
the western coast fie Davis's straits and 
Baffin's bay. It is divided into two 
parts by a chain of mountains passing 
throngh the middle of the country from 
north to south. Greenland was settled 
800 years ago, by two colonies from Nor- 
way and Knmaric, of which the one oe« 
cupied the eastern, the other the west- 
em coast Their intercourse was carried 
on by sea, the mountains rendering anv 
communication by land impossible. A 
Runic stone found in Greenland in 1824 
(now in the museum of northern antiqui- 
ties at Copenhagen) proves the eariy dis- 
covery of^ Greenland from Scandinavia. 
Hie western colony, afler numerous vi- 
oaaitudes, still exists. The population in 
the southern part to the river Frith (68°), 
amounted, in 1811— 13, to 3583: northern 
Greenland conUuned only 3000 natives. 
From 67° to 69°, the countiy is uninhabit- 
ed. The fate of the eastern colony, 
which in 1406 consisted of 190 villages, 
and had a bishop, 13 parishes and two 
monasteries^ is unknown. Up to that tinie, 
16 bishops had been sent from Nonvay in 
regular succession ; the 17th was prevent- 
ed by the ice from reaching the land. Da- 
nish saflora, m the 16th and 17th centuries, 
attempted, without success, tO' land on the 
easiem coast Attempts made in 1786 
and 1889, by the command of the Da- 
nish government, failed. This lost East 

Greenhmd, Von Epger, in his Prize En«r 
(1794), maintains, is the country how call- 
ed JuiUmenshaab^ on the western coast ; 
but a manuscript now in the library at 
Dresden, maintams that the old settlement 
of Ostert>yirde was actually on the east- 
em coast of Greenland.* A traveller of 
the 14th century, Nicolas Zeno, describes 
Greenland as it existed in his time. In 
1818, England sent an expedition to the 
Polar sea, because the ice at the north 
pole was said to have decreased, and a 
north-west passage was befieved prac- 
ticable ; the ships returned, however, 
without accomphshing any thing. C^ 
tain Scoresby found the eastern coast free 
from ice in 1882 ; he sailed along it fitim 
75° to 69^, and examined it with care (see 
his Journal qf a Voyage to the JSTorOwm 
WliaU'Fiahtnf, &c., ifiS). To tiiis trav- 
eller we are indebted for the latest and 
most correct accounts of East GreenhuHL 
which refute Egger's opinions. He found 
fields producing luxuriant giaas, but no 
inhabitants. He met, however, with some 
houses, containing household utensils and 
hunting apparatus, and a wooden coffin. 
The English captain Sabine describes 
the eastern coast of Greenland (see his 
Experiments to dctermmt Vtt Figure of the 
Earihy &c.),fix)m 72° to 76° N. latitude. 
He also found it impossible, on account 
of the permanent mass of ice, to approach 
the eastern coast north of 74° ; his exam- 
inations proved that there was no current 
which cairies the ice from those coasts 
towards the south. The western coast 
was also cut off, in the middle of the 14th 
century, from its usual intercourse with 
Norway and Iceland, by a dreadful plague, 
called the Uack deaffu In the reifn of 
queen Elizabeth, Frobisher and Davis 
again discovered tins coast of Greenland, 
from that time, nothine was done to ex- 
plore this countiy, untfl the Danish gov- 
ernment, m 17^1, assisted a clerg^an, 
Hans Egede, with two ships, to elfect a 
landmg in 64° 5^, and estabfish the first 
European setdement. Good Hope {God- 
7iaab)y on die river BaaL Egede found 
the countiy inhabited by a race of people 
which had probably spread fiwm the we* 
over Davis's straits, and which resembled 
the Esquimaux of Labrador in their lan- 
guage and customs. In 1733, the Mora- 
vian Brothers were induced by count Zin- 
zendoif to attempt the establishment of 

* The Paris Archvoe* du Ckriatiamtmi aayt, 
that an expedition, which left Copenhagen in 
May, 1890, has found the long lost colony, pro- 
fessing the Christian religion, and speaknig tba 
Norwegian of the 10th century. 


■ettlemeDts and tmmamm on these inhoe- 
IMtable ahoree. There are now on the 
woBtem coast of Greenland twenty set- 
tlemenlB, of which the most soutfaeiiy, 
lichtezuui, is sittiated in 60^ 34^ N. kti- 
mde. Near it is the second setdement, 
JuIuuia^B Hope {Mianm shaab): in the 
vicinity, the ruins of an old Icelandic and 
Norwegian church are sdU visible. Far- 
ther to the north lie Frederic's Hope, 
lichtenfels. Good Hope, New Hennhut, 
Zudrertiut, Holsteinbuiv, Egedesminde, 
Christian's Hope, JacobehaTen, Omenack 
and Upemamijck, in 73^ Sy N. latitude, the 
most northern settlement, now occupied 
only by Greenlanders. The goveiuor of 
South Greenland has his seat in Good 
Hope, and the governor of Noith Green- 
land is station^ at Guthaven, on the isl- 
and of Disco, in 7(P N. latitude. There 
are five Protestant churches on the coast, 
in which the gospel is preached in the 
Danish and Greenlandisn dialects. The 
Moravian Brothera have three houses of 
public worship in Lichtenau, Lichtenfels 
and New Hermhut The natives, called 
by the oldest Icelandish and Norwegian 
authors, iS%reBtt^«, belong to the Esqui- 
maux fiimily, which is spread over all the 
northern part of America, to the western 
coast. They are remarkable for their di- 
minutive stature ; their hair is daric, long, 
stringy, eyes black, heads disproportionate- 
ly large, legs thin, and complexion a brown- 
ish yellow, appnroaching to olive green. 
This, however, is panly owing to their 
filthy manner of livmg, and paiSy to their 
food and occupations, as they are constant- 
h^ covered with blubber and train oil. 
The women, being emfdoyed, from eariy 
youth, in canying heavy loads, are so 
broad shouldered, as to lose all feminine 
appearance, Thefar dress contributes to 
this effect 4 th^ wear the skins of seids 
and reindeer. The short coats, the trow- 
sers and boots of both sexes, are 9II made 
of the same material. In extremely cold 
weather, they wear a shirt made of the 
skins of biras, particulariv those of the 
sea-raven, the eider duck, &c In winter, 
they live in houses of stone, vrith walls 
two feet in thickness, covered with brush- 
wood and tur( and with an entrance so 
small, that it can be passed only on the 
hands and feet Windows are seldom met 
with in these huts ; those m^ich they have 
are made of the intestines of whales and 
seals. The height of the house never 
exceeds six foet ; it is 12 feet wide, and of 
about the same length. It consists of one 
room only, with a raised platform on one 
side, covered with aeal-skin, which serves 

the double purpose of a bed and a table. 
Lamps, supplied with train-oil, are kept 
constantly burning, as much for the sake 
of vrannth os of h^t The smell from 
so many oil lamps, together with that of 
the fish, raw skins and greasy inhabitants, 
is hardly to be endured by unaccustomed 
nostrils; and the filthy condition of the 
huts breeds immense quantities of ver- 
mhi. When the snow melts, which is 
aenerally the case in May, the roof of the 
house generally sinks in, and the Green- 
lander then spreads a ten^ which is cover- 
ed with seal skin, and surrounded with a 
curtain of the intestines of whales; the 
interior is arranged like the winter estab- 
lishment. Their utensils and tools are 
simple, but ingeniously contrived. They 
consist of bows and arrows, lances, jave- 
Hus and harpoons. Their canoes are 
made of hubs, bound by whalebone, and 
covered with dressed seal-skin. They 
show a wonderful skill in managing thenit 
even in the most boisterous ^roatber. 
They also use sledges, drawn by dogs, in 
which they sometimes go from 90 to 40 
miles fix)m the land on the frozen sea. 
The swiffaiesB ef these animals is such, 
that in 9 or 10 hours, they accomi^ish a 
distance of about 60 miles. The language 
of the Greenkmdera is the same as that 
apoken by the Esquimaux in Labrador^ 
and on the shores of Hudson's bay. Tra- 
ces of it are also said to be found on the 
north-west coast of America, as for as 
Nootka sound. The variety in the forms 
of the verbs, in combination with the pro- 
nouns, is a remarkable ])eculiarity of this 
language. The superstitious Gieenland- 
en pay great respect to their on^ekokM or 
sorcerera, who are at the same tmie their 
priests and physicians. They have but 
very rude notions of a Supreme Being. 
During the prevalence of the north-east 
winds, the cold is often so great, that the 
mercury sinks to 4SP bek>w the freezing 
pomt of Fahr. The west winds cominff 
from Davis's straits are always damp» and 
accompanied by thaws. The baas of the 
mountains and rocks is a fine-grained 
granite, vrith gneiss, mica slate, horn- 
blende and whitestone. Many interesting 
and uncommon minerals are found — ^mag- 
netic iron ore, gadolinite, ziroon, schorl, 
tourmaline^ the finest garnets, sodafite, 
iolite, and hypersthene of a beautiful 
light blue. Among the animals are the 
polar fox, the white hare, the reindeer, 
the white bear, the arctic fox, the walrus, 
various kinds of seals, and the narvaL 
The Greenland whale (see fVhde^ and 
WhaU^FMay) is found in greet numben 


and of an «noniious mze. Of the biids, 
the principal is the cinereoiie eagle ; the 
snowy owl, and others of the falcon tifte, 
inhabit the high rocks ; the water-fowl 
are numerous. A species of mosquito is 
ezcee^tingly troublesome in the warm 
weather. The exports ore whalebone, oil, 
sjdns and furs, eider down, the horns of 
the nanral, &c The imports are provis- 
ions, gunpowder, cotton and linen goods, 
in» and glass wares, &c. In the inlets 
and bays which intersect the coast of 
Gfeenland, immense masses of ice are oc- 
comulated during a series of years, which, 
being loosened during the heat of sum- 
mer, lose thdr points of support from the 
8faore,and plunge into the ocean with athun- 
deling noise. Being afterwards set adrift 
by the euirents, they embarrass the naviga- 
tion of the Polar seas, and become the terror 
of the mariner. Those masses of ice are 
fbnned both of fiesh and of salt water, and 
sometimes rise more than 500 feet above 
the sui&ce of the water. The salt water 
ice occurs in immense fields, of many 
thousand fiohoins in lencth and breadth, 
divided by fissures, but followinff close on 
each other. When the wind begins to 
blow, and the sea to rise in vast billows, 
the violent shocks of those masses of ice 
against each other, fill the mind with as- 
tonishment and terror. The coasts of 
Greenland are surrounded by many thou- 
sand isbinds of different sizes, on which 
the native inhabitants fi^uently fix theur 
residence, on account of their good situa- 
tion for sea game. 

Okeen MouifTAiirs ; a range of moun- 
tains^ commencinff in Canada, and extend- 
ing sooth through Vermont, Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut They divide the 
waten which flow into the Connecticut 
fiom those which flow into lake Cham- 
pbui and the Hudson. Among the high- 
est summilB in Vermont are Mansfield 
mountain. Camel's rump, and Killington 
peak. West rock, near New Haven, 
ComL, 10 the southern termination of the 
chain. The natural growth upon these 
mountains is hemlocl^ pine, spruce, and 
other evergreens, and they derive their 
aame from their green appearance. 
Thcnneare many fine farms amonf these 
mountains, and much of the laud upon 
them is excellent for grazing. 

OREEif ocK ; the chief seaport of Scot- 
land, on the south bank of the river 
Clyde, which has in front an extensive 
and beautifiil bay. The manufiictories of 
the place are sugar-houses, rope-walks, 
aoop and candle wortcs, tan works, potte- 
ries, bottle and ciystal wortcs, hat manu- 

ftctories, extensive fbunderies and manu- 
ftctories of steam engines and chain ca- 
bles ; to these may be added ship-build- 
ing, which is carried on to a great extent 
The herring-fishery is the (mlest branch 
of the indusuy of the place. The har- 
bors are very qiacious, and are frequented 
bv vessels fiK>m all quarters of tlie world. 
The dry docks are elegant and commo- 
dious; the one lately erected, near the 
custom-house, is considered the fiist in 
the kingdoHL Population in 1838, over 
SSsOOO. Lon.0«18'58"W.; tot55*>57'y'N. 
GRKEifBTONE. (Sco HoTvhUndt.) 
GaEEifvijLLB CoLLKGB, pleasantly sit- 
uated, 3 miles from Greenville, Tennessee, 
was mcoiporated in 1791 The college 
hall is a neat building, about 60 feet long, 
and 25 wide, of 2storie& The college htti 
a libiaiy of about 3500 volumes, a small 
philosophical apparatus, and funded prop- 
erty to the amount of about $6000. 

GaEEif wicH ; a market-town of Eng- 
land, in Kent, on the southern bank Si 
the Thames, fbnneriy the seat of a palace 
in which the kings of England occasion- 
ally resided. It was built oy Humphrey, 
duke of Gloucester, and called Placentuu 
Henry VII enlarged it, and his son, Heniy 
VIII, finished it Queen Elizabeth and 
queen Mary were bom within its walls, 
and Eklward VI died here. King Charles 
II took the greater part down, ibd com- 
menced a new palace on its site, a part of 
which forms one wing of the present hos- 
pitaL This consists, at present, of four 
extensive piles of building or wings, en- 
tirely detached from each other, but so 
connected by the conformity of their 
dimensions, their figures, and the general 
arrangement of their decorations, as to 
form a complete whole. The principal 
front, which is neariy all of Portland stone, 
faces the Thames on the north. The two 
northern vrm^ are separated by a square 
of 270 feet wide ; the two southern are 
connected by two colonnades, 115 foet 
asunder, supported by 300 double col- 
umns and pilastera ; while a spacious 
avenue through the hospital from the 
town, divides these squares from each 
other, and thus also divides the whole of 
the northern half of the builiUng from 
the whole of the southern. In the middle 
of the great square is a statue of Geoige 
II, sculptured by Rysbrach. Extending 
865 feet along the fiiont, the intervening 
bank of the Thames is formed into a ter- 
race, with a double flight of steps to the 
river in the middle. The pensionera lo 
be received into the hospital must be 
aged and maimed seamen of the navy, or 



of the nuarchant aervice, if wounded in 
battle, and mariDea and foreignera who 
have served two yean in the navy. .ITie 
total expense of the establiabment is 
£69,000 per annum,wliich is appropriated 
to the support of diwut 3000 seamen on 
the premises, and 5400 out-pensioners. 
Connected with this establishment is a 
naval asylum, designed for tlie support 
and education of the oiphan children of 
seamen. On a rising ground in the paik, 
160 feet above low water mark, and com- 
manding a rich and varied prospect, 
stands the royal observatory, celebn^ed 
b^ the great names with which it is asso- 
ciated. The private buildings are hand- 
some, but the streets are in general irreg- 
ular. Population of the puish in 1821, 
20,712; 5)1 miles £. London bridge. 
The lonsitude in English geography is 
calculated from the meridiui of Green- 
>vich. Lat.51«'29'N. 

Greffikr ; foimeriy, in the United Prov- 
inces, the first secretary of state ; in 
France, the clerk of a court of justice. 
(For the etymology of the word, see Count) 

GaiGOiRE, Henry, count, former bish- 
op of Blois, whose civil, literary and re- 
ligious career has been characterized by 
love of liber^, active philanthropy, in- 
flexible integrity and ardent pieQr. He 
was bom at Vetro in 1750 ; he was a 
member of the states-general in 1789, 
and was one of the five eccleaastics pres- 
ent at the session of the Tennis Court. 
In the constituent assembly, he was die 
tinguii^ed for the boldness of his opinions 
on civil and reli^ous liberty, and for the 
doquence by which he supported them. 
At this eari^ period, he began his efibrts 
in &vor of the Jews and blacks, which 
place him high among the friends of hu- 
rrumiQr. He was the first among the cler- 
gy to take the constitutional oath. In 
the convention, Gr^goire advocated the 
abolition of royalty (September, 1792), 
but endeavored, at the same time, to save 
the king, by propoeinff that the punish- 
ment of death should be abolished. His 
absence on a mission witli three members 
of the convention, prevented him from 
voting on the trial of the kin^ ; but he re- 
fused to sign the letter of his three col- 
leagues to that body, demanding the sen- 
tence of death. In the reisn of terror, 
when the bishop of Paris imdicated his 
dignity, arid several of the clergy abjured 
the Christian reliaon in the presence of 
the convention, ibe bishop of Blois had 
the courage to resist the stonn of invec- 
tives finom the tribunes, and threats finom 
theMountaio* ** Are sacrifices demanded 

fiir the countiy?" he said ; <*Iam accuitom- 
ed to make them. Are the revenues of my 
bishopric required ? I abandon them 
without regret Is relip^ion the subject of 
your deliberations? It is an affidr beyond 
your iurisdiction. I denoand the fireedom 
of reuffious worship." At a later period, 
we find him in the senate, forming one of 
the minority of five, opposing the acces- 
sion of the first consul to the throne, and 
alone in opposing the obsequious address 
of that boay to the new sovereign, bi 
1814, he sijped the act depoeong ue em- 
peror, and, in 1815, refused, as member o£ 
the institute, to sign the addUwnid acL 
On the restoration of the Bourbons, he 
was excluded fix>m the institute, and from 
lus episcopal see ; and, on his election to 
the chamber of deputies in 1819, he was 
excluded from a seat by the royalist ma- 
jority. Since tliis unmerited indisnity, 
this venerable philanthropist and sdiolar 
has devoted himself to his literary and be- 
nevolent labors. Died in 1831. 

GnEGORiArr CALEimAii. (See Calendar.) 

Greoort, bishop of Neocssorea, in 
which place he was bom, of pagan pareDts, 
was called, on account of the many mira- 
cles which he is said to have performed, 
Thmtmaturgus (the worker or mirades). 
He was distinguished for his eloquence, 
and was a pupil of Origen. He died 
about 270, flis works were published 
(in Greek and LatinJ by Vossius, with 
scholia, Mayence, 1604, 4to. 

Gregory of Naziarzen, a celebrated 
teacher of the Greek church, bom about 
328, at Arianzo, near Nazianzum, in Cap- 
padocia, was at first presbyter and after- 
wards bishop of Nazianzum. He was 
the intimate niend of Basil, and a violent 
enemy of the Arians. Among his pupils 
in eloquence, Jerome was the most dis- 
tinguished. He died about 390, and left 
many works, of which a complete edition 
(Greek and Latin) was published at Paris, 
1609, 2 vols, folio. 

Grboort of Tours (his proper name 
was Gtorgt FUxrenJtimu) viras bom in Au- 
vergne (SO), made bishop of Tours in 
573, shov^ sreat firmness in the dread- 
fhl times of Chilperic and Fredegonde 
(q. v.), and died Nov. 27, 59a Besides 
his eidit bo(dcs on the virtues and mira- 
cles of the saints, he lefi HisioruB Eede$. 
FVancorum L3ni X, which he brought 
down to the year 591, and which, not> 
withstanding its marvellous tales and its 
want of method, has much interest, as 
being tlie only historical work of the time. 

Grboort I, pope; called also the 
Oreai, He was bora at Rome, of a noble 



fionily) about 544 ; and, having jreceived an 
education suitable to his rank, he became 
a niember of the senate, and filled other 
employments in the Mate. Italy was then 
subject to the emperors of the East, and 
Justin II appointea him to the important 
post of prefect or governor of Rome ; 
which, after having held it for some time 
with great reputation, he nssigned. The 
death of his rather put him in possession 
of great wealth, which he expended in the 
foundation of monasteries and charitable 
institutions. Disgusted with the worid, 
he took the monastic vows himself^ and 
became a member of one of his own es- 
tablishments. Pope Pelagius II sent him 
on an embassy to C(mstantinople, and 
made him papal secretary after his return 
to Rome. On the death of pope Pela* 

S'ua, in 590, he was chosen his successor, 
e displayed great zeal for the conversion 
of heretics, the advancement of mona- 
chjsm, and the rimd enforcement of ce- 
libacy among the clergy. His contest for 
eccleoastical superiority with John, patri- 
arch of Constantinople, laid the founda- 
tion of the schism between the Greek and 
Latin churches, which has subsisted to 
the present day. llie converaon of the 
Anglo-Saxoc3 to Christianity ^vas a project 
hororoble to his zeal and abilities. (See 
AufTUstiny SL) He died in March, 604. 
The works ascribed to this pope are very 
numerous, and have been frequentiy pub- 
lished. The most complete edition is that 
of the Benedictines or St Maur (Paris, 
1705, 4 vols, folio), under the superin- 
tendence of ftitber Denis de St Martha, 
who, in 1697, published a life of St Greg- 
ory the Great His genuine writings con- 
sist of a treatise on the Pastoral Duty, 
Letters, Scripture Commentaries, &c. 

GiLEOoaT OF Ntssa ; bom at Nyssa, in 
Cappadocia, younger brother of fiasil the 
Great, celebrated as an ardent defender 
of the Nicene creed, and also for his elo- 
quence. He died in his native city, of 
which he was bishop, some time sAer 
394. Editions of Ids works were pub- 
lished at Paris in 1573 and 1605, and 1615 
and 1638 (3 vols, folio). 

GREooar VII f HUdebrond). The year 
and the place ot the birth of this great 
pope are uncertain. Some accounts say 
that be was bom at Sienna, others at 
Soana, in Tuscany ; others still, at Rome. 
It is, however, certain, that he lived at 
Rome when a child, and went to France 
when a younff man, where he became 
connected vrith the monastery at Cluny, 
and returned to Rome in 1045. His his- 
tory becomes more knovm after the time 

of his return to the 

where Leo IX saw him on bis journey 
through Fnnce. He returned with this 
pope to Rome, and fiom that time, ai- 
thongh in the back ground, he played an 
important part ; and by the influenoe 
which great minds always exercise over 
ordinary men» he directed the measures 
of Leo and several foUowingpopes. On 
the death of Alexander II (1073), cardinal 
Hildebrand was raised to the papal chair. 
He now labored vrith the grei^est enersy 
to accomplish those plans for which he 
had prepared the way by the measures 
whicn the preceding popes had adopted 
through his influence. It was the object of 
his ambition not only to place the whole 
ecclesiastical power in tne hands of the 
pope, but to make the church entirely 
mdependent of the temporal power. He 
wished to found a theocracy, in which 
the pope, the vicar of God, should be the 
sovereign mler, m political as well as ec- 
clesiasncal matters — a bold idea, which he ' 
probably conceived in consequence of 
the wretched state of all civil auth<mty. 
He therefore prohibited the marriage of 
priests, and abolished lay investiture, the 
only remaining source of the authority 
of princes over die cleray of their domin- 
ions. In 1074, he issued his edicts against 
simony and the marriaffe of priests^ and, 
in 1075, an edict forbidding the clergy, 
under penalty of forfeiting their offices, 
from receiving the investiture of any ec- 
clesiastical dignity from the hands of a 
layman, and, at the . same time, forbidding 
the laity, under penalty of excommunica- 
tion, to attempt tne exercise of the inves- 
titure of the clergy. The emperor Heniy 
IV refused to o^y this decree, and Greg- 
ory took advantage of the discontent ex- 
cited by the despotic character and youth- 
ful levity of the emperor, among the 
people and princes of Germany, to ad- 
vance his own purposes. 'In 1075, he 
deposed several German bishops, who 
had bought their offices of the emperor, 
and excommunicated Ave imperial conn- 
sellorsywho were concerned in this oansac- 
tion ; and when the emperor persisted in 
retaining the counsellors and wpporting 
the bishops, the pope, in 1076, israed a 
new decree, summoning the emperor 
before a council at Rome, to defend him- 
self against the charges brought against 
him. Henry IV then caused a sentence 
of d^)06ition to be passed against the 
pope, Dy a council assembled at Worms. 
The pope, in return, excommunicated the 
emperor, and released all his subjects and 
vassals from their oath of allegiance. The 



emperor soon found aU (Jppw Germany 
in oppoBiiion to him, at the very moment 
that the Saxons in Lower Germany re- 
newed the war against him ; and when 
the princes assembled at Oppenheim 
came to the determination of proceeding 
to the election of another emperor, he 
yielded, almost miconditionally ; he was 
obliged to consent to acknowledge the 
pope, whom they were to invite into the 
empire, as his judge, to abandon his ex- 
commmiicated counsellors, and to con- 
sider himself as suspended from the cov- 
emment To prevent being deposed by 
the pope, Heniy IV (q. v.] hastened to 
ItoJi^ where he submittea, at Canoesa 
(1077), to a humiliating penance, and re- 
ceived absolution. In the mean time, his 
fiiends again assembled around him, and 
he defeated his rival, Rodolph of Suabia. 
He then caused the pope to be deposed 
by the council of Brixen, and an anti- 
pope, Clement III, to be elected in 1060, 
after which he hastened to Rome, and 
placed the new pope on the throne. Greg- 
oiy now passed three years as a prisoner 
in the casde of St Angelo, but could never 
be induced to compromit the rights of the 
church. He was finally liberated by Rob- 
ert Guiscard, a celebrated Norman prince, 
whom he had made duke of Apulia ; but the 
Romans compelled him to quit the city, 
because it had been plundered by the sol- 
diers of Robert Gregory then retired to 
Salenio, under the protection of the Nor- 
man prince, where he died, in 1065. By 
the celibacy (q. v.) of the cleigy, Gregoiy 
aimed at mcreasmg their, sanctity, and 
making them entirely independent of &m- 
ily connexions. The same measure pre- 
vented the possessions of the church from 
becoming mere feudal dependencies on 
temporal princes, wliich would have been 
the natynd course, if the clerey had be- 
oome parents, and, of couise, desirous of 
transmitting the estates which they enjoyed 
to their children. Matilda, countess of 
Tuscany, whom he induced to bequeath 
her almost regal possesBions to the papal 
see, was his chief^ support Most Protes- 
tant writers have accimed him of insatia- 
ble ambition ; but the impartial historian, 
who consideis the spirit of his whole life, 
studies his letters, and observes that his 
severi^ towards himself was as great as 
towardis others, will judge differently. 

r Gregory must be conadered as a great 
* "tual conqueror, who rendered tlie 
jy independent of the temporal power, 
and secured their aafety amid the scenes 
of violence with which Europe was fiDed ; 
thereby rendering them capable of ad- 

vancing the progress of civilization, which 
was in great danger of being swallowed 
up in barbarism. The papal power, 
which he rendered independent of tne im- 
perial, was, for age& the great bulvrark 
of order amid the turoulence of the semi- 
civilized peo]^ of Europe. In capacious- 
ness and boldness of mind, he may be 
compared to Napoleon. His system un- 
doubtedly became unsuitable, like all' 
other systems^ to the wants of a more ad- 
vanced age ; and the good of mankind,in 
the prosresB of time, required that the 
teiapond powers should become again in^ 
dependent of the Roman see. 

Greoort, James, a mathematician and 
philosopher, the inventor of the reflectijur 
telescope, was bom at Aberdeen in 163$ 
and received his education at the Maris- 
chal college. In 10^ he published Op- 
tica pmmokif sm abdita Radunrvm r^kxo- 
rum et refradartan Mfsterioj Gtomdnct 
enucteaia (4to|, explaining the idea of the 
telescope which bears his name ; and, in 
1664, visited London for the purpose of 
perfecting the mechanical construction of 
the instrument Disappointed by the dif- 
ficulty of getting a speculum ground and 
polished of a proper %ure, he suspended 
his desiffn, and set on on a tour to Italy. 
He staid some time at Padua, wh«« he 
published, in 1667, a treatise on the Quad- 
rature of the Circle and Hyperbola (re- 
printed at Venice, in 1668, with additions). 
On his return to England, he vras chosen a 
fellow of the royal society, whose Transac- 
tions he enriched by some valuable papers. 
He was chosen professor of mathematics 
in the university of- St Andrew's, and, in 
1674, was invited to fill the mathematicai 
chair at Edinburgh, whither he removed ; 
but, in October, 1675, while pointing out 
to his pupils the satellites of^ Jupiter, he 
was struck with a total blindness, and died a 
few days after, in the d7th year of his age. 

Gregory, David ; nephew of the pre- 
ceding, and the heir or his splendid tal- 
ents, and emulator of his fame. The sub- 
iect of this article was educated at Edin- 
>ui|fa, where, in 1664, he was elected 
protesBor of mathematics ; and the same 
year he published a mathematical treatise 
from his uncle's papers, with important 
additions of his ovni. Ifis lectures fiist 
introduced into the schools the Newtonian 
pldloBophy. In 1691, he was chosen profes- 
sor of astronomy at Oxford, though he had 
the celebrated Halley for his competitor— a 
circumstance wliich laid the foundation of 
a firiendly intima^ between these mathe- 
maticiana In 1695, he published, at Ox- 
find, CaioptneiBa Dioptric4K SpherkizEk- 


mania (dvoA in wbkh he conodofi those 
bniDchee or optics chiefly as respecta the 
coostruction of tekeoopes, porticukuiy 
thoee of his uncle and sir Isaac Newton, 
In 16d7, he gore the fiist deinonstnuion 
of the properties of the Catenarian Curve ; 
and in 1709 appeared his most celebrat- 
ed production, d^rtrofioitiMe Phvsicizet Ge- 
omxtrUft EUtnenia (folio). The object of 
this wQik is to explain Newton's seome- 
tiy of centripetal forces, as fiir as ms dis- 
coveries are founded on it ; and to exhib- 
it in a more fiuuiliar fi>nn the astronomical 
part of the Prindpia, In 1703, he pub- 
nshed an edition of the books of Euclid, 
in Greek and Latin ; and he afterwards eu- 
mged with doctor HaUey iu editing the 
Conies of Apollonius. HemedOctlO,1710. 
GfiEeoRT, patriarch of the Eastern 
Greek church, a victim of the fimatical 
policy of the Porte, was bom in 1739, 
and educated in Dimitzana, a town in Ar- 
cadia in the Norea. He studied in several 
monasteries, finally on mount Athos (q. v.), 
lived as a hermit, was made archbishop at 
Smyrna, and, in 1795, patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. When the French occupied 
EfTpt, m 1796, the Greeks were accused 
of treating secretly with them, and the 
rabble demanded the head of die patriarch, 
who, in ftct, by his pastoral letters, dis- 
suaded the Greeks fix>m taking up arms 
for the French. Selim III himself declar- 
ed Gregory to be innocent, but banished 
faun ibr security to mount Athos. He was 
soon after restored to his former dimity. 
But in 1806, when the progress of the 
Russian arms, and the appearance of an 
English fleet before Constantinople, re- 
newed the iiiry of the Mussulmans against 
the Greeks, and the life of the patriarch 
was threatened, although his exhortations 
had again prevented the Greeks from any 
hostile movements, Selim banished him 
a second time to mount Athos. After an 
interval, Gregoiywas a third time appoint- 
ed patriarch. The apostolic virtues of 
k>ve, charity and htnnility, gained this 
prelate universal esteem ; he lived very 
simply, was strict vrith regard to the mor- 
als of the Greek clergy, and spent his in- 
come for benevolent objects, bestowing 
chanty on the poor, without regard to the 
religion which they professed, promoting 
schools, the art of pnntingin Constantino- 

Ele, and the publication of useful books, 
n particular, he promoted the establish- 
ment of schools of mutual instruction in 
Scio, Patmos, at Smyrna, Athens, Sparta 
(Misitra), and in Candia. His sennons 
and pastoral letters manifest his piety, tol- 
erance, and knowledge of roanUnd. He 

tranalaled the epistles of the apqstle Paul 
into, modem Greek with a coounentaiy. 
He constanUy exhorted his bretiiren to 
obedience and patient submission to the 
will of God But, iu 1891, when the Greek 
insurrection broke out in the Morea, his 
native country, he became an object of 
suspicion to the Porte, and nothing but the 
hope of preventing the massacre of all the 
Greeks at Constantinople, wluch had al- 
ready been determined ujpon, could induce 
him to excommunicate (21st March, 1831) 
Ypsilanti, Suzzo and all the insurgents, as 
the divan demandeid, with threat& At the 
same time, he issued a pastoral letter to the 
clergy, declaring submission to the Porte to 
be the duQr of the faithful After the execu- 
tion of the prince Morousi, the grand- vizier 
confided to Gregory the custody of the fiim- 
ily of this prince. Without his knowl- 
edge, but perhaps by the assistance of a 
priest in the patriarchal palace, the family 
escaped on board a vessel, which, by the 
aid of the Russian ambassador, took tiiem 
to Odessa. The old man did not doubt 
that this would decide his fete. He im- 
mediately went to the grands-vizier, the 
fiuious BenderU Aii Pacl^to inform hini 
of the event. The vizier laid all the blame 
on him ; but he was neither imprisoned nor 
subjected to triaL The grand vizier had 
determined to intimidate the Greeks by 
an act of violenceyet unprecedented in 
Turkish history. They had already been 
exposed, for several weeks, to the fanatical 
rabble of Constantinople, which prevented 
the greater part of them finm attending 
chui«h on the first day of the Easter festi- 
val (April 33). The paniarchread the hish 
mass surrounded by his bishops, with the 
usual ceremonies ; but, as he left the church, 
the ianizaries surrounded him, and seized 
the bishops. A natural respect prevented 
them fix>m laying hands on the venerable 
old man ; but th^ commander, having 
reminded them of the order of the grand- 
vizier, they seized the patriarch, in his 
robes of office, and hanged him before the 
principal gate of the church. Three bish- 
ops and eight priests of the patriarchate, 
shared tiie same fate ; they were all hang- 
ed before the gates of the churches or the 
palace, in their canonical robes. The 
body was not cut dovim till tiiie 24th, when 
it was given up to the lowest of the Jews, 
who dragged it through the streets, and 
threw it into the sea ; but, bem^ prevailed 
upon by a sum of monev, they did not 
smk it, so that some Greek sailors recover- 
ed it during the night, and carried it to Odes- 
sa. Here, with me permission of the em- 
peror, the marQrrdom of the patriarch wis 



oelefarated by the Rueaian archimandrife 
TheqphiluB, with a mBgnificent funeral. 
This act of barbarity, towards an old man 
of eighty years, was followed bv the de- 
stnictioD of many churchee, and the most 
sava^ treatment of the Greeks in Con- 
stantmople ; but instead of exciting fear, 
it had the opposite effect The enthuaasm 
of the Greeks for their religion and fiiee- 
dom was increased, the war was carried 
on with more animosity, and reconcilia- 
tion became more difficult, and, afler some 
additional atrocities, impossible, (See 
Greece^ RtvoluHan of Modern,); a town in Hither Pome- 
rania, belonging, since the war of 1815, to 
Prussia. Lat 54P 4^ 35"' N. ; Ion. ld» 39^ 
SS^'E. Population in 182Si, 8060. From 
1648 to 1815^ it belonged to Sweden, ex- 
cept that from 1715 to 1721 it was in the 
possession of Denmaik. In 1455, Wrat- 
iriaus IX, duke of Pomerania, founded 
the univenity here. It does not flourish 
like the other Prussian universities, and 
contains only 130 students ; for the govern- 
ment does not see fit to support it as they 
do the others, and, at the same time, does 
not wish to break up so ancient an estab- 
lishment It is one of the few German uni- 
versities which have a right to assist in 
choosing the professors. The university of 
Greifiwalde nominates new profbeBoi8,and 
the king appoints. The town is well built 

Qreitada. (See Oranada.) 

Grenada, New ; fenneriy a vicerovahy 
of South America, called the JVWo Jiifig- 
doni of Orenada, now forming the greater 
part of the republic of Colombia ; bounded 
N. by the Ganbbeen sea and Guatimala, E. 
by Venezuela and Guiana, S. by the Ama- 
zon and Peru, and W. by the Pacific 
ocean. Lat 6° S. to 12° N. ; 1200 miles 
in length, and 276 in mean breadth. This 
country, together with Venezuela, was fer- 
meriy called Terra ISrma, It was former- 
ly divided into three audiences, Panama, 
Santa F^ and Quito, and subdivided into 
twenty-four provinces ; but a new division 
has fa«en made since New Grenada and 
Venezuela have been united, and form- 
ed into a republic. There are univer- 
sities at Santa F^ de Bogota, Quito, 
and Popayan. The principal rivers are 
the Magdalena, Cauca, Apure, Meta, Pu- 
tumayo and Caqueta. New Grenada 
abounds in the most sublime mountain 
scenery. The great chain of the Andes 
traverses this country from north to south, 
and within the audience of Quito are 
found the lofly summits of Chimborazo, 
PiDchinca, Cotopaxi, &c The mountains 
of this country are extremely rich in gold 

and silver, and have also mines of platina, 
copper, lead and emeralds. The value of 
gold and silver produced annually is staled 
at £650,000 stening. There are two mints, 
at Santa F^ and Popavan. (For further in- 
formation, see CoUmbia, and Fenezuda) 

Greicade ; a hollow sphere of iron, 
differing fit>m a bomb bv the smallness of 
its diameter. The smallest grenades^ or 
those thrown by the hand, are called hand 
prenadee ; they are from 24 to 3^ inches 
m diameter. The f\isee is calculated to 
bum fit>m 12 to 15 seconds, so that time 
is allowed for throvring them. The short 
distance to v^ch they can be thrown, and 
the danger of accidents, have occasnoned 
them to be disused. The small grenades 
are now <mly employed for wliat are call- 
ed, in French, perdreaux^ several of them 
being festened to a board, and thrown 
from mortars. The grenades in general 
use are thrown from howitzers, and are 
of very difibrent sizes,' from 2 to 20 
pounds weight They are chiefly calcu- 
lated to act against cavalry and distant 
columns, where they may do great harm. 
In the battle of Wajnam, one grenade 
killed and wounded 40 men. As Sie util- 
ity of large grenades at sea is acknowl- 
edged, but o^ections exist to the use of 
howitzers of large calibre, the (J. States 
introduced the use of oY9l grenades in 
1815, which may be fired fit>m 12 and 24 
pounders. The Ehiglish imitated this, and 
made the grenades with a spiral thread on 
the surfece, that the opposition of the air 
might give them a rotatory motion, and 
thus more certainty of direction. Greriades 
are often thrown from cannons. During 
the siege of Gilwaltar, they were thrown 
3000 yards upon the Spanish works. 

GaEifADrER ; oriffinally a soldier destin- 
ed to throw the liand grenades. (See 
Grenade,) Soldiers of long service and 
acknowledged bravery were selected for 
this service, so that they soon formed a 
Idnd of BiU, They were the first in the 
assaults. When hand grenades went out 
of use, the name grenadier was pre- 
served, and the troops so called generally 
formed one battalion of a regiment, dis- 
tinguished by the height of tne men and 
a particular dress, as, for instance, the hi«h 
b«ir-skin cap. This continues to be the 
case in most armies. In the Russian and 
Prussian armies, the grenadiers form . 
whole regiments belonging to corps d^ar- 
mie of the guards. With the French, the 
grenadier company is (and was under Na- 
poleon) the first of each battalion. Tlie 
dragoons among them also had grenadier 
companies, wihkh were afterwards united 


under tile name «f gmmdkn h dnewA^ a 
tind of cavalry between cuiraaBiera and 
dngoQoa» and belonging to the guarda; 
and the dragoons again bad eomfM^fmet 

GaxHOBiiB ; an old city, situated in the 
former province of Daupbiny, now capi- 
tal of the department of the Is^, 113 
leagues S. E. fiom Paris ; lat N. 45° \V 
42^°; k>n. £. 5° 49" 57" ; with 22,149 in- 
habitants. It is the see of the suffiragan 
biabop of Lyona^ the seat of several tri« 
bunala, and the head-quarters of a military 
division. Grenoble is a fortified place. 
An old fortress called the Bastik, on a 
hill of the same name, commanda the 
wh<rfe dlj. It contains several noble ed- 
ifices ; among others, the palace of the 
IsBt constable of France, Lesdigui^res. 
Here is also a law school, a royal college, 
and a public library with 55,000 volumes 
and valuable manuscripts. Grenoble is 
the centre of a great manufocture of 
^ovea, and contains tanneries and impor- 
tant distilleries. Commerce is facilitated by 
tfaeMre. A number of distinguished men 
have been natives of this place ; for in- 
stance, Bayard, CondiUac, Mably, Vau- 
canaon, &c The bridge over the Drac 
is a angle arch 120 feet high, and of 140 
feet span. Grenoble is a very old place, 
and of Gallic origin. In the time of the 
ABobfoges, it was called Calami which 
uame it retained under the Romans, until 
Gratian enlarged it, and called it Chratior 
nopoUs, Remains of antiquity which 
have been discovered here, leave no doubt 
reiipecting its origin. It has been the see 
of a bishop since the 4th centuiy. Gren- 
oble was the first city of importance, 
which opened her gates to Napoleon, on 
his return from Euxl The emperor, as 
his handful of troops were preparing for 
the attack on the garrison of Grenoble, 
advanced alone, and, uncovering bis breast, 
said aknid to the soldiers, S^deHparm 
DOttt, #'i2 en ed im sad qid veuUU tuer wn 
gMrtdf 9on empenur it k peut^ k void 
He was answered by cries of Vioe Vempt" 
DMr, and joined bf the soldiers. 

Geknviixe CWiUiam Wyndham Gran- 
ville)^ lord, son of George Grenville, who 
was chancellor of the exchequer at the 
time of the passing of the sUunp act 
(1764), was bom in 1759, educated at 
Eton and Oxfoid, and eariy broufffat for- 
ward in public lifo by his mend William 
Pitt. He entered parliament in 1785, and 
waa speaker of the house of commons 
when, m 1789, he was made secretary of 
the home department In 1790, he was 
created a peer, by the title of baron C^n- 

viDe, and the nelct year became secrataiY 
of foreign afihira, and continued in tfatf 
post till 1801, when he retired vrith Bfr. 
ritt, on the king's refusal to make the 
conceasions in fiivor of the Catholica, 
which had been promised by die ministry. 
On the death of Pitt, in 1^ lord Gren- 
ville became first lord of the treasuiy, at 
the head of the coalition ministry, and in- 
curred the public reproach by holdinff, at 
the same time, the place of auditor of the 
exchequer, that ia, auditor of his own ac- 
counts. In 1809, the resignation <^ lord 
Castlesea^b and Mr. Caiming having left 
lord Liverpool the only eecretaiy of state, 
official letters were addressed to eari Grey 
and lord Grenville, proposing the forma- 
tion of a combined ministtv. Earl Grey 
declined all union at once. Lord Grenville 
v?ent to London, but, on the next day, also 
declined the proposed alliance. He has al- 
ways been consistent on one subject, that 
of concesaioDS to the Catholics, of which 
he has ever been the constant advocate. 
GaxsHAM, sir Thomas, a merchant of 
London, was bom in 1519, and educated 
at Gonville hall, in Cambridge. His fkther 
vras agent of the king's mone^ afiSurs at 
Antwerp; and, bis successor havmg brought 
them into a bad condition, yoim|[ Greeham 
vras sent over, in 1552, to retrieve them. 
He acquitted himself so weU, that in two 
years he paid ofif a heayv loan, and raiaed 
the king^ credit considerably. On the 
accession of Elizabeth, he was deprived 
of his office ; but it vras soon restored to 
him, with that of queen's merchant, and 
he vras also knighted. In 1566, he plan- 
ned and erected a hmt or exchan||;e, for 
the merchants of London, in imitation of 
that of Antwerp. In 1570, queen Eliza- 
beth, visiting the new building, solemnly 
proclaimed it the rtnfA txchangt; which 
name its successor, since the ^ of Lon- 
don, still continues to bear. The troubles 
in the Low Countries intermpting the loans 
fiom Antwerp to the crown, sir Thomas 
induced the moneyed men in London to 
join in a small loan, which was the com- 
mencement of the great advances since 
made fiom the same body. He founded 
a colle(^ in London, notwitbstandiug the 
opposioon of the univeraity of Cambridge, 
and devised his house for habitations and 
lecture-rooms for seven professors, on the 
seven liberal sciences, who were to re- 
ceive a salary out of the revenues of the 
royal exchange. Gresham college has 
since been converted into the modem 
general excise-office ; but the places are 
still continued, with a double salary for 
the loss of the apartments, and the lecturea 


are DOW siven in the roysl exchange. He 
<fied guddenly in 15791, at the age of oxty. 

Gresskt, Jean Bapdste Louib, an 
ameafole French poet, bom at Aniiens, 
1709, entered die order of the JesuitB in 
hJ8 16th year, and left it 10 yean after- 
ward^ on account of the attention excit- 
ed by hia poem Ver-VerL In Paris he 
had the good fortune to increase diis rep- 
utation; and, m 1748^ he was elected a 
membei of the academy. He lived at 
Amiens, where he filled an office in the 
financial department, and where he mar- 
ried a rich lady. After the death of Lou- 
is XV, he Tinted Paris, and was chosen to 
congratulate Louis XVI, in the name of 
the academy, on his accession to the 
throne. The court and the city were 
bodi decorous of beholding the man ^n4io 
had been so successfiil in delineating 
them. But the expectation which had 
been formed firom nis earlier works, was 
fi&r from bein^ answered by his academi- 
cal discourse m reply to the inaugural ad- 
dress of Suard, and in which he painted 
the follies of the capital. His pictures 
were distorted and exaggerated. He 
died soon after, in 1777, without leaving 
any children. His agreeable mannere, 
and his integrity of character, gained him 
distinguished fiiends. Louis XVI grant- 
ed him, in 1775, letters of nobility. His 
Ver-Vek is disdnguished for wit, vivacity 
and interest, and its value appears die 
more remai^ble from the poverty of the 
subject Cresset has written much that is 
good, and some thines merely passable. 

Gresson; the loftiest summit of the 
Vosges, 4002 feet high. 

Gretna Green, or Graitnet ; a village 
and parish in Scotland, in Dumfries, on 
Solway fnth, eight miles north of Carlisle. 
It is the first stage in Scotland from Eng- 
land, and has for more than 70 years been 
famous as the place of celebration of the 
marriages of fugitive lovers finom Eng- 
land. According to die Scottish law, it is 
only necessary for a couple to declare be- 
ftire a jusdce of die peace, that they are 
unmarried, and wish to be married, in or- 
der to conclude a la^'ful marriage. It 
has been calculated that about S mar- 
ria^ take place here annually. A black- 
smitli was a long time the justice of 
the peace. His usual fee was 15 gumeas. 

Gr^trt, Andr6 Ernest Modeste, a 
French composer of music, bom at 
Liege, 1741, ^owed as early as his 4th 
year his sensibility to mueacal rhythm. 
At this age, being left one dajr alone, the 
noise of water lioiling in an iron pot ex- 
(!ited his attention ; he began to dance to 

the sound, which resembled that of a 
drum. He then wished to discover die 
origin oi this bubbhng in the vessel, and 
he overturned it into a hot coal fire. The 
explofflon was .so quick, that, rendered 
senseless by the steam and smoke, he fell 
to the ground much burnt This accident 
brought on a long ilhiess, and weakened 
his eyes for life. In 1759, Gr^tiy went to 
Rome to perfect himself in music. Hav- 
ing, while at Rome, exhibited some Ital- 
ian scenes and symphonies, he was en- 
gaged by the manager of the theatre, Al- 
berti, to set to music two tntermezn. His 
fiiBt eftbit met with great success. The 
piaise which he obtained from Ficcini 
was the most flattering to him. Bein^ 
well received and esteemed in the capit^ 
of Italy, Gr^try pursued his studies there, 
until he became desirous of making him- 
self known at Paris. On his way to 
France, he stopped at Geneva, and set to 
music the opera Isabella and Geitrude, 
which was brought out at Paris. The 
success of this production determined 
him to go to Pans, to find a theatre and 
performers wordiy of him. Here he was 
obliged, fiir two years, to struggle against 
numerous difficulties, before he obtained 
finom Marmontel the Huron, the text and 
music of which were both vnitten in six 
weeks. The piece vras performed in 1769, 
with complete success. The LuciUy a 
comedy in one act, which appeared soon 
afler, veas received with still greater ap- 
plause. He now devoted himself exclu- 
eively to the theatre, and composed 40 op- 
eras, of which Le TabUaupadmd^ ZSmnre 
et Jkior^ 12 Ami dt la Maism^ La fausse 
Magie^ ht Jwgtmad de J^KdaSy VAnuxtd 
JalMtx, Les ^shwrnens vnprHnUj CoUfutte 
h la CouTj La Careoane^ EaouL, Riehard 
OBw-de-Lionj Anacrian chez PolicraU^ 
are still played with applause. Gr^try, 
like Pergolea, took declamation as the 
ffuide of musical expression. He was in- 
ferior to Cluck in depth, -and he could 
never arrive at the fulness of Mozart. In 
1790, he published his Minwires au Essais 
aurlaMuaiqiie, The first volume contains 
an account of the musical career of the 
author. He wrote La VMU and R^Uxiom 
d'un SaUUare, He died in 18J3, at £r- 
m6nonville, in Rouseeau's hermitage. 

Greville, Fulk (lord Brooke); an ac- 
complished courtier and ingenious writer, 
and a great encourager of learning and 
learned men. He was bom in 1M4, at 
Beauchamp court, Warwickshire, the 
family seat, then in the poesession of his 
father, sir Fulk Greville. He entered 
Trinity college, Cambridge, which he 



iflierwaids quitted fyr Oxford ; 4uid, hav- 
ing made the tour of Europe, presented 
himself at court, where he soon rose high 
in the fiivor of Elizabeth. James ako 
distingmshed him by his fiivor ; but the 
jealousy of Cecil induced Greiille to re- 
tire fipom public life, till the death of that 
statesman restored him to the court He 
now rose n^>idly, filling in succession the 
posts oC under treasurer and chancellor ixf 
the excheouer, and, in 1620, obtained a 
barony. Under Charies I, he continued 
to enj(wthe roval countenance till the 
90th of September, 1628, when, convers- 
ing with an old servant of the familv, 
respecting certain dispositions in bis will, 
the latter, considering his legacy diroro- 
poitioned to his services, replied to hia 
widi great insolence, and, on receiving a 
reprimand, stabbed him in the back, and 
he expired inunediately ; the aasaaain in- 
stantly committed suicide with the same 
weapon. Lord Brooke was the founder 
of a historical lecture at Cambrid^ and 
enjoyed the friendship of sir Phihp Sid- 
ney, Spenser, Jonson, Shakspeare, and 
most of the master spirits of the ace. 
The bent of his own genius evidently fed 
him to the study of poetry and histoiy. 
An octavo volume ot his miscellaneous 
writingB was printed in 1670, and there 
is abo extant a life of his fiiend Sidney, 
by his hand. The envy of Cecil, who 
denied him access to the necessaxy rec- 
ords, prevented lus carrying mto execu- 
tion an intention he had formed of writing 
a history of thQ wars of the Roses. 

Gret, lady Jane ; a young and accom- 
plished female of royal descent, whose 
disastrous fate, as die victim of an unprin- 
dfAed relative's ambitious projects, has 
created an extraordinary interest in her fa- 
vor. She was the daughter of Heniy 
Grey, marquis of Dorset, afterwards duke 
of Su^lk, by the ladv Frances, daughter 
of Chari^ Brandon, duke of Suffolk, and 
Mary, younger sister of Henry VIII, in 
whoioe reign lady Jane was bom, accord- 
ing to tfa^e common account, in 1537. She 
displayed much precocity of talent ; and 
to the usual accomplishments of females, 
she added an acquaintance with the learn- 
ed languages, as well as French and 
Itafian. Roger Ascham has related, that, 
on making a visit to Brodflate hall, he 
found lady Jane, then a ffiii of fourteen, 
eogagped in perusing Plato's Dialogue on 
the Immortali^ of the Soul, in the orig- 
inal Greek, while the rest of the fiunify 
were fauntinj^ in the paric She owed her 
early pnvliciencv in Uterature, in some 
meaauTQ, to her learned tutor, Aylmer, af- 

TOX. Tl. 6 

terAfiuds bishop of London,; and fiom 
him she imbibed au attachment to IS!ot- 
estantism. The Oriental as well as the 
classical languages are said to have been 
fomiliar to £er, and she is represented as 
having been altog^her a younff person 
of uncommon genius and acquu^ments. 
But the latter are less singular than mi^t 
be supposed by those wiio do not take m- 
to account the general taste for the culti- 
vation of Greek and Roman lore, which 
prevailed among both sexes for some time 
after the revival of literature in Europe. 
Lady Jane Grey was a woman of talents, 
but not a [nodigy ; and Mrs. Roper, the 
interesting daughter of sir Thomas More, 
with lady Burleigh and her learned ssters, 
may be adduced as rivals in erudition of 
the subject of this article. The hteraiy 
accomplishments of this unfortunate lady, 
however, do less honor to her memory than 
the Sfurit with which she bore the annihi- 
lation of her prospects of sovereignty, and 
the diegrace uid ruin of the dearest object 
of her afiections. The tale of her eleva^ 
tion and catastrophe has been often rela- 
ted, and has funiished a subject for dra- 
matic composition. The most material 
cm^umstances are her marriage with lord 
Guilford Dudley, fourth son of the duke 
of Northumberuind, in May 1553 ; which, 
though it oriffinated in the ambitious pro- 
jects of her rather-in-law, was a union of 
affection. The duke's plan was, to reign 
in the name of his near relation, in whose 
fovor he persuaded king Edward VI, on 
his death-Ded, to settle the succession to 
the crown. On the decease of the king, 
lady Jane had the good sense to refuse the 
proffered diadem; but, unfortunatelv, she 
afterwards consented to accept it, oeing 
influenced by die importunities of her 
husband. Her pageant reign had lasted 
but nine days, when Mary, the late king's 
elder sister, was acknowledged queen ; and 
Jane exchanged a throne for a f)rison. 
She and her husband were arraigned, 
convicted of treason, and sentenced to 
d^uh ; but their doom was suspended, 
and they might, i)erhai)s, have been al- 
lowed to expiate their imprudence by a 
temporaiy confinement, but for the ill-ad- 
vised insurrection under sir Thomas Wy- 
at, in which the duke of Suffolk, lady 
Jane's father, was weak enouirh to pietrtid- 
pate. The suppression of this rebellion 
was followed by the execution of lady 
Jane Grey and her husband. Mary sus- 
pended die execution of her cousin three 
days, to afford time for her conversion to 
the CathoEc fiiith ; but the queen's chari- 
table puifMMe was defeated by the eon- 



mancy of kdj Jane, who defended her 
opimoDB against the arguments of the 
^uniflh dimes sent to reoson with her, 
and prepared henelf widi finnness for 
her approaching fate. She was beheaded 
on Towor-hai, February 12, 1564, her 
husband having previoosly suffered the 
same day. A twoK, entitled The precious 
Remains of Lady Jane Grey (4to.), was 
published directly after her execution ; 
and letters and other pieces ascribed to 
her may be found iu Fox's Mart^logy. 

Giusr, Charles, earl, a distmguished 
whiff and pariiamentafy orator in Eng- 
lanc^ was bom in 17^ and was educat^ 
at Eton and Cambridge. On leaving the 
imiveni^, he travelled oa the continent, 
and, soon after his return toEnsluidfWas 
returned to parliament, by ftmify interest, 
lor the county of Northumberland, befi>re 
he had reached his twentieth year, but, of 
course, did not take his seat till he be- 
came of age. He afterwards represented 
the borough of Applebv, till he succeed- 
ed to the peerage. He had not been long 
in the house, belbre he became conspicu- 
ous for liis industiy and his ability in de- 
bate. He was a warm Foxite, and be- 
came a member of the whig club, and of 
the society of Friends of the People. He 
was one of the most zealous oppoeers 
of Pitt's war against France, and declared 
in parliament that the discomfiture of the 
duke of Brunswick by the French amy, 
was a triumph of every friend of liberty. 
On the deatn of Pitt, the whiss havinf 
come into power, Mr. Grey (then lord 
Howick) was made first loiti of the ad- 
miralty, and, on the death of Fox, secreta- 
ry of state for foreign affiurs. The dis- 
solution of this ministiy soon followed, 
and lord Howick not long after was trans- 
ferred to the upper house by the death of 
his fither, but tor many years took little 
pait in public afiirs, and resided in retire- 
ment on his estates in Northumberland. 
On the re«gnation of lord Casdereagh 
and Mr. Canning, which was soon follow- 
ed by that of the duke of Portland, the 
rest of the ministera made overtures to 
k>rd Grenfifle and eari Grey, which were 
declined. Lord Grey opposed the restric- 
tions on the regency of the prince of 
Wales; and when thoso restrictions ex- 
pired, in 1812, the offer of a seat in the 
ministiy was renewed, and again rejected. 
In the trial of the unfortunate queen Car- 
oline, lord Grey was one of the most ac- 
tive and zealous of the peers in her be- 
half: and to his eloquence and zeal^ the 
resuh of the trial is in a great measure 
atnogt He has always advocated refiinn 

and the emancipation of the Cathohcs. 
In domeedo fife, eari Grey appean in the 
most exempbiy hg^t Mainme de Stael 
used to apeak in terms of the highest ad- 
miration of the ftmily scene at FaUow- 
den house. On the 16di of Nov., 1830^ 
the duke of Wellington aimounced ius 
resignation of the office of firat lord of 
the treasuijr, and eari Grey was unmedi- 
ately appomted his successor. He is 
therefore, at present, prime minister of 
Engkmd. (See Grtai BritamJ) 

Gretrouiid {came frtduSy Linnteus). 
This variety of the canme race is distin- 
guished by a greater length of muzzle 
man any other dog, a very low forehead, 
occasioned by the want of frontal sinuses, 
diort lips, thm and long legs, small mus- 
cles, contracted beOy, and semipendeot 
ears. There are several sub-varieties de- 
scribed by naturalists, as the Irish grey- 
hound, the Scotch, the Russian, the Ital- 
ian and the Tuikiah, all which, though 
differing in size and intelligence, posBesB 
the general characteristics of the variety. 
The common greyhound is of a beautiful 
and delicate formation, and is univeisolly 
known a& the fleetest of this race of am- 
mals. We have no information when 
the name gr^Aound was introduced, the 
former appellation of gazehound being 
very apphcable to a dog which hunts b^ 
sight and not by smell. Its derivation is 
evideatly from Grattu, Grecian. The 
greyhound has been for many centuries 
in the highest estimation, and in ancient 
times was considered as « most valuable 
present The ardor and velocity of the 
greyhound in pursuit of its game, have 
uways been a matter of admiration to 
sportsmen, and of various opinions as to 
the difference of speed between a well 
bred greyhound and a race-horse. It 
has, 1^ the best indges, been though^ that 
upon a flat, the horse would be supenor to 
the dog; but that in a hilly countiy, the 
latter would have the advantage. The 
natural simplicity and peaceable demean- 
or of the greyhound has sometimes in- 
duced a doubt, whether the instinctive sa- 
ffacity of this particular variety is equal to 
«iat of some othera of the species ; but, 
fiom numerous observations, it appeare 
that it possesses this attribute in a in^ 
degree^ Greyhound pups, during the first 
seven or eight months, are extremely un- 
couth, awkward and disproportioned, af- 
ter which period they begin to improve in 
form and sagacity. Thev reach their full 
growth at two yean. The distinguishing 
traits of superiority are supposed to con- 
sist in a fine, soft, flexihie skin, with thin 



aUky liotfv a gnat length of noBe, ooo* 
tnetiDf jmdually from the ejfe to the nos- 
tfily a fal^ claar and penetiatiiig eye,aDiaU 
mn, erect head, iong Deck, broad breast, 
width aerosB the Bhauldera, rouiidneas in 
the iibS| back neither too long nor too 
short, a conOracted belly and flank, a ffreat 
depth fiom the hipa to the hocks of the 
hind legs, a strong atom, round foot, widi 
c^ien omform dens, Ibro i^gs stmight, and 
flfaorter than the hinder. Accoidins to the 
quaint description given in a won print- 
ed in 1496^ bv Wynken de Wode, a grey- 
hound should be 

Headed lyke a make, 
Neckyed lyke a drake, 
Fouyed lyke a catte, 
Taytled lyke a ratte, 
Syded lyke a feme, 
And chyned lyke a heme. 

Greyhoonds bred in countries where the 
ground is chiefly anble, were formerly 
supposed superior in speed and bottom to 
those produced in limy situations ; that 
ofMnion, however, is completely super- 
seded, and the contrary proved to be the 
case. If fed with coane rood, greyhounds 
V liable to cutaneous and oth- 

er anecaons. 

Gretwacke, or Gilao Wacxb, is a 
name originally applied by Werner to a 
fnigmenlBd or recomfiosea rock, consist- 
ing of mechanically altered pcations or 
frannents of quartz, ipdmatea eky slate 
and flinty slate, cemented by a basis of 
clay state, — tbe imbedded particles not 
ezceedii^a Ibw inches in aiametor,and 
sometimes becoming so minute as to be 
no longer visible, when the rock was de- 
nominated ^Txw twidfce date. As this for- 
mation came to be examined more exten- 
sively in ether countries, the term my- 
waeke was extended so as to embrace 
nearly all fragmentary rocks, whose me- 
chanical structure comes within the above 
description, however diversified the ingre- 
dients may be in their nature or dimen- 
sions, or whatever may be the nature of 
the cement, whether siliceous or argilla- 
ceous, piovkled only they are anterior to 
the new red sandstone and coal forma- 
tion. The reason of this extension was, 
that the greywacke of Werner was found 
to pofls by insensible degrees into rocks, 
which, notwithstanding they were obvi- 
ously produced by the same causes, and 
occupied the same relative situations with 
his rock, were, nevertheless, excluded 
tram coalescing with it by the too limited 
character of his definition. So much di- 
▼enity, however, exista amonff the varie- 
ties of this rock, diat it has been found 

convenient to diatingoadi them by aspa- 
race names. Thus we have gr^fwadU 
tiaU when the innedienti are very com* 
minuted, grtywoM vrfaen they are of 
middling size, puMt^^aloM when they 
are rounded, congfomaraU when they are 
from four or ^^^ mches in diameter to the 
size of a man% head and hirger, griJMont 
when the concretions are hard and sili- 
ceous and the paste siliceous also, and M 
ltd sandstone when colored red by the 
peroxide of iron. The fiiunnents which 
compose the rocks of this formation, are 
evidendy the debris of the primaiy rocks 
that have been broken down by some 
powerful catastrophe, and mixed vrith 
more recent beds at the period when they 
werefomun|{. They occupjr a place next 
to the primitive rocks, often m an alteniat- 
ing series with mountain limestone, and 
beneath that class of rocks denominated 
seetrndary, between the formation of which 
and the greywacke a considerable period 
must have elapsed, as the fiiagments of 
the latter invariably consist of fewer 
rocks, and never of the upper strata. 
Greywacke but very rarely contains or- 
gamc remains; but the hmestones and 
sbites, with which it alternates, present 
theni in considerable quantity, and such 
as belong togenem almost exclusively un- 
known at present, and which never occur 
in the upper strata. Though the (poki of 
Hungary and Siberia is found in this rock, 
still it cannot be said to be prolific in met- 
als or other usefid minerals. When fiiw 
mined, it forms a valuaUe building stone. 
It is the material of which the fortifica- 
tions at Quebec in Lower Canada ara 
chiefly constructed. Greywacke is very 
extensively distributed in Europe. It 
forms the eastern declivity of the moun% 
tains of Brazil, and abounds throughout 
the chain of the Alleghanies. The variety 
termed con^omeratej occurs extensively in 
the vicinity of Boston and upon the isnvMi 
of Rhode Island ; at t^e latter locality, it 
occurs in connexion with the anthracite 
coal. The old red sandstone forms an 
extensive deposit in the valley of the 
Connecticut, fiom Deeifield, Mass., to 
Long Island sound, and again in New 
Jersey, bordering upon the Hudson river. 
The fu^ varieties of it are much em- 
ployed in building, under the name of 
freestone, A quany of it exists at Chat- 
ham, direcdv upon the banks of the Con- 
necticut, which gives employment to 
neariy 200 men. 

GaioLST, Jeremiah, a celebrated lawyer 
of Massachuaetts berore the revolution, 
was born about the year 1705, and receiv- 



ed hiB degree ot Harvard college in 173S. 
His first occupation in Boston was that of 
an assistant in the public grammar school, 
in which capacity he contmued for several 
years, during w^ch he studied theology, 
and occasionally preached. He ailerwaitls 
devoted himself to the law, in which pro- 
fesBBon he became eminent. Soon after 
he was admitted to the bar, he instituted a 
weekly newspaper, called the Rehearsal. 
The first numbco' was published Septem- 
ber 29, 1731. In this journal he wrote ar- 
ticles, literary and political, for a vear, 
when the increase of his professional busi- 
nesB obliged him to relinquish it His 
writings exhibit ingenuity and originality^ 
fervor and energy. Having been elected a 
member firom Brooklihe of the general 
court of tlie province, he became a decid- 
ed opponent of the measures of the min- 
istry, and manifested a warm attachment 
to liberal principles. He was, neverthe- 
less, appomted attomey-genend of the 
province of Maasachusetts Bay, and, in 
that capacity, was obliged to perform the 
unpleasant duty of defending the obnox- 
ious writs of assistance. The celebrated 
James Otis, who had been a student in 
his office, was his op])onent, and wholly 
confined him. He died in Boston, Sep- 
tember 7, 1767, aged about 62 years. Mr. 
Gridley was a man of a high, elevated and 
ardent spirit, always more anxious for 
feme thaA ibr wealth. 

Gries, John Dietrich, a German schol- 
ar, the translator of Tasso, Ariosto and 
Oalderon, was bom February 7, 1775, in 
Hambui^, where his fether was a senator. 
Against ms own vriah, he was intended for 
a merchant, but, in his 17th year, obtained 
permisraon to follow his inclination fbr 
0tudy. He studied at Jena in 1795, and 
was fevorably noticed by the leading belles- 
lettres scholars of that time in wrmany 
—A. W. Schlcgel, Gothe, Wieland and 
Schillei^- whose intimate fiiend he remain- 
ed. He fiist studied law ; but various cir- 
cumstances, among them an increasing 
deafiiesB, determine him to devote Mm- 
self entirely to poetry. Several of his po- 
ems were published in periodicals i but he 
gained celebrity chiefly liy his translation 
of Taaso, the hrst in the German language 
in the metre of the oriffinal. Three e<&- 
tions of this translation have been already 
published. The translation of Ariosto's 
Orlando Furioso appeared in 1804— l60a 
He also undertook to translate Bojardo's 
Orlando Innamorato ; but the great lensth 
of this poem induced him to wandon the 
attempt, after having published 12 cantos. 
Since 1815, he has published 6 volumes 

of the translation of Oalderon. Gries lives 
at present in Jena. 

Griesbach, John James (died in 1612)^ 
first professor of theology at Jena, acquir- 
ed a pennanent reputation by his critical 
edition of the New Testament, and by 
the education of several thousand youth. 
Bom at Butzbach in Hesse-Darmstadt, in 
1745, he removed, while a child, to Frank- 
fert on the Maine, where his father, a 
preacher and consistoria] counsellor, died 
in 1777. He received his first instruction 
at the gymnasium of Frankfort, and re- 
moved to the univerEoty of Tubingen in 
1762. In 1764, he went to Halle, and af- 
terwards spent a year at Leipnc B^cle- 
siastical history was the subject of his 
studie^ in which Emesti, at Leipsic, aided 
him with books and advice. He next un- 
dertook, at Halle, an extensive course of 
preliminary studies to the criticism of the 
New Testament and dogmatic history. 
Having resolved to devote himself alto- 
gether to the criticism of the text of the 
New Testament, he undertook, in 1769 
and 1770, a literary journey throu^ Ger- 
many, England, Holland and France. 
The feUowing winter he devoted, in his 
native city, to the elaboration of his mate- 
rials; and, in 1771, appeared as a lecturer 
in IlaUe, with such applause, in conse- 
quence of his celebrated treatise on the 
criticisms of Origcn on the Gospels, that, 
two y eani after, ho was appointed profeStor. 
He now pursued, with indefetigable indus- 
try, his plan of an edition of the New 
Testament. Having recdved an appoint- 
ment to a regular fnofeesorBhip of theology 
at Jena, he published a eynopaa of the 
Gospels. This was soon feUowed by the 
first edition of the whole Testament Its 
peculiarity is, that it does not merely con-^ 
sider the accepted or rejected readhura, 
but the different degrees of probability fer 
or against them are determined and repre- 
sented by intelligible marks in the marffin. 
It is to be lamented that he could not fin- 
ish, as he had intended, the complete edi- 
tion, which was begun in 1796, and ap- 
peared simultaneouay at Halle and Lon- 
don. He was, however, incessantiy em- 
ployed on it till his death, and lived to see 
the superi) edition, published 1^ G6scheD, 
finished. Gabler has edited Griesbach's 
Opusctiia Academica (Jena, 1824., 2 vols.). 

GaiFFiif, or Grtphon (xpj>4) ; a febuloua 
monster of antiouity, commonly represem- 
ed with the body, the feet and clavvs of a 
lion, the head and vrings of an eagle, the 
ears of a horse, and, instead of a mane, a 
comb of fishes^ fins : the back was cover- 
ed with feathers. iElian says that its 



bttek was covered with black feathers, its 
fareest with red, and Hb wings with white. 
CteoaB gives hun blue and shiuing neck 
feathers, the beak of an eagle, and fieiy eyes. 
Later writers add other narticularB. Ac- 
cording to the book Dt Btntm MtturOy it 
is larger than an eagle, has on its fore feet 
large daws, like those of an eagle, and 
others on its hind feet, like those of a lion ; 
and it lays an agate in its nest. Drinking 
cups are made from its talons. The gni- 
fin is so strong, says Ctesias, that he con- 
queis all beasts, the hon and elephant on- 
ly excepted. India was assigned as the 
native countiy of the gnSinB, and it was 
believed that they bmlt their nesls on 
the mountains; that they could be eanly 
eaught and tamed when young, but never 
whoa, full grown ; that they found ^Id fai 
the mountains, and built their nests of it ; or, 
according to other accounts, that they fear- 
ed those who sought for gold in the moun- 
tains, and defended their ^oung against 
their attacks. Bottiger, in bis VasetigeniM- 
de, has given much information coacem- 
ing the origin of this fabulous animal 
He mnintaias that this and similar mon- 
steiB are merely the creation of Indian 
lapestzy-makers, who, from the most an- 
cient times, employed themselves on 
strange composiQons of mythological 
beasts. The Greeks, who saw this kind 
of tapestry at the court of the kin^ of 
PeiHB, thought that the animals depicted 
on it were really inhabitams of Inoia, so 
rich in wonders, and they spread the re- 
pent. So much is certain, that the notion 
of this bird came from Asia into Greece 
in the train of Bacchus. He was, there- 
fore^ the symbol of illumination and wis- 

Gau-LPAazKa, Francis, bom in 1790, 
fives, at present, in Vienna, where he has 
an office at court In 1816, he attracted 
the attention of the public As Mfillner 
was led by Werner's 24th of February to 
write his Sckuld (Guilt), Grillparzer was 
probably excited by the SckulatD write his 
MfUhgu (Ancestress)— a piece still more 
decidedly belonging to the fetalist school 
It is fidl of horrors ; but the poetical lan- 
guage, the highly lyric power displayed in 
his desc^ptions, and the novelty of the 
srJiool of the &talist&, kept this play a long 
time on the stage. The young poet pub- 
fisfaed, in 1816, his Sappho, and, in 1822, 
the Golden Fleece, in both of which the 
lyric language is the chief merit In a 
subsequent piece (Oltokar), he has wisely 
chosen a subject comparatively modem; 
it breathes a more dwmatic spirit than his 
earlier productions. It appeared in 1824 

GaiMALDi (ftmilv) ; one of the fbur 
femilies of the higii nobility in Genoa. 
The lordship of Monaco (afterwards ele- 
vated to a principality) betonged, for more 
than 600 years (begimiin^ with 980), to 

the Grimaldi. With the Fiescos, thoy al- 
ways played an important part in the his- 
tory of Genoa, eroecially in the disputes 
between the Gibekines and the Guelfi, to 
which latter party both families belon|pBd. 
Larffe estates in the kingdom of Naples, 
in France and Italy, increased the influ- 
ence of the Grimaldi, from whom proceed- 
ed several eminent men: — 1. BmUenGri' 
maldiYras the fiist Genoese who conducted 
the naval forces of the republic beyond 
the straits of Gibraltar. In the service 
of Philip the Fair of France, Grimakli 
sailed to Zealand in 1304, with 16 Geno- 
ese gaUeys and 90 French ships under his 
command. He there defeated and made 
prisoner the count Guy of Flanders, who 
commanded the enemy's fleet of 80 sail — 
2. Aidomo (jtrimaldij likewise, distinguish- 
ed himself in the naval service in the first 
half of the 14th century. The Cata- 
lonians had committed hostilities against 
Genoa, which city had been prevented hv 
internal discord from punishing the of- 
fence. But when a more fevorable mo- 
ment arrived, Antonio received the com- 
mand of the fleet, with the commisston 
to devastate the coasts of Catalonia. 
This commission the Genoese performed 
but too faithfully. He also defeated an 
Airagonese fleet of 42 sail Twenty-one 
years after, he suflered such a defeat fi!Om 
the combined Venetian and Catalonian 
fleets, under the command of Nicolas Pi- 
sani, that, of the whole Genoese fleet, only 
17 vessels escaped. This defeat (29th of 
August, 1353) obliged the Genoese to sub- 
mit to John Visconti, lord of Milan, who 
promised them protection against their 
enemies, the Venetians.—^ Giovanni 
Grimaldi m eelebnued for the victoiy 
which he sained, May 23, 1431, over the 
Venetian admiral, Nic. Travisani, on the 
Po, although Carpia^ola, the most dis- 
tinguished seneral orchis time, was ready 
to support the Venetians, with a considera- 
ble army, on die banks of the river. By 
an able mancBUvre, Grimaldi separated the 
Venetian fleet from die bank, where the 
army was stadoned (three niiles below 
Cremona), and thus succeeded, not only 
in utteriy defeatmg the enemy, but in 
taking 28 gallevs and a great number of 
transports, with immense spoils. — 4. Do- 
mmico GrimMij cardinal, archbishop and 
vice-legate of Avignon, fived in the 16th 
oentuiy. Before he obtamed these high 


dignities, Pius V intrusted to him the su- 
pervision of the galleys of the States of 
tiie Church, and Grinialdi, though already 
bishop, was present at the naval batde 
of Lepanto (1571 1, on which occasion he 
k said to have distinguished himself by 
his courage. The annals of the Roman 
church also relate of this warlike prelate, 
that he succeeded in totally axtupating 
the poison of heresy from his diocese. 
He died in 1599; and left behind a volume 
of letters relative to the events in which 
he had been engaged^-5. His nephew 
Gtnmmo Grimtudi^ bom at Genoa in 
1597, was appointed, m his 38th year, vice- 
Imte of Romagna, and afterwards bishop 
of Albano and governor of Rome. Ur- 
ban Vni sent him as nuncio to Germany 
and France ; and the services which he 
rendered the Roman court were reward- 
ed, in 1643, by a cardinal's hat After 
the death of (Jroan, Grimaldi, from grati- 
tude, protected his fkmUv, and thus incur- 
red the displeasure of Innocent, who re- 
fiised, during his whole life, to sign the 
bull, consdtutinff Grimaldi archbishop of 
Aix. Not till Alexander VII succeeded 
Innocent, was he able to enter on his new 
office (1^). He endeavored to reform 
the manners of the cleigy of his diocese, 
for which purpose he established an ec- 
clesiastical seminary ; he likewise founded 
an hospital for the poor, and annually dis- 
tributed 100,000 livres of liis vast proper- 
ty in alms. He contributed much to the 
eleetion of Innocent XI, whose virtues 
he revered. Although he was subse- 
quently appointed dean of the holy col- 
lege in Rome, he could not resolve to 
SMndon the congregatioo intrusted to 
him. He died at Aix, in 1685, 90 years 
of age.— 6. ^fkhoUu Orimaldi^ bom in 
( 1645, was invested with the Roman pur- 
^e by Clement XI, in 1706. He died 4n 
1717, leaving immense wealth.^ — 7. An- 
other GerommOf bom in 1674, was honor- 
ed with a cardinal's hat He had previ- 
ously been the nuncio of Ae Roman court 
at Avignon, and afterwards at Brussels, 
in Poland and Germany. He was subse- 
quently appointed cardinal legate of Bo- 
logna. He died in 1733. — ^B^des these 
Grinialdis, we find others of this name, 
conspicuous in science and art — L CHo' 
ccmo, a writer of the 16th century, whom 
Timboschi mentions with great praise. 
He was bom at Bologna, embraced the 
clerical profession, ^d, as superintendent 
of tihe archives of the church of St Pe- 
ter in Rome, rendered an important ser- 
vice by arranging the whole of this valua- 
ble collection. He also attempted to 

explain the andent iosoriptions, discovered 
during the pontificate or Paul V, by illus- 
trative remarks. / list of his antiquarian 
and philological writings may be found 
in the 4th volume of Sr^ftor. BolognetL 
He died in 16Si3.--4i. Giovanni FYancesco, 
called Bolognese, fiom his having been 
bom in that city, lived in the 17th centu- 
ly, and was an eminent painter, architect 
and engraver. In the first mentioned art, 
he took the Carracci for his model ; he also 
studied some titne with Albano. Having 
been invited to Paris by cardinal Mazarin, 
he painted several frescos in the Louvre. 
As an architect, he was no less distin^ 
guished ; and his engravings are highly 
esteemed. Innocent A em^oyed him to 
execute the fix3Scos in the Vatican and the 
Quirinal. Several of his best painting 
are to be found in the church Sta. Mana 
del Monte in Rome ; the museum at Paris 
also contains some of his best produc- 
tions. He died in 1680, 74 years of age. 
Alexander, a son of his, is likewise known 
as a painter.— 3. F)rance8co Maria^ a Jesuit, 
was bom in Bologna in 1613, and was 
distinguished as a mathematician. He 
assist^ Riccioli in his mathematical la 
bors, and afterwards published a work on 
the spots on the moon. He also wrote 
Phfarieo-malhesis dt Ltamne Cohribut 
d hidey aUuqUit cmnexis (Boloena, 
1665, 4to.). This leamed Jesuit died in 
his native city, in 1663. — 4. JFVaticesco, 
yvho likewise lived in the 17th century, 
and was bom in the kingdom of Naples, 
joined the Jesuits, and is distinguished as 
a Latin poet We have several bucolic 
and dramatic poems from him, which 
evince his talents. He died while profes- 
sor of rhetoric in the colle^ of the Jesuits, 
in Rome, in 1738, about 60 yeans of age. 
— 5. Peter GrtmaZ(^ likewise a Jesuit, was 
bora in Civita-Vecchia, lived in the 18th 
centuiy, and was, for a long time, a mis- 
sionary in the East Indies. There is a 
story of him, that, on his retum to Europe, 
he invented a machine, by means of 
which (1751) he passed throu^ &e air 
from Calais to Dover in an hour. It is 
mentioned by Pingeron, in his tranalatio& 
of the wori( of ftulizta, and by Fontenai, 
in his DictUmnmre da JtHtlUt, Since 
they give no more exphcit account of the 
affiur, and as tins previous experiment is 
not quoted In the treatises that appeared 
at the time of the invention of the air-bal- 
loon (1784|, we must entertain some doubt 
of the tmtn of the aerial journey ascrib- 
ed to Peter Grimaldi.—^ Coiufanfmc, 
bora at Naf>le8, in 1667, died there ui 
1750, was a jurik, and was distinguished 


tor lus knowledM of hietoiy, medkaiie 
and theology, lie is, however, princK 
pdBf known for his coDttoversy with Boi- 
ediclis, 8 hfind advocate of the philosophy 
of Aiistotl^ who was then puuishing hiB 
LdUrt apometidUj in whicn he made a 
fiirioiis attack on Descartes and his fbl- 
toweiB. Giimaldi defended the Carte- 
siana^ and, in a severe reply, reduced the 
fither ad ahsvrdum. — 7, FramctKO AnUmio 
(whodied]nNai)ie8in]784) wastheauthw 
of some good historical works on Naples, 
and the constituti<Hi of that country. 

Gkimm, Frederic Melchior, baron of; 
counsellor of slate of the Russian eiapire, 
grand cross of the order of Wladimir ; a 
man of Jetters, whose great reputation has 
arisen from posdiumous publications. 
He was bom in 1723^ at Ratisbon, of poor 
parentB, who, however, bestowed on him 
a good education. His tute for fiterature 
maniiested itself in his youth, when he 
wrote a tragedy. Having finished his 
studies, he went to Paris as governor to 
the children of the count of echomberg. 
Soon after, he was appointed reader to the 
duke of Saxe-Gotha. At this period, he 
became acquainted vrith Jean-Jacques 
BxNisseau, wiio introduced him to Diderot, 
D'Alembeit, DHolbach, and other Fuuian 
philosophers ; a piece of service which, 
according to Jean-Jacques (Con^esmns^ 
8), he repaid vrith ingratitude. Tne count 
de Fri^ made him his secretary, vrith 
appointments which rendered his droum- 
stances agreeable, and left him at Uberty 
to pursue his inclmations. His vanity 
induced him to give himself the airB of a 
man of gallantry ; and, as he attempted 
to repair the ravages of time by means of 
cosmetics, the Parisians bestowed on him 
the sobriquet of ^fran U BUmt. The ar- 
rival of a company of Italian hon^ffbns in 
Piaris having divided all the muencal con- 
noisseun into two parties, Giimm declar- 
ed for the Italian music, and was at the 
head of the com de la rtinej a party so 
eaBed because they used to sit in the pit, 
under the queen's box, whilst the ftiends 
of Rameau and the French music formed 
the com du m. Grimm wrote on this oc- 
•aaion a pamphlet, ftill of vrit and taste, 
Le peHt Pn^ihHe de B&ndachbrodOf and, 
trfaeD his adversaries attempted to answer 
It, completely conftited them by his Leitre 
ner ia Muiique Frangaist. Tlieee pam- 

CB iintated so many persons against 
that they talked of exile, the Bastile, 
&4^ ; but when the excitement had sub- 
aided, he obtained a general ajmlause. On 
ibe death of the count de FTi«se, Grknm 
Unas nominated principal secretary to the 

dukeof Orleans. The ftme of the Freniii 
literati, with whom he was connected, led 
to his being empkiyed, in conjunction 
with Diderot, to tnnsmit to the duke of 
Saxe-Gotha an account of the writingB, 
firiendships, disputes, &^ of. the authoiB 
of that period. Copies of this curious 
conrespondence were abo sent to the em- 
mss Catharine II, the queen of Sweden, 
StanislauB, king of Poland, the duke of 
Deux-PoirtB^ the prince and princess of 
Hs8Be-DBrmstBdt,&c Fredenc the Great 
eave him marks of great esteem. In 177& 
he was ^pdnted envoy from the duke of 
Saxe-Gotha to the French court, honored 
vrith the title of baron, and with several or- 
ders. On the revolution breaking out, he re- 
tired to the court of Gotha, where he foimd 
a safe asylum. In 1795,the empress of 
Russianiade him her minister plempotenti- 
ary to the states of Lower Saxony ; and he 
was confirmed in that post hy Paul I, and 
retained it till ill health obliged him to re- 
Unquisb it He then returned to Gotika, 
and died there, Dec 19, 1807. His grand 
work was puMished in different portions 
successively, undo* the foUowing titles — 
Cornspondanct lAUfyairtt PhSotSjphique H 
CriHqutj adteasie h vn Souoerain SJBU- 
magfie^ dqmU IT/O^jviqu^en 178S^ par h 
BeSmi de Grtnuvi ^Jpor DIdtrot (Paria^ 
1812, 5 vctb., 8vo.); (Amapondafice LUU- 
rmre^ &c. en 1775, 177«, 1782—1790, 
{troiiUme et dermhre ParHe^ 1813, 5 vols., 
ovo.) ; and Corretpondagwe LUUrairej &c. 
depms 1753, jusqiCen 1760, {prmibrt 
Parti^ 6 vols., 8vo.). A selection from 
tills vohiminouB mass of fiterary gossip 
vras puUished in 4 vols., 8vo., in French 
and English. 

Grimm, James Levris Charies; bora in 
Hanau, 1785; at present librarian of the 
elector of Hcsse-CasBeL By his German 
Grammar (2d ed., Gdttingcn, 1832), he 
has rendered great service to German phi- 
lology^ He was the first who explamod 
historically the elements and develope- 
meot of the Teutonic dialects. lluB 
woric is highly distinguished for acuteness 
of Investigation and extensive learnii^, 
showing an intimate acquaintance vrith the 
European and Asiatic languages. With 
his brother William Charies, he has puh- 
lished several valuable collections or tho 
productions of the early German litera- 
ture. A part of his ISndartmd Haui- 
m^e&en-^urBeiy Tales (Bertin, 1812— 
1814, 2 vob., 12mo.>— has been translated 
under the tide German Popular Stories. A 
tiiird brother, L Emilius, is an engraver, 
and has produced some valuable pieces. 

GaiHOp Ds LA RbtniAbe, Alexandre 


Bahfaaflar Luirent, the most witty epi- 
cure of modem France, member of uie 
Aicadiaiis in RoDie,and of several learned 
societieB, bom at PariB, 1758, was the son 
of a ftrmer-general. A defect in the 
foraiation of his hands obliges him to use 
artificial fingera, with which he draws, 
writes and carves with great dexterity. 
Till 1780 he was an advocate ; but a bitter 
satire, of which he was the author, having 
caused him to be exiled, he subsequently 
devoted himself entirely to literature, 
passing his time in literaiy clubs, in the 
fif^ of the theatres, &c. This eccentric 
character, in the splendid circle of his pa- 
rents, used to make himself meny at the 
pride of rank of the noble wond* He 
gave a celebrated banquet, to which no 
one was admitted who could not i»ove 
himself a bourgeois. Another time he 
invited to his house some peraons of rank, 
and received them in a room hung with 
black, where a coffin was placed behind 
each of them. His epicurism equals that 
of Apicius or Vitellius. He lived peaceably 
through the revolution. In the I ' 
of Napoleon's reign, he became 
throughout Europe by his witty J&fMSMU^ 
dta Gourmands^ which he dedicated to 
the cook of Camboc^r^ (from 1803 to 
1812, 8 vols., 18mo.). For the forvenus^ 
who do not know how to use their wealth, 
he wrote, in 1808, Le Mamtd des ,An^ 
phityyons. His zeal in promoting the 
scimee qf ihe palaUj as Montaicne terms 
it, led him to form a iuiy of epicures 
{digu9tateurs\ who held a monthly ses- 
sion in the Rocher de Cancale, at a select 
table, where judgment was passed with 
black and white oalls, on a luicy tabid 
or a fine bUmc-mangar, with all the solem- 
nity of the Roman senate of y<Nne, in the 
well known turfoot seesioiL Since 181^ 
Grimod has lived in the country, but 
without n^ecting bis literary pursuits. 
(Se^e CwJcery.) 

Griselda ; the ever-padent wife of the 
marauis di Saluzzo,the subject of the tentiii 
novwa in the tenth giomata of Boccaccio^ 
Dteamarm* The marquis's htau idkd 
of a wife was a woman of all-enduring 
patience. He chooses Griselda, the daugh- 
ter of one of his tenants, ill-treals her in 
a variety of ways, takes away her two 
sons, and makes her believe that Uiey are 
killed. At last he turns her out of doora 
in her shift, and celebrates a marriage 
with a noble lady. But finding that Gri- 
selda endures every thing patiently, he 
takes her back, restores her two sons, and 
treats her as marchioness. No one can 
suppose that Griselda is held up as a 

model. One might as well have a wax 
image for a wife. This subject has been 
treated by poets of many other nations ; 
for instance, by Chaucer. ChMdaiSfibBre^ 
fore, not unfrcquendy used to designate a 
woman whosejiadence is trial-proof. 

GaiSETTE (IVench) ; originally a dress of 
coarse gray doth, worn by the females of 
the lower classes ; hence it is used for the 
females themselves, and is generally used 
to signify a belle of the lower dasses. tn 
the language of the theatre, grisette signi- 
fies an intriguing young girl, of the class 
of soubrettes. 

Orisons, the ( GraMmdtm) ; the Up- 
per Rhaetia of the ancients ; anoe 1789 a 
canton of the Swiss confederacy. It is 
the largest in the confederacy, containing 
9000 square miles, with 75,000 inhabit- 
ants, and is bounded N. by Glarus, St. 
Gall and the Vorarlberff ; £. bv the Tyrol ; 
S. by the Valteline, Milan and the canton 
Ticino;W. byUri. The Grison Alps 
rise 11,000 feet above the level of the sea ; 
the line of perpetual snow is from 8200 
to 8400 feet ; they contain 241 f^on 
and 56 waterfalls. The Inn and the 
Rhine have their sources here. The 
lowest point of the porous valley E^- 
gadm, at Martinsbruck, is 3234 feet above 
3ie level of the sea ; the highest village is 
situated at an elevation of 5600 feet The 
varieties of climate are, therefore, ver^ 
striking in the Grisons. The country is 
divided into ^ve great vaUeys : — 1. The 
valley of the posterior Rhine, which in- 
dudes the Rkeinwald, and the vallm of 
the Schamser, the Via Mala and the Dom- 
lesch. The latter is formed by the jposte- 
rior Rhine, is the mildest district m the 
Grisons, and contains 22 villajfes, in which 
the Romansh, a mixture of^Latin, Ger- 
man and Italian, is spoken. The Scham- 
ser- Valley contains 9 villages, and is about 
7 miles k>ng. Between this and the 
Rheinwald is the terrible Via Mala, which 
is formed by the posterior Rhine. In 
this and in the Rheinwald, the winten 
last 9 mouths, on account of their elevated 
situation. Two fi>rmidable roads lead to 
Italy, one over the Splugen, the other over 
the St Aenuud; The former was passed, 
in 1800, by the French, under Macdonald. 
Lecourbe, with a considerable corps, ven- 
tured to enter the latter in 1797.— 2. The 
second valley is that of the anterior Rhine, 
which extends from the western frontier 
and the St Gothard to Coire and Lucien- 
steig. Here are the most interesting 
points— ^e old Benedictine abbey Disen- 
tis, whose literary treasures and buildings 
were destroyed, m 1799, by the French; 


afeo Bantz (&e town), the old Co]re(q. v.), 
where Roman antiquitieB and coins are 
found.— a The third valley is that of En- 
gadin, or the valley of the Upper Inn, 
which stretches fiom south-west to north- 
east, and contains, indeed, no important 
town, but iAComparable vievTs and pictur- 
esque sceneiy. It is one of the most 
romantic spots on earth. — 4. The fourth 
valley is tormed by the Albula, a river 
which rises in the Julian or Septimian 
mountains, and fiills into the Posterior 
Rhine at Thuaa-^ The fifth vaUey is 
that of the Prettigau, situated on the 
northern frontier, in tlie neighborhood of 
the VorarlbeiY ; Mayenfield is the princi- 
pal tovim. — ^The people of the Grisonsare 
divided into three leagues (in German,Bil9i- 
de ; hence the German name of the canton, 
GraubiindUn) ; the League of God's house, 
the capital of which is Coire ; the Gray 
League, with Ilantz ; and the Leasue of 
the Ten Juriadictiona, of which Davos 
is considered as the chief place. In these 
three places 63 deputies of the leagues 
asKmble annually m September, und^ 
three heads, deliberate on the afiairs or 
the canton, and decide, finally, in legal 
case& The canton sends 16(X) men to 
the arroyof the confederacy, and contrib- 
utes 12,000 guilders. About two thirds of 
the inhabitants profess the Helvetic Prot- 
estant retigion. But the ministers have 
so scanty an income, that they are obliged 
to maintain themselves by their industry. 
The only Ijdn school is in Coire. About 
10,000 of the inhabitantB speak an Italian 
dialect ; these are in Engadin. About 
38,000 mA. the Swiss dialect of the Ger- 
man, and more than 96,000, chiefly near 
the sources or the Rhine, speak the Ro- 
manah or Ladin. This language is a relic 
<^the old Boimana nisfico. Contunerce 
is much interrupted by the narrowness of 
the passes on the fix>nt]erB. The exportei 
(chiefly to Milan] are catde, cheese, coals 
and rare minerals ; for which grain, salt, 
Goen and cloth are received in return. . 

Grist Mill. (SeeJIfiZL) 

Griswold, Roger, a governor of Ccm- 
necticut, was bom at Lyme, in that state, 
May 21, 1762. His fa^er had also been 
governor, and his mother v^as the daugh- 
ter of the fuBt and the sister of the second 
soveroor Wolcott He was graduated at 
Yale college in 1780, and, three years 
afWrwards, admitted to the bar, where he 
soon acquired the highest distinction. In 
1794, he yns elected a member of con- 
gress, in which body his intimate knowl- 
edge of the public affiurs and true interests 
of nis country, jomed to his great talents, 

general information and uiiNoiedeiiieanor^ 
gave him great infloenco. Preodent Ad- 
ams ofiered hini, in 1801, the secretari- 
ship of war, which was, however, declin- 
ed In 1807 he resig^tied his seat in the 
house of representatives. In this year 
he became a judge of the supreme court 
of Connecticut, and filled the ofSce vrith 
much reputatwn. In 1806 he vras one 
of the electors of president and vice-pres- 
ident In 1809 ne was chosen lieuten- 
ant-governor, and in IBll governor, of his 
native state. He died in October, 1812L 
Governor Griswold was unoonunonW^ 
amiable and dignified, as well as id>le. m 
was^ for sevenf yeaiB^ an eminent leader 
of the federal party. 

Gritti ; a noble Venetian fiunily. Jh^ 
dmoy having been taken prisoner by the 
Turks, concluded a treaty between the 
Porte and Venice (1501). At a later peri- 
od, he commanded the Venetian armies 
in the war against the league of Cam- 
bray, was made prisoner by Gaston de Foix 
(q. v.)^ and persuaded Louis XII to secede 
m>m the league, and, in 1513, to conclude 
a trea^ with the republic From 1523 to 
1538, he vras doge. — Ladomao QriUif son 
of Andrew, was bom in Constantinople^ 
during his fitther's captivity ,* served in the 
armies of the Turks, among whom he en- 
joyed a high reputation ;'eommanded at the 
siege of vknna; defended Buda, in 1531 ; 
beoune governor of Hungary, but drew 
upon himself the popular hatred by the 
murder of the iMshop of VITardein. The 
Hungarians besiegeo him in Medwisek 
whidi they took in 1534. They cut off 
his hands m the morning his feet at noon, 
and his head in the evenins; 

Groo ; a general name for any spiiitu- 
ous liquor a»i water mixed tog^tiier ; but 
is more particulariy applied to rum and 
vrater cold, without suoar. 

GB5oEa, Frederic Charies, and Au»xii- 
RATH, Henry ; the former bom 1706^ in 
Hobtein ; the latter, 1774, in Lubeck ; two 
inseparable fiiends and artistB. Gr5ger m 
a historical painter, and Aldenrath a min- 
iature painter. Both have distinguished 
themselves by lithographic productions. 
C^oger had to strugglo, in his youth, vrith 
the greatest obstacfes, having been an ap- 
prentice to a taikvy a turner and a house 
painter, and vras often punished for follow- 
ing his inclinations for drawing. They 
five in Hamburg. 

Groin, among buildeni, is the anjgular 
curve made by the intersection ortwo 
semi-cylinders or arches, and is either 
regular or irregular ^—f'q^1llar, as vidian the 
intersecting arches^ vdiether semicirculflr 



or senii-dtimica], are of the same diame^ 
ten and heights ; and irrmdar^ when one 
of the arches is temicircular, and the other 

Grolmait, Charles Louis WiUiam von, 
hte minister of iustice and the interior, 
and president of the council of ministerB of 
the grand-duke of Hesse-Dannstadt, was 
bom July S3, 1775, in Giessen. In 1796, 
he was appointed professor of law in the. 
university of Giessen. In 1816, he was 
called to Darmstadt, to preside over a 
commission for drawing up a new code. 
He rose gradually to the post of minister, 
in which he managed all branches of 
the government,- except the' military. 
GrolmatL during his long career as pro- 
fessor or law, has written manv works, 
some of distinguished merit, as his Prin- 
ciples of the Science of Criminal Law 
(4th edit., 1896), m which he lays down 
the theory of preventiony as the German 
bwyera <^ it, and several others. He has 
also edited or written for several law pe- 
riodicals of high reputation. 

Gaomirosif ; a province of the kingdom 
of the Netherlands, between 52^ 5ff and 
sagas' N. ho., ande^liy and 7° 13f E. 
Ion., forming the north-eastern extremity 
of the kingdom, on the eoast of the Ger- 
man ocean, containing 780 square miles; 
is protected against the encroachments of 
the sea by dikes. It is very level, and is in- 
tenected by innumerable canals, partlv for 
the purpose of safety, and partly to drain 
the tana, which is in some parts fertile, in 
others sandy, and in others marshy. In 
the south-east are the vast morasses of 
Bourtange. There are manv lakes, of 
which tlie Zuidlaader, the Schild and the 
Foxhobter are the principaL The climate 
is damp. The 142,575 inhabitants are most- 
ly Calvinists, and raise great numbera of 
cattle. Groningen takes the sixteenth 
place in the kin^om, and sends four dep- 
uties to the states-eeneral. The provin- 
cial states consist of 36 memberB. In 1810, 
it was made a department of the French 
empire, under the name of the JFutem 
Ems, The capital of this province is Gro- 
ningen. (See the/oUminng article,) 

Gkoninoen ; a city in the Netheriands, 
capital of the province of Groninffen, on 
the rivera Hunse and Fivel, 81 mifes west 
of Bremen, 100 miles north-east of Am- 
sterdam ; lat 53« IS' 13^' N.; Ion. ff> 34' 
W[ E.; 27,800 inhabitants; churches, 12. 
It is large, rich, strong, well peopled, and 
adorned witli many excellent buildings, 
public and private; its figure is neariy 
round, encompassed with good ramparts, 
guarded by brgc ditches fifled with water, 

besides many bastions and other fortifica- 
tions, which would render an attack upon 
it very difficult. Its port is very commo- 
dious ; ships enter with freat ease by 
means of a canal, whose sides are lined 
witli large stones for about nine miles from 
the sea. The university of Groningen, 
founded in 1614, and endowed with the 
revenues of several monasteries, has Ions 
been respectable. It consists of five facul- 
ties, and has a sood library. Here are al- 
so academies- for drawing, navigation and 
agriculture, an institution for the deaf and 
dumb, and societies of lawyera and physi- 
cians. In 1826, an epidemic, caused by 
the great drought, did great injury. Some 
authore think this city to be on the spot of 
the ancient fortress which Tacitus men- 
tions under the name of CorbuUmis numu- 
menhtm, but there is no historical proof of it 
GaoNOvius (properly GroYiov) ; the name 
of several celebrated critics and philolo- 
gists. 1. Mn Ftedaric^ one of the most 
Kamed students of antiquities, was bom 
at Hflanburg in 161 1. He studied at Leip- 
sic and Jena, and went through a course 
of law at Altdor^ spent some time in Hol- 
land and England, was appointed profes- 
sor of history and eloquence at Deventer, 
and, after the death of Daniel lieinnus, 
succeeded him, as professor of belles-let- 
tres at Leyden (1658), where he died 1671. 
With exteusive knowledge he combined 
indefiitiflnble industry and amiable man- 
nera. His editions of Livy, Statius, Jus- 
tin, Tacitus, Gellius, Phradrus, Seneca, 
Sallust, Pliny, Pkuitus, &c, and his Obser- 
vations, are valuable for their notes and im- 
proved readings. Ifis Ommeniarius de 
Sesterciis displays a thorough acquaintance 
with the Roman language and antiquities ; 
and his edition of Hu^o Grotius's woric, 
De Jure Belli el Pacisj is jusdy valued, on 
account of the notes. 2. His son Jcanes, 
bom at Deventer, in 1645, studied there 
and at Leyden. He spent some months at 
Oxford and Cambridge, and returned to 
Leyden, where he published, in 1676, an 
edition of Polvbius, which met with such 
applause, that he received an offer of a pro- 
fessorship at Deventer. He refused it, 
however, firom a desire to travel through 
France, Spam and Italy. The grand -duke 
of Tuscany conferred on him a professor- 
ship at Pisa, which he relinquished in 
1679, and was appointed professor of 
belles-lettres at Leyden and geognqpher to 
the imivereitv. He died at Leyden in 
1716. This teamed and industrious critic 
edited Tacitus, Polylnus, HerodoUis, Pom- 
ponius Mela, Cicero, Ammianus Maroelli- 
nus, &c, and compiled the valuaUe TVte-' 



jounw AnHqmiatum Chwcamm (Leyden, 
1G07, 13 Yols, fyl) He also promoted the 
publicatioii of the coUections of Gnevius. 
(See QrcBvkis,) These two works should 
be united, and, to fbrm a complete library 
of antiquities, the •Votn» Theiow. AnL 
Rom, by SaUengre (Hague, 171^ 3 Tola. 
foL), tlie Vhriutque Tms. nm>a SuppU-^ 
fltente, by Poleni (Veuice, 1737, 5 vds. 
foL\ the Inacr^ftumes AntiqwB toHus Orins 
Rom^ by Gruter (Amsterdam, 1707, 4 vols. 
foL), and the iMneon AnL i2om., by Pitis- 
cus (Leuwarden, 1713, 2 vols. fA,\ should 
be added. He had many weak points in 
his character, and his vanity led him to as- 
sail and calumniate men of the greatest 
merit, such as Heniy Stephens, Spcmheim, 
Voflsius, Salmaaius, Bochart and Grsevius. 
3L His son Ahrahamj bom at Leyden, 1694, 
showed himself a cood philoloffist, by his 
editions of Justin, Pomponius Mela^ Taci- 
tus and iEiiaiL He died there in 1775, 
iibnuian to the university. 

Gaos (French) ; thick, strong ; a word 
used in many compositions for silks, as 
rros de Nioiu^groadt Toun^ grosde Ber^ 
Ml, &C., all strong fabrics. 

Gaos, Anthony John, bom in Paiis^ 
1771, a pupil of David, is the most cele- 
brated painter of battle-scenes of the age. 
Gnw fint made himself known by his 
skill in portrait painting ; but he soon de- 
voted hunself to the path of rich and n6- 
ble composition, in which he seems to 
have taken Paul Veronese for his model. 
Ifis first celebrated work was the picture 
of the Sick of the Plwie at Jaffii, finish- 
ed in 1804. An officer is represented 
holding a handkerchief before his face, to 
avoid inhaling the infection, while the 
heio of the piece fearlessly approaches 
and touches one of the sick. All the fig- 
ures in this woik are portraits. All that 
is terrible in such a subject is represented 
in the clearest light, but sofienea by skill 
of execution and happy conception. This 
painting excited general admiration. It 
was purchased by the covemment, and 
Gros was commiasionea to execute the 
battle of Aboukir. This splendid paint- 
ing he completed in about 14 months. 
H& Battle of Eyiau is painted with ex- 
quiste skill There is much diat is over- 
chaiged in it, however; and a delicate 
taste must be particulariy ofiended with 
the profiiaion of mutilated soldieiB. In 
1814, Gros executed a picture, represent- 
ing the visit of Francis I and Charies V 
to the abbey of St D^nis, which excited 
great admiration. It was designed for the 
sacristy of the church. The departure 
of the king, <m the nif^t of March 30, 

1815, fimned the sul^ect of another woifc, 
which he executed in 1817. The pre- 
vaiiinf confiai^n and want of nobility in 
the fmncipal character are looked upon as 
unfortunate defects. A group of national 
guards, however, is^veiy expresnve. The 
Difax on the back ground and the figure 
of an old servant are exquisite. In 1824, 
he completed his painting for the dome 
of the church of St Genevieve, covering 
a space of 3350 feet, and therefore requir- 
ing the figures to be colossal. It repre- 
sents Genevieve protecting the Ftench 
throne. Ciovis, uhariemagne, St Louis, 
and (instead of Napoleon, who fiunished 
the plan] Louis X VlII, witii the duchess of 
Angouleme, form the principal groups. 
When Charles X saw the picture, he ssp 
luted the artist as baron, ana the nninii»y 
mnted him 50,000 finncs, in addition to 
ttie price of the picture (100,000 fiancs)r 
All the woiks of this artist are marked by 
bold design and powerful coloring. Groe 
is a menuier of the academy, and of die 
lesion of honor, and professor in the 
school of painting and sculpture. 

Grosbeak (l^ia, L.) These birds 
are in general shy and solitary, chiefly 
living in woods, at a distance fiom the 
hi^itations of man* Their vocal powers 
are not gpat, and hence they are little 
sought imer as song birds. Their most 
oonqncuous characteristics are the thick- 
ness and strength of tlieir bills, which en- 
able them to break the stones of various 
kinds of fruits. There are many epecies 
of them, the best known of which is the 
L. coceothraustet. This species is an in- 
habitant of the temperate parts of Europe. 
Bufibn says it is a shy and solitary bird, 
with no son^. The female builds bet ' 
nest in trees ; it is compoeed of small, dry 
roots and gross, and fined with warmer 
materials. The eggs are roundish, of a 
bluish green, spotted with brown. The 
green, grosbeak (Zi. cMorw) is common in 
eveiy part of Great Britam, and may be 
seen in every hedge, especially in winter. 
It does not migrate. The female builds 
in hedges or low bushes; she lays five or 
six eggs, of a pale ^[reenish color, marked 
at the larger end with spots of a reddish I 
brown. The pine grosbeak (Xr. muchleth ' 
tor) Inhabits the cold regions of both con- 
tinents, whence it occasionaUy visits tem- 
perate dunates in the winter. ThefemaJe 
makes her nest on trees, at a small dkh 
tance from the ground, and lays four while 
egsB. There are several species peculiar 
to North America, as the cardinal bird {L, 
cardinalm), wliich is found ftom Nuw 
England to South America, and is mast 



(imtof tfaeAUe^UDiin. Thia 
beautiful biid, nduch is often kept in 
cages, on aocoont of its bnsfat plumage^ 
is crested, of a red color, brigpter beDoith, 
with the throat black, and oil! red; the 
female is of a drab red cokxr. The other 
fpeeies are, evening grosbeak (L. tespaU- 
nal rose-breasted srosbeak (L, hukmna- 
noL blue grosbeak^I*. candea). 

OaoscHEif; a sdyer coin, so called 
from the Latin gnssus (thu^k); thick 
'coins, in opposition to thm lead coins, 
"nie oldest groschen known were struck 
In Treves, in 1104. The first Bohemian 
groschen were coined in 1296, at Kutten- 
buig. In ISSKi, the groschen was divided 
into 13 pfennigs In 1504, the small 
mschen, now m use, were first struck at 
tbo city Gosslar. The Marien-ffroschen 
are valued at eight pfemiige, and 30 mod- 
em groschen cm* Piussia are equal to a 
thaler. Orotdi is also the name of a 
Russian copper coin, worth two copecks. 

Gross (aoI.), in opposition to nef, is ap- 
plied to merchandise, including that m 
which it is packed. It refers particu- 
larivtoweifffaL Thus we say, <* The bag of 
coffee weicms nine hundred weight groffs," 
that is, including the weight of the Dag. 

Qross-Beeren, Battle of, August 
33, 18ia August 17, 1813, the annistice 
havinff expiree^ the war between the allies 
and Mi^wfeon commenced anew, and the 
emperor of France deared to huri his 
boltt, at the same time, into the camps at 
Breslau, Pracue and Beiiin. They re- 
coiled upon mmself on the Katzbach, at 
Culm and Grross-Beeren. Berlin was 
protected by the militia and the northern 
army, commanded by Bemadotte, then 
crown-piince of Sweden, and consisting of 
the third and fourth Prusrian divisions, the 
Russian corps under Woronzow, Winzin- 
gerode and Czemitschefjand about 32,000 
Swedes. The French army, reinforced by 
the forces of Wiirtembers, Bavaria, Darm- 
stadt and Saxony, was formed into feur 
divisions, led by Oudinot (the general- 
in-chief), Victor, Regnier and Bertrand, 
and was, together with the cavalry, under 
Anighi, fifom 80,000 to 90,000 strong. 
Its ^stination was the capture of Beriin, 
and it vnis supported by general Giraid, 
with the garrison of Magdebui^; but 
the crown-prince performed, in detail, 
the same operations against this body as 
the allies against the main body of the 
enemv. His army formed a curve firom 
fittchholtz, the extremi^ of the left wing, 
through Mittenwalde, KJein-BeereD, Hein- 
«mdorf, Blankenfeld, ROhbdorf, to Belitz 
and TreaenbriesBD, the extreme rif^t 

win^i^ fix)m which the Russian line inclin- 
ed inwards towards Jfiterbock ; while the 
PnisBians, in the centre, were advanced to 
Trebbin. The Prussian generals Hirsch- 
fekl and Puttlitz observed Magdebuiig be- 
yond Brandenburg. On both wings, the 
light troops were ouspersed as ftr as Wit- 
tenberg, Guben and Baruth. On the 23d, 
the enemy entered the curve— l^rnier in 
the centre, Bertrand on the right, and 
Oudinot on the left wing. They attacked 
the Prussians, at Trebbin, who gave way. 
On the 33d, Bertrand fell upon genml 
Tauenzien at Blankenfeld, mit vnis re- 
pulsed. Reffnier forced his way to GrosB- 
beeren, the Key-stone of 'die arch, about 
10 miles fifom Berlin. Here he was un- 
expectedly attacked by the brave Bfilow. 
At the same time, Borstell surrounded the 
ri^t wing of the enemy. The Prussians 
fought, vnth great courage, in sight of 
their capitaL A mount^ Saxon bat- 
tery havmg been outflanked and taken, 
they advanced to a chafgc. The dis- 
charge of fire-arms being rendered im- 
possmle bv the rain, the soldiers fought 
^with the butt-ends of their muskets and 
with bayonets. Gross-Beeren was taken 
by storm; the Saxon and the second 
French division were driven firom the 
field, and the cavalry of the duke of 
Padua routed. Oudinot now brought up 
the three divisions of reserve, which were 
attacked by the Russians and Swedes aa 
they deployed fix)m the wood. Cardell, 
colonel of the Swedish forces, suf^rted 
by an attack of cavalry, took the enemy's 
artillery. Oudinot now abandoned the 
struggle, and retreated to Witteobeiig and 
Torgau, on the Elbe. He lost 90 cannons 
and more than 3000 prisoners. The 
Prussians gained possession of Jiiterbock, 
and, on the 38th, of Luckau. A pyramid 
of cast iron has been erected on the spot 
by Frederic William III. 

Grotbfeud, George Frederic; bom 
1775 ; director of the ronnasium in Hano- 
ver; a distmgujshed German philologist 
He published a revised edition of Wenck's 
Latm €rranunar (fourth edition, 1834, 
Frankfort), and an abridgment of it at the 
same place. It is one of the best German- 
Latin grammars. He has also written 
msny teamed philological treatises. His 
nephew AuguduSj co-rector of the royal 
podagogium at Ilfeld, is the author of a 
Complete Latin Grammar (two volumes, 
Hanover, 1890). 

GROTBsqxTEB, iu painting, are . often 
confounded with arabesques. All oma- 
ments compounded in a lantastical man- 
ner, of men, beasts, ftovrers^ fdanta, &0., 



are caDed Bomelimes ara6e9gifef , and 
sometinies gnUsques ; but there is a di»- 
tinctioii' between them. Arabeaques are 
ftower-piecedy consisting of all lands of 
leaves and flowers, real or imaginafy. 
Tbey are so called from the Arabians, 
who fiist used them, because thev were 
not pemiitted to copy beasts and men. 
As mey were also used by the Moors, 
they are sometimes called moresquea. The 
Romans ornamented their saloons with 
paintings, in which flowers, genii, men 
And beasbSf buildings, &c^ are mingled to- 
jeether according to the &ncy of the artist 
llieBe ornaments are properlv caUed gro- 
kgqueSf because they were round in the 
rained buildings of the ancient Romans, 
aatl in subterranean chambers, which the 
Itafians caifl gnMoet, The origin of these 
ftntastic compomtions is trac^, by B6tti- 
ger, to the carpets of Persia and India, 
adorned with all the wonders of Oriental 
fiiUe. In the baths of Titus and Livia, at 
Rome, in Adrian's villa at Tivoli, in the 
bouses in Herculaneum and Pompeii, and 
many other places, such ^tesques have 
been found ; sometimes, mdeed, showing 
an excess of ornament, but generally val- 
uable for their arrangement and execu- 
tion. Raphael was well aware of their 
beauty, and caused his pupils, particularly 
Giov. Nanni da Udlne, to use them as 
patlems in painting the porticoes of the 
Vatican. He likewise used them, as the 
ancients did, for borders. The taste for 
grotesques has, in part, degenerated into 
the monstrous and unnatural; grotesque 
has therefore become a term of art to ex- 
presB a distorted figure, a strange monster, 
the offipring of an unrestrained imagina- 

Grotius, or Dc Groot, Hugo, a schol- 
ar and statesman of the most diversified 
talents, was bom at Delfl, April 10th, 158a 
He was descended from a noble family, and 
received on excellent education. In his 
1^ year, he sustained, witii general ap- 
plause, theses on philosophy, mathematics 
and law. The next year, he accompanied 
Bameveldt (q.v.), tlie^Dutch ambassador, to 
Fiance, where ho gained the approbation of 
Henry IV, by his genius and demeanor, 
and was e veiy where admired as a prodigy. 
Afler his return, he conducted his mist 
lawsuit in his 17th year ; and, in his 24th, 
WBs appointed advocate-general. In 1613, 
he became syndic, or pensioner, of Rotter- 
dam. The disputes of the Remonstrants 
and their opponents then disturbed tlie 
tumquilliQr or Holhmd. (See Arrmmaris.) 
Baameveldt was the defender of the for- 
paity. Grotius, who had declared 

TOL- VI. 7 

himself on the side of Bameveldt, sup- 
ported him by his pen and influence. 
This involved him in the trial which ter- 
minated m die beheading of Bameveldt, 
in 1619, and the condemnation of Gro- 
tius to imprisonment for life in the fortress 
of Louvestein. He succeeded in esciq^ 
'me from this fortress by concealing him- 
self in a chest, in which his wife had sent 
him books. After wanderinff about for 
some time in the Catholic Nemerfonds, he 
escaped to France. Louis XIII gave hun 
a penfflon of 3000 livnes. The Dutch 
ambassadors endeavored in vain to preju- 
dice the king against him. Richeheu was 
unfavorably disposed towards him, and, in 
1631, even his pension was withdrawn. 
Grotius then returned to hb native country, 
relying on the flivor of Frederic Henry, 
prince of Orange, who had written him a 
sympathizing letter. But, by the influ- 
ence of his enemies, he was condemned 
to perpetual banishment Grotius next 
proceeded to Hamburg. During his resi- 
dence in tiiat city, the Kings of I)eninaTk, 
of Poland and of Spain tnade attempts to 
persuade him to settle in their states ; but 
the protection which the chancellor Ox- 
enmem promised liim, and the inclination 
of queen Christina for learning, induced 
him to accept the offers of this princess. 
In 1634, he went to Stockholm, where he 
was appointed counsellor of state and am^ 
baasaaor to the French court. This 
choice displeased cardinal Richelieu, who 
was irritated to see a man return, who 
had been denied protection and a resi- 
dence in France ; out Oxenstiero would 
not allow any other minister to be nomi- 
nated, and Grotius appeared at Paris in 
1635. He dischargea his duties, as am- 
bassador, for 10 years, and gained univer* 
sal respect On his return to Sweden by 
the way of Holland, he met. in Amster- 
dam, with the most honorable reception. 
Most of his enemies were dead, and his 
countrymen repented of bavins banished 
the man who was the honor of his native 
land. He was received with equal favor 
by the queen in Sweden. He afterwards 
requested his dismission, and, having 
finally obtained it, was on his way to Hol- 
land, when a storm drove him to Pome- 
rania. He fell sick at Rostock, where he 
died, August 28, 1645. With die talents 
of die most able statesman, Hugo Grotius 
united deep and extensive learning. He 
was a protbimd theologian, excellent in 
exegesis, his Commentary on the New 
Testament being still esteemed ; a distin- 
guished belles-Tetties scholar, an acute 
philosopher and jurist, and a historian in- 



tiiiiale with the soiuoeB of history. His 
wiitiDgs have had a decisive influence on 
the formation of a sound toste, and on 
the difllifflon of an enlightened and liberal 
manner of thSnlring in afiairs of science. 
As a philologian, he seizes the genius of 
his author with sagaci^, illustrates brief- 
ly and peitinendy, and amends the text 
with fiicili^ and success. His metrical 
translations fiom the Greek are executed 
with the spirit of a poet Among the 
modem Laidn poets, he holds one of the 
iu«t places, and he also tried liis powers in 
Dutcn verse. But the philosopny of ju- 
riBpnidence has been ee^ciaJly promoted 
by his great work on natural ana national 
law, DtJurt Belli H Pacts, which laid the 
foundation of a new science; besides 
which he wrote AnnaUs Bdgiect usque ad 
Ann, 16(^ ; ParalUlon Rerua^mblic. ; De 
FeriiaU Rdigiome ChrisLj and Poemata 
(Leyden, 1617, 12mo.). 

GaoTTA DEL Cane (dog's cave); the 
most remarkable of the many grottoes 
around Naples, mentioned even by Pliny 
(Ubk 2, c 90), hollowed out of a sandy 
soil, to the depth of ten feet, and the 
breftdth of four. A lifht vapor, resem- 
bling that of coal, is always seen rising 
about six inches in height The walls 
do not exhibit any incrustation or do- 
pont of saline matter No smell is emit- 
ted, except that which is generally con- 
nected witii a subteiranean passage. A 
doc is most commonly chosen to exhib- 
it oie effects of this vapor. The animal, 
held in it, at first struggles considerably, 
but loses all motion in about two min- 
utes, and would immediately die, if it 
was not withdrawn into the open air. 
The effect is the same on all animals, and 
is owing to the presence of carbonic acid 
gas (see Carbon), which produces death 
merely by suffocation. A man, however, 
may enter the cave with impunity, as he 
may wade into the water, because the 
specific gravity of the gas prevents its 
nsing above five or six inches from the 
floor. (See Aim;?.] 

GaoTTO ; a small artificial edifice made 
in a wden, in imitation of a natural grot- 
to. The outsides of these grottoes are 
usually adorned with rustic arcliltecture, 
and their inside with shell-work, cor- 
al, &c. 

GaoucHT, Emanuel, count of, was bom 
at Paris, in 1766, entered the military 
service at the age of 14, and, in 1785, 
was appointed an ofiicer in the lung's 
body-guard. On the breaking out of the 
revolution, he showed his attachment to 
liberal principles, left the guards in conse- 

quence, and served in the campaimof 
1792, as commander of a regiment of dra- 
goons. In the succeeding winter, he was 
placed at the head of the cavaliV of the 
army of the Alps, and contributed essen- 
tially to the conquest of Savoy. He was 
then sent mto Vend^, where he distin- 
guished himself on several occasions, but 
was obliged to leave the army in conse- 
quence of the decree of the convention 
excluding all nobles from any military 
command. In 1794, he was again sent to 
Vendte, with the rank of genend of divis- 
ion, disappointed the attempts of the em- 
igrants at Quiberon, and cooperated vig- 
orously with the measures of general 
Hoche. In 1797, he was appointed sec- 
ond in command of the army destined for 
the invasion of Ireland. A stonn dispers- 
ed the fleet, and he arrived in the bay of 
Bantiy, with a small part of the land forces 
and a few ships. He determined, nev- 
ertheless, to land his forces ; but the rear- 
admiral Bouvet refused to comply, and 
Grouchy was obliged to return to France 
witiiout efifecting any thing.' In 1796, be 
was ordered to join the army of Italy, and 
received the command of the citadel ofTu- 
rin, and afterwards of all Piedmont, where 
he distinguished himself by his prudence, 
moderation and fiiTnneas. In the fbllow- 
inff year, his services contributed easen- 
tiiuly to Moreau's victories in Germany, 
and the battie of Hohenlinden was gained 
chiefly by his energy and courage. Dur- 
ing the trial of general Moreau, he mani- 
fested his sentiments in his favor in such 
a manner as to incur the displeasure of 
Napoleon, who continued, indeed, to em- 
ploy him in tiie most dangerous and im- 
portant enterprises, but without rewarding 
nis services. In tiie campaigns against 
Prussia, in 1806 and 1807, he commanded 
a cavalry corps, compelled the corps of 
prince Hohenlolic to capitulate at Prenzlau, 
and that of Bliichcr near L(kbeck,and dis- 
tinjniished himself at Friedland. From 
ISfiB to the time of the Austrian war, he was 
governor of Madrid, was then attached to 
me arnY of Italy, penetrated to Hunsary, 
and distinguished himself at the battte of 
Wa^ram. In reward for his important 
services, he was created commander of 
the iron crown, colonel-general iu the 
cliasseurs, and grand-officer of the empire. 
During the campaign in Russia (1812), 
general Grouchy commanded one of the 
three cavalry coq» of the grand anny, 
took an important part in all me great op- 
erations, covered the retreat to Smolensk, 
and received the command of the sacred 
squadron, composed of generals and ofR- 



eoB, wUch Nf^ioleob hid oigamzad for 
the security of his penon, in case of 
esreniity. Ofiended by the refusal of 
the emperor to confide to him the com- 
mand of a division of inftntiy, Gronc^ 
retired from the senrice. xBut on the loss 
of the battle of Leipeic, and the disastrous 
relieat of the French from Germany, he 
oflfered to resume his post Napoleon, 
while he permitted him to choose between 
the annyin Piedmont and the cavahy, 
gave him to understand that he consider- 
ed that he would be most useful at the 
head of the cavafay, the command of 
wfai^ Ghtmchy, therefore, determined to 
accept. His brUliant services in the cam- 
paign of 1814 were rewarded with the 
baion of marshaL After the restoration, 
he received no appointment, and he there- 
fore joined Napoleon on his return from 
Elba, in 1815, he received the command 
of the reserve cavalry of the grand army 
(80 sqoadrops]. On the 17th of June, he 
was detached m pursuit of the Prussians, 
and on the 18th, the day of the battle of 
Waterioo^ was before Wavre. Napoleon 
aecoBes him of being the author of the 
defeat at Waterloo^ by permitting two dg- 
vinoBB of the PrussiBn army, imder Blfi- 
eher, to join the English mrces. After 
the flSiAcation of die emperor, marshal 
Grouchy proclaimed Napoleon IL He 
was one of the 19 general officers, whose 
arrest was ordered by the ordomumce of 
July dl, 1815^ in consequence of winch 
be retired to Uie U. States, where he re- 
mamed until he received permission to 
return to Fraoee. In his Observatioas 
en the Gtoipaign of 1815» published at 
Pfailade^rfiia, Grouchy has defended him^ 
self from the charges of the emperOr. 
His sister, 

Qrovthf, SoMt, wife of the femous 
Condorcet, diea 1^2. She is the author 
of several valuable works. Her transla- 
tion of Snntb's ThhrU du SmHmenis 
moranor is admired. Mad. Condorcet 
showed a touching solicitude for ber 
brother, the marshm, when he was tried, 
in 1817, and def^ded by his son. 

GmouiiBSKi. (aenedo vui^arig) ; a weed, 
mwmg ui waste ^ces, mtroduced into 
me U. Stales from Europe, and flowering 
dsmiglioiit the whole season. It belongs 
to tfie natural order eainpoffvto; the stem 
is tenknis, about a foot nigh ; the leaves 
aaaplexieiiul and sinuato-pinnatifid ; the 
flowen smaO, yeHkiw, destitute of any ray, 
and disposed in a loose corymlk The 
plant is emollienty has a herbaceous and 
a&ghtly acid taste, but is rejected by al- 
most evety qnadrnped, except the hogand 

goat: soMil faMs, how^vw, ass vary Ibnd 
of the seeds. Such was the nuldneas of 
the weather in the beginningof the wimof 
of 1834-^ that this ptant flowered on the 
90th of December, in the streets of Bos- 

Gbouzid Tacxlk ; a general name given 
to all sorts of ropes and furniture vdueh 
belonff to the anchors^ or which are em- 
ployed in securinga ship in a road or har- 
W ; as cables, anchon^ bow-lines, 6lc 

Group (Italian grofpo or grvppo) ; a 
term enmloyed, in pamting and sculpture, 
to signify an aasemUage of severat ob- 
jects, such as fi^vres of men, beasts, firuils 
or the Mke, which have some rekdon to 
each other, arranged in such a manner 
as to present to the eye one connected 
whole. To grotip objects^ is to arrange 
them according to then- magnitude, direc- 
tion, apparent motion, &c., so as to fartn 
one whole. Rules for the dispondon and 
employment of groups are derived fimn 
philosophical prmciples of art lliese 
rules require a imity of Interest, which 
is by no means inconsistent vrith varie^ 
of ex|MresBiott. Thus, in bistoikal paim" 
in^ all the figures have reference to the 
pimcipal one, to winch Ae attention is 
chiefly directed. The groups must also 
be easily embraced by the eye, and aciee- 
able. This depends upon a skiiftu ar- 
rangement of the figiues and distribu- 
tion of the light. The cone, the pyramid, 
and abunch of gmpes, have been teken as 
modds of a group. Titian regarded the 
bunch of grapes as amodel, be^wise, in hn 
outlines and surfaces, it ezhibitB a unity 
connected vrith the iiiost agreeable variehr, 
and all the necessary dinerences of tif^t 
and shade and reflections. In the pynmid 
we have the model of the relation between 
a small height and broad surftce. MengiS 
advises to bring the larger masses into the 
centre, and the smaUertothe cnvmnfer- 
ence, which gives lightness and grace to 
the group ; not to arrange the figures in 
succession, nor to bring out various promi- 
nent ports of the figure, for instance, tieads, 
BO as to form togeUier straight, liorizontaL 
perpendicular or oblique Bnes ; to avoid 
geometrical figures, too great regulatily 
and repetition, and to exhibit onhr the 
most beautifid portions. He also ttiinfcs 
it advantageous to unite the groups of 
figures in uneven nombers^ aind to ob- 
serve the same rules in collecting the 
groups into picturea Of the even num- 
ben, he says, the most toleraUe are those 
which are made up of two uneven num- 
bers; for example»6, 10, 14; but those 
fonned v^ two even munbers^ such as 



4, 8, 13, can never be iiitroduoed iM^th 
0«0e. ThereflMxi is, that such a dispoei- 
turn Mtfves to avoid uniformitjr. If mo- 
notony of figures in a group is intolerable, 
a monotony of groups in a pictiue is as 
little to be endured ; and one pyramidal 
group at the side of anodier gives to the 
whole a stiff and constrained appearance. 
Moreover, objects apparently separate may 
often serve to unite two groups, otherwise 
distinct, which the ardst effects by a skil- 
ftd intermingting of Ijffht and shade. 

QaousE {fetraoy This is a lai^ genus 
of birds, whose distinguishinff mark is a 
naked band, often of a red color, in place 
of an eyebrow. They are wild, shy, and 
almost untamable. They lire in fami- 
lies, dwelling in forests, barren countries^ 
ftr froin man and coliivatton. They feed 
exclusively on berries, buds and leaves. 
They are Dolygamous, the male abandon- 
ing the female, and leavingto her the 
whole care of the progeny. The number 
of eggs varies from eight to fourteen. The 
largest q^ecies is the wood grouse (T. icro- 
gaJBua). This is superior in size to the 
turiLey, and is pecuhar to ibe old oond- 
nent It lives in pine forests, feeding 
on Ae cones of the ti^ which, at some 
seasons, cive an unpleasant flavor to its 
flesh. The hkuk grmm (71 Utnx\ also 
peeuiiar to the old continent, is about the 
size of a common fowl, though it m much 
heavier. It chiefly Iivcni. in high uid 
wooded situations, feeding on various 
kinds of benie& It does not pair, but, on 
the return c^ spring, the males assemble 
in ereal numbera, when a contest for su- 
periority ensues^ and oontinues with great 
oittemess till the vanquished are put to 
flights Red grouse (T. &:oHeu$). This 
tun! is also ciuled trnHfrfowl, and is found 
in great plenty m the ui^Mands of Scot- 
land. It pairs in the spnng ; the female 
lays eaghi or ten eggs. The young foUov 
the' hen the whole summer. As soon as 
they hafve attained theur full size, they 
unite in flocks of for^ or fifVy, and are 
extremely shy and wild. fFhUe grouse 
{T.aUms). This bird is ash-colored in 
summer, but its hue chan^ to a pure 
white in winter. It is found in most north- 
ern regions. Buflfon, speaking of this 
bud, says that it avoids the solar heat, and 
prefers the biting frosts on the tops of 
mountains ; fer, as the snow melts on the 
sides of the mountains, it constandy as- 
cends. The flesh is dark colored. There 
are also several species peculiar to North 
America, the most remaikable of which is 
the pkmaUd grouse^ or heath hen (T. eti- 
pdo.) This curious bird inhd^its open, 

deseit plams in ^Mulicular distridB of tlii» 
Union, avoiding unmense intermediate re^ 

S*on& The nuJe is furnished yntii vring- 
ce appendages to his neck, covering tiro 
loose, orange, skinny bags, capable m be- 
ing inflated. Its favmite feed is the par^ 
tridge berry, though it is also fond of 
whortleberries and cranbeffriea. It com- 
monly unites in covies, until the pairing 
season. Ruffed grouse^ or partridffB of 
the Eastern States, and pheasant of Penn- 
sylvania (T. umbdlus\ well knovm in al- 
most eveiY quarter or the U. States* Ite 
favorite phces of resort are hi^ nooun- 
tains, covered with the balsam pme, hem- 
lock, &C.; ii IS seldom feund in open 
plains. The manners of this bird are sol- 
itary, being usually found in pairs or sin- 
gly. It generally moves along with great 
statelinesBi with the tail spread out &e a 
fen. The male makes a peculiar noise, 
termed (fritmmtnjf. This is done by rap- 
idly striking with his stiffened wings; 
it is most common in the fnoming and 
evening. It pairs in April, and lays in 
May. l^e em are from nine to fifleen 
in number. It is in best order for the ta- 
ble in September and October. The oth- 
er American tijpecies are, the duaiy grouse 
(T. ohsewus)t mhahiting near the Rocky 
mountains; Canadian grouse (3*. Cana- 
densis), peculiar to the northern and north- 
western parts of the U. States, more com- 
mon in Canada: long4ailed grouse (T. 
phasianelku) inhabits the vrestem wUds of 
the U. States beyond the MisBissippL 

GafiNBERo ; a city in the Prunian gov- 
ernment of LJeffnitz, Silesia, with 1(^000 
inhalntants. U manufactures a great 
quandty of broadcloth, and is sunounded 
by vine^ranls, which produce large quan- 
tities of*^ wine. The wine is mudi used 
to mix with inferior French wines, to be 
sold m the interior. It is so astringent, 
that it .is commonly said, in Germany, 
^ You can m^ nd the holes of a stocking 
by putting some Griinberg wine into iL" 

Gruner, Christian Godfrey; a oele- 
hrated German phyacian, bom Nov. 8, 
1744, at Sagan, in Silesia. He first stud- 
ied dieology, at the deem of his fiitfaer, 
after whose death he followed his own 
inclination fer the medical science, in 
which he became one of the most prolific 
and practical writeis. He wrote about 50 
large works, and manv essays, which 
show a thorough acquamtance widi an- 
cient medical merature, as well as sound 
practical judgment He was a long time 
professor hi the university at Jena, where 
be died Dec. 4, 1815. He was member 
of a vast number of academies and learned 


in Gwrnaaj and odrar coon- 

Gkdnkb, Ghflriee Justus von, born Feb. 
98^ 1777, studied in Hafle and G6ttingen. 
In 1808, he reeeired an office under the 
FkuoBian gevenunent When the French 
entaced Posen, Ghruner was making a coi- 
lecikA ftr the widow of Pafan, the book- 
seller^ who was shot by the French far 
having pnbGahed -a jpamphlet against thenL 
Gffuner was thcrerore denounced to^mar* 
flhdJDavoust as a suspicious person; upon 
which he went himself to Davoust with 
the fist of subseribeiB, and the manhal 
s u hsci i b e d > hm sum. AfterwardB^ feel- 
ing vnaofe, he &d to Tilsit He was then 
appokited the preadent of tile police in Ber- 
mi, at that time a very dangerous and deli- 
cate situation. In 1811, he was indirectly 
obliced, by the Ffencfa, to give up his office. 
hi 1B12, he went to Bohemia f whether sent 
by govemnent or not is not known)^ and, 
suf^oited by Russia and England, estab- 
lidbed connezions throughout Germany 
for Ae ofothrow of Napoleon^ domina' 
tion. The plan was to begin with the 
bomkig of the French magazines^ when 
their troops were &r advan^ in Russia; 
but the vigihmce of the French rendered 
this plan aboitivet and the Prussian gov- 
ernment was dbhged to demand his arrest 
of the Austrian government He remain- 
ed in confinement a year, when the Rus- 
flisn govemment delivered him from his 
nison. Dining the war agahist the 
rren«^ he was appointed governor of the 
Rheniah movinces, wiiere he was very 
active. The emperor of Russia conferred 
on him the wd^r of St Anne of the firat 
dasBL AAer Napoleon^ second ftU, he 
was made Prusnan director of the police 
for Paris and the environSi in whtcn ca- 
pacity he ooonteracted, with great decis- 
MQ and dexterity^ the cunning of Fouch^, 
who employed eveiv means to retain the 
wofks of art wliich had been collected in 
Paris. After the peace, the kin^ of Prus- 
sia made Irim a noble, and appomted him 
nnoister to the Swiss republics. He died 
Feb. 8, 1820. CSruner has written several 
valoabie wovks on aubjects connected 
with politics and the police. 

Gar; a measure containing (me tenth 
of a line. 

GavraifFS, Andrew (propei^, Ore^ 
a dramatic poet was bom 1616, at Glogau. 
He studied at Fraustadt and Dantzic, and 
acquired an extensive knowledge of law ; 
aAer which he became taux in a ftnuly. 
He passed ten yean in travelling throu^ 
HoUand, France and Italy, during which 
he fbnned friendships with many of the 

most eminent men of the age. On his 
return, he became syndic to the senata of 
Gtogau. He died suddenly (1664), in an 
assembly of the estates. Gryphtus did 
much for Gennan literature. At a time 
when there w«re no German dramas but 
the canoival plays, he wrote tragedies and 
comedies, which displayed his acquaint- 
ance with the ancient and modem fitersr 
ture,and contained many poetical passsges, 
though they showed no acquaintance with 
theatrical efiect The Dutch poet Vondai 
seems to have been his model. Manv of 
his other poems breathe a high lyric 
spirit, mixed widi a tone of mebnchofy, 
occasioned by his misfortunes. 

GuADALAXAaA ; formerly an intendancy 
of Mexico, bounded N. by Sonora and 
Dunngo, E. by Zacateeas and Guanaxua- 
to, S. by Valladolid, and W. by the Pacific 
ocean ; it is 350 miles long and 900 broad ; 

Suare leagues, 9612 ; pof^ulation in 180G^ 
0,000. It contains 2 cities, 6 towns, and 
323 villages. The principal mines are 
those of Bolanos, Arientos de Obuna, 
HostiotipaquiUo, Copahi and GuichichUa. 
It is crossed firom E. to W. by the.Rio de 
Santiago. All the eastern part is table 
land, and has a pleasant climate. Tlie 
maritime regions afe covered with forests^ 
and abound in excellent timber for ship- 
building ; but the air is very hot and nn- 
healthyi This countiy now forms the state 
of Yalisco, in the Mexican confederacy. 

GuADALAXAaA ; a city in Mexico, capi- 
tal of the countiy of the same naxne, on 
the Santiago, 240 miles N. W. of Mexico ; 
Ion. 103^ ^W.; lat2P9'N.; popuhtion, 
19,500 — Spaniards, mulattoes and mesti- 
zoes. ItisalH8hop'Bsee,andi8situatedin 
a delightful and fertile plain, is regular and 
handKime, containing eight squarea» a 
magnificent cathedral, two colleges, many 
convents, and a manufectoiy of cigan. 
The bouses are moedy of only one stoiy, 
the streets unpeved, and the carnages are 
drawn by unuiod mules. 

GuADAi«oirpE ; an island of the West 
Indies, and one of the largest and most 
valuable of the Caribbee islands. It is 
situated in Ion. 62^ W., and in lat 16^ 20^ 
N., and is botween 60 and 70 miles in 
length, and about 25 miles in its greatest 
breadth. It is divided imo two parts by a 
channel, in breadth fix>m 30 to 80 yards, 
TliiB channel runs north and south, and 
communicates with the sea on both aides 
by a lafve bay at each end. The east part 
of the island is called Grande TVrre, aiHl is 
about 57 miles from Antigua point This 

Cis about 120 miles in chcumference. 
west part, which is properiy Quads- 



loupe, is divided by a lidge of mountains. 
This is 96 miles from north to south, and 
23 where broadest, and about 120 in cur- 
. cuit. In many parts the soil is rich. Its 
produce m the same with that of the other 
West India islands, namely, sugar, coffee, 
lum, ginger, cocoa, log^wood, &c. The 
island is well stored with homed cattle, 
sheep, horses, &c. This island was first 
discovered by Christopher Columbus. It 
was taken possession of by the French in 
1635, who drove the natives into the 
mountains. In 1759, it was taken by a 
British squadron, and was restored to 
France at the peace of 1763b It was 
again taken by the British in 1794; but 
was xetaken by the French in 1795. In 
1810, it was again taken possession of by 
a ftitish annament; and, in 1814, was 
restored to the French. Population, 
120,000: whites, 12,500; slaves, 101,000 ; 
fi«e negroes, 6500. 

GuAOET, Marguerite Elie; one of the 
most distinguished leaders of the Giron- 
dists. (See Girondigta,) 

GuAiACUM ; a genus of plants, contain- 
ing four or five arborescent species, natives 
of the West Indies and the tropical parts 
of America. The yellovriah-brown gum 
resin, bearing the same name, is obtained 
by wounding the bari^ of one or more of 
these trees. It has a bitter, aromatic taste, 
is sudorific, and is finequendy employed in 
chronic rheumatism, sciatica, &c. The 
wood itself possesses similar medicinal 
properties. The leaves are opposite, pin- 
nate, and tlie peduncles axillary, bearing 
sinffle blue fiowers. The wood is exceed- 
ingly hard, so much so as fiiequently to 
biiak the tools employed in cutting it ; of a 
pale yellow color near the exterior, and 
blackjsh brown at the heart ; specifically 
heavier than wrater ; and is well known un- 
der the name of lignummliB. It is used fi>r 
a variety of purposes, as for the wheels and 
cogs of sugar mills, for pulley s, bowls, and a 
variety of ornamental articles of furniture, 
as it 18 susceptible of a veiy fine polish. 
The tree has now become very scarce in 
Jamaica and St Dominco, large quantities 
having been cut down ror exportation. 

GuAL, Pedro, a civilian by education, 
of the province of Carthagena, in Colom- 
bia, has been distinguish^ in that coun- 
try's war of independence in various im- 
portant stations. In 1814, he was the 
presiding officer of tlie chamber of repre- 
sentatives of his province. At that time, 
a project was agitated for creating a con- 
federation of the littoral provinces, to ex- 
tend Urorn the mouth of the Orinoco to 
the boundaries of the couunandancy of 

P^mama, with MarMaybo, or some place 
in the valleys of CAcuta, for its cmoIbL 
Sr. Gual proposed the appelhtion of €b- 
lombia for the new rBpobuc, and thus led 
to the adoption of this name for the union 
aAerwards fonned of the whole of New 
Granada and Venezuela. In 1821, he 
was a member of the fimt general con- 
gress of Colombia, which produced the 
constitution of that vear. AilerwBrdB ha 
became secretary of the department of 
foreign affidxs ; and, in 1826^ he was ap- 
pointed to represent his government m 
the congress of Panam4, and attended 
the various meetings of that body as one 
of its members. O wine to his having re- 
sided some time in Butimore, he is per- 
sonally known and esteemed in the U. 

GuAMAif OA ; a town in Peru, the see of 
a bishop, whose diocese extends over sev- 
eral districts ; Ion. TT S& W.; lat. 12° 
50^ N. ; population stated from 18to26i/)00. 
This city was founded for the convenien- 
cy of the trade carried on betwoen lima 
and Cusco. There are three parochial 
churches, one for the Spaniards aiod two 
for Indians, besides the cathedral and sev- 
eral other churches and convents. In it 
is a university, which has a large reve- 
nue, for the study of philosophy, divinity 
and law. 

GuANAHANi. (See C(U MantLS 

GuANAXDATo ; a state (formeny an in- 
tendancy) of Mexico, bounded N. by San 
Luis Potosi, £. by Mexico, S. by Mecho- 
acan, and N. W. by Guadalaxara and Za- 
catecas; populadon, 382,829; -52 leagues 
lon^ and 31 broad; square leagues, 911. 
It IS the most populous state in Mexico, 
and is fiunous for its rich mines. It con- 
tains 3 cities, 4 towns, 37 villages, and 33 
parishes. Tlie most elevated point of this 
mountainous country, according to Hum- 
boldt, is 9235 feet above the sea. 

GuAifAXUATO, or Santa F^ Guaitax- 
UATO ; ci^, Mexico, capital of the slate of 
the same name ; 140 miles north-west of 
Mexico ; Ion. lOO* 55^ W. ; laL 2P N. : 
population within the city, 41,000 ; and, in- 
cluding the mines surrounding the city, 
the buildinsB being contiguous, 70,600. 
It is situated in a narrow defile, henuned 
in by mountains, theground on which the 
city is built bein^ 6836 feet above the sea. 
The streets are medlar, but the city is 
well built, and contams three convents^ a 
college, two chapels and five hermitaf^ 
The mines of Uuanaxuato are the most 
jiroductive in the world. The mines of 
the intendancj yiekled, fit>m 1796 to 180(3^ 
$40,000,000 ui gold and silver; nettiy 


$5^000,000 per amnini, and nearly equal 
to one fourui of the whole quantity of the 
gold and sUver produced in Mexico. 

GuANCA VsLiCAy.or HuAircA Vei.ica; 
juiiadiction in the bishopric of Guaman- 
ga, in Pefu. The town which sives name 
to this ffovemment was founded on ac- 
count of the &mou8 rich quicksilver mine, 
and to the working of it the inhabitants 
owe their subsistence. 

GuANCA Velica, town, Peru, in the di- 
ocese of Guamanga, and comtal of a juris- 
diction of the same name ; oO miles north- 
west pf Guamanga, IdO south-east of Li- 
ma; Ion. W4I& W. ; lat 12^ 45^ a ; pop- 
uJadon 5,20a Itia 12,308 feet above the 
level of the sea. The buiklings are of 
stone, more or less porous. It stands In a 
breach of the Andes, has a chanceable and 
cold climate, and is one of the richest 
towns in Peru. This town is famous for 
its mines of mercuiy, also for its gold and 


Guards ; troops whose particular du^ 
it is to defend the person of a civil ormil- 
itaiy rulec In modem times, the tenn 
^mrd has been used to designate corps 
distinguished from the troops of the line 
by superior character, or only by rank and 
dresBL The interest of the govemors be- 
ing often difierent from that of the sovem- 
ed, and the nileis being also often fiable to 
be called to account for the evils suiiered 
by the people, sovereigns have had guards 
fifomthe most ancient timea The As- 
syrian and Persian monarchs had body 
guaids, from whom the generals of the 
troops were taken. Alexander formed a 
guard of nobles, and many such have ex- 
isted in modem times. These guards of 
Alexander were the sons of the noblest 
persons of the empire, and were divided 
into two classes. The inferior class guard- 
ed the exterior of the palace or tent, took 
care of the king's horses, &c. From 
among them were chosen the hdari, or 
friends, who dined with the monarch, and, 
in the field and at the chase, never le^ his 
side. Two of their number watched his 
bed-room. He. promoted them to be gen- 
erals ; and several of them, lifter his death, 
became monarchs of those countries 
wliich, during his life, they had ruled as 
his sovemors. Still more like modem 
guaroB were the cargvratpides (the silver- 
shieidedj, commanded by Nicanor, son of 
Pamiemo. The pr<Btoriani (q. v.) were 
the guards of the Roman emperors, and, 
an later times, had the greatest influence 
on the election of the emperors, some- 
times the entire control of it In their licen- 
tioumesB and political importance they re- 

sembled tlie Janizaries, the guards of die 
sultan. In &ct, in eveiy real despotism, 
the tendency of the body guards is, to be- 
come the masters. (See JomzoriM.) At 
a kter period, the trabanU and luUfckien 
(archers) guarded the persons of the Ro- 
man-Gemaan emperors ; and similar troops 
were maintained at other courts. In £d 
middle a^ distinguished peisons, in tur- 
bulent cities, often had guards ; at least, this 
was frequendy the case in the larser cities 
of Italy, and, at one time, every cardinal had 
his own ffuard. The Corsicans were then 
employed for this service in Rome. But, 
until recent times, guards were merely 
destined to protect the person of the mon- 
arch, or some distinguished person. When 
the interest of the monarch is differonl 
from that of the nation, it is safisr to ciiooee 
forei^^ners for body-euards, as not having 
any mteresi in the oisputas between the 
two parties; hence the Scotch archers of 
Louis XI, and the Swiss of the BouitNons. 
In France, their number seems first to 
have been augmented by the ostentatious 
LfOuis XIV, me idol of monarchists. Ab 
his plan of government was, to avail him- 
self of the commons against the nobles, and 
of a standing army against the commons, 
the number and importance of the guards 
were much increased. The motnm du rot 
in his reign amoimted to 8000 men, but 
still retained, more or less, the character 
of household troops, — that is, it Vras their 
dvty to guard the person and palaces of 
the kings. Most monarchs had similar 
troops, and maiw of the smaller ones were 
distinguished for the splendor of their 
ffuards. The petty princes of Gennany 
had brilliant corps of Swiss, Hevduken, 
&c. Frederic the Great led his battalion 
of body-guards into the fire, like other 
troops. He had several battalions of in- 
^try and several souadrons of cavahy as 
guards ; troops df oistinguished courage 
and remarkanle height Height, at this 
time, was considered one of the chief ex- 
cellences of a soldier. The guards were, 
therefore, to excel all other troops in this 
quality ; and they were indeed a rare col- 
lection of giants. The Russian guards 
were more numerous. In 1785, they 
amounted to 10,000 men. Napoleon's, 
however, were the finest guaraa, and 
among the finest troops that ever existed. 
He remtes (in Las Cases's Mhwrialj vol. 
2, page 33, edit of 1824), that his nanow 
escape fixun being taken prisoner, inacas- 
tie OB the Mincio, led to the estaUishment 
of troops whose destination was the per- 
sonal safety^ of the commander. He call- 
ed tkemgtiuiw: these were body-guards. 



When he bec&me the head of the govern- 
ment, and all Europe was arraved against 
the revolutionaiy principles of France, it 
was natural, more partieiilariy after he had 
conceived the plan of reestabhsfaing a he- 
reditary throne, that he should v^di to 
have a corps, which might serve, in every 
respect, as a model to his whole army, 
and which, at the same tim^ would be 
particularly attached to him. He there- 
rore instituted his consular euards, and, af^ 
terwards, the imperial guaitte, which form- 
ed a complete eorp$ d^camUty with artillery 
and cavaJiy, and of which he made use, 
in battles, only in decisive moments. He 
could confidently rely on theuL They 
were the &iU of the army : none were ad- 
mitted who had been punished by a court- 
martial In 1612, the imperial guards 
consisted of one division of old guards 
(three regiments of garde-grenadiers and 
two re^mentB of garde-chasseurs) and 
tveo divisions of young guards, consisting 
of six regiments oi garde-iiraiUewrSy six 
regiments of earde-voUigeurSf one regi- 
ment of garde-chasseurs, one renment of 
garde-grvnadiersj one of garde-^anqueurSy 
each containing two battalions of 800 
men. The cavalry consisted of srena- 
diers, dragoons, chasseurs, chewtuxlegers^ 
lanciersy Mamelukes and gendarmerie 
d'OUe, The artillery had 1») pieces of 
cannon. After the disasters of 1812, the 
imperial guard was reorganized on the 
same basis. Every one Imows how no- 
bly the old guards left the st^ of histoi^ 
on tlie field of Waterioo. When Louis 
XVIII was put upon the throne of his 
brother, he abolished the imperial guards — 
a measure which, according to some wiit- 
ers, he afterwards regretted— and, instead 
of them, the ancient household troops 
were again introduced, viiiich had been, 
in part, abolished, even before the revolu- 
tion — ^the gardes-du-corps, the gardes-de- 
la-jHnie, me cent Smsses, the nwusque- 
iaxres noirs and gm, &C., most of them 
commanded by emigrants, two of the 
bodies by Berthier and Marmont The 
cent Suisses looked ridiculously in their 
dress, which appeared ludicrous even be- 
fore the revolution. But, after the hun- 
dred days, real guards were established, 
and several battahons of Swiss. The fate 
of both, in July, 1890, is well known. 
(See France.) There are now no royal 

fuards in France. In England, the house- 
old troops or guards consist of the life- 
^ards, the royal regiment of horse- 
ffuarda, and three regiments of foot-guards. 
In Russia, the guards form a numerous 
corps, vdiich, on the death of Alexaiider, 

and previoiulyi showed diat many amonc 
them had the spirit which, as we have wad, 
the guards of despots always have, more 
or less; though, at present, Russia has 
nothing to fear from them similar to the 
conduct of the Strelitz (q. y,), because 
even the Russian autocrat coveras, in 
some degree, by means of lavrs. The 
Prussian ffuards fbrm a whole corps d^ar- 
nUe. In Austria, the guards, though noore 
numerous than formerly, are still merely 
body-guards of the sovereign, and there- 
fore their number is comparatively smalL 
Noble guards, in which only sons of no- 
blemen could serve, have sometimes been 
formed, a private in which had the rank 
of ensign. They have generally proved 
useless in moments when their services 
were needed. 

Guards, Mtxiional; an institution which 
has acquired historical importance in the 
politics of France, and, according to aU 
appearance, vrill now become more im- 
portant than ever. It was desirable that 
the popular par^, in the be^ning of the 
revolution, snoufd have forces on which 
they could rely, both for maintaining or- 
der and resisting the attempts of the court 
party, incase it should be necessary ; as, 
for instance, the court had eariy marched 
90,000 men, under the duke de Brogtie, 
tovrards Paris. July 19, 1789, after mat 
disorders had occurred in Paris, and the 
day before the BastUe was taken, a muni- 
cipal committee was formed in the hM- 
de-vQUy to provide for safety and order. 
They invited the lieuterumt of the police 
to advise with them ; and, within a few 
hours, a plan was prepared for arming the 
citizens. The armed force was to consist 
of 48,000 men, to be drawn from the va- 
rious electoral districts. They first adopt- 
ed green as their color, taking branches 
of trees as their badges ; but, as it was re- 
membered that this vnis the color of the 
livery of the count d'Aitois (afterwards 
Charles X, brother of Louis XVI), who 
was highly unpopular on account of his 
arbitral sentiments, it was abandoned ; 
and it is commonly believed that the col- 
ors of the ci^ of Paris (blue and red), 
were united with that of the king (white). 
But the oriffin of the tricolor is not Quite 
certain. (See the article TVicoUn-,) The 
plan of arming a portion of the citizens 
was adopted vrith great readiness, because 
it was necessary to preserve order. Tins 
is the origin of the national guards, af> 
terwards so important. On the 14th, the 
Bastile was taken; on the 15th, Bailbr, 
prendent of the assembly, was made 
mayor of Paris, and the marquis de La- 



fsLjettB commaDdant-feperal of the militia 
of Paris. June 13, 1790, the natiooal as- 
sembly decreed that, to enjoy the rights of 
citizenship, it was necessoiy to be a mem- 
ber of the national ^tiaid. September S9, 
1791, a decree was issued fbr the orguazar 
tion of the national gu^rdd. A standing 
municipal and departmental nationu 
guard was herewith established, to be 
raised by ^oluntaiy enlistment, in the pro- 
portion of 1 to every 20 citizens; they 
chose their own officers, and received 
pay, arms and uniform. The solemn 
declaration of the national assembly, De- 
cember 29, 1791, that the French nation 
renounces all wan of conquest, and will 
aever employ its arms against the liberty 
of any nation, was connected with this 
measure. In May, 1792, the number of 
the battalions of me departmental nation- 
al guards was fixed at 216. But the meas- 
ures of Austria and Prussia, as well as the 
arming of the emigrants on the frontier, 
obliged the Firench government to assume 
amflitaiyatdmde; and the national guards 
became a great support to the anny, By dif- 
fusing a imlitaiy ^irit throup^hout the na- 
tion, and training many individuals, who 
afterwards joined the anny. Octdt>er5, 
1795 (13 Vend^miaire), Bonaparte, acting 
under Barns, led the troops of the con- 
vention against the national guards of the 
sections of Pans, who had declared 
against the system of tenorism. In con- 
sequence of the events of this day, the 
Stan of the national guard of Paris was 
dissolved, October 6, and the command 
confened upon the conunander-m-chief 
of the army of the interior ; and thus the 
genuine national guard, a militta, under 
the civil authorities, destined to maintain 
order, was abolished. Some mouths 
later, the directory introduced movable 
columns, in lieu of the stationary depart- 
mental guards. August 12, 1797, the 
two legislative councils gave the na- 
tional iruards a new organization, of 
which Napoleon retained the essential fhtb* 
mres, but adapted to his miHtanr policy. 
Numerous legions were formed, which 
watched the coasts and fortresses on the 
fiontleis, or served in the interior, whilst a 
numerous gmdarmeriej entirely distinct 
from the national guards, formed a power- 
ful and active police, vrith a military or- 
ganization. In 1810, Napoleon formed a 
regiment of four battalions of the nation- 
al guards, which had distinguished them- 
selves on the occasions when the English 
had landed. This regiment was called 
the national guards of tht guardt. March 
10, 1812, Napoleon issued the decree for 

th« fbrmatioD of the natknud guards in 
three 6or», as they were called, of which 
the fiist comprised all men capable of 
bearing anns, from 20 to 26 yean of age ; 
the second, all able-bodied men fiom 26 
to 40 vears ; the third, or arritre ban^ all 
men fit for service, fixim 40 to 60 yean. 
Of the first ban, he called out 100 cohoits, 
of 1000 men each, fbr active service, who 
were not to fight beyond the fit>ntien ; but, 
in 1813, they declared, at least a part of 
them, their willingness to serve beyond the 
fixMitiers. The correspondence between 
Napoleon and Joseph, his brother, just 
before the entrance of the allies into Paris, 
shows that the emperor still relied on the na- 
tional guards for tne defence of the cq^tal ; 
but the want of arms^ the defection of the 
highest dvil and military officers^ and, 
more than all, the aversion of the people 
to a ccmtinuance of the struggle, prevent- 
ed such a measure. After the restoratkm 
of the Bouibons, the government endeav- 
ored to make the national guards depend- 
ent upon itself! Jlfeimetir (the brother of 
the kinc ) was appointed commander-in- 
chief of all the national ffuards of France. 
The guards were not aUowed to choose 
any of their offioen (see Jhmce» in 1618): 
but, in 1818, the staff of the national 
guards vnis dissolved, and Momitwr re- 
signed the chief command. The national 
guuds were again put under the prefect 
and the minister of the interior. April 29, 
1827, the national guard of Paris, on an 
occasion when it vras reviewed by the 
king, having ventured to demand the re- 
moval of the ministry (that of Vill^le, see 
JVanee), and the banishmentof the Jesuil% 
was dissolved on the SOth. It vras reviv- 
ed at Paris, during the memorable days of 
July, 1830. July 30, general Lafiiyette 
was appointed, by the provisionary gov- 
ernment, commander-in-chief of the na- 
tional guards, in which office he was con- 
firmed by king Louis Philip, receivinf^at 
the same time, the marshal's staff The 
new charter *^ intrusts the charter and the 
rights which it consecrates to the patriot- 
ism and courage of the national guard and 
all the citizens'' (article 66); so that, it 
wouM seem, the national guards have be- 
come a fundamental institution of the 
kingdom, and cannot again be constitu- 
tionally abolished. C^mj/laints have 
been made, that the commuid of this im- 
mense power is lefl in the hands of one 
man, and that the national guards are not, 
as formerly, a muaici|jal force fi>r the 
maintenance of order. An ordinance of 
October 9, 1830, reorganizes the national 
guards. They are divided into movable 



and BtadoDaiT ; dieiinpc, compocied of men 
from 20 to 90 yean of age, iDclusive, and 
onl^ to be called into service by a kw, or, 
while the chambers are not in seesion, by 
an ordinance, which must become a law 
during the next session, is to be " an aux- 
iliary of the army for the defence of the 
territory, — the guard of the frontiers, to re- 
pel invasion, and maintain public order in 
the interior." Corporals, subalterns and 
sub-lieutenants are to be elected by the 
members ; the other^ to be ap- 
pointed by the king. When this body is 
oiganized, the members are subject to mil- 
itary discipline ; yet, when the national 
guuds renise to obey oiden, or leave their 
corps without autliority, they are to be 
punished only by imprisonment, not to ex- 
ceed five years. The Prussian Landwehr 
K something similar, but more military in 
its OTj^anization, without the privilege of 
•choosmg officers, and subjected to an ab- 
sDihite military discipline. (See MiUikL) 
The citizen guards established in Bekium 
during the revolution of the year 1890, 
were an imitation of the French national 

GuARiNi, Giovanni Battista, bom at 
Ferrara, 1^, was descended from a no- 
Me fiimily, distinguished fi>r its influenoo 
on the revival of leairnnir and «f poetiy. 
After having studied in Ferrara, Pisa and 
Padua, and lectured, in his nattve city, on 
the ethics of AristotJe, he entered the ser- 
vice of the duke Alphonso II, who appr&- 
mted his talents, knitted him, and sent 
faim as his ambassaaor to the Venetian 
republic, to Emanuel Filibert, duke of 
Savoy, to Gre^ry XIII, Maximilian II, 
and Henry or Valois, who was chosen 
king of Poland ; and, when the latter as- 
cended the throne of France under the 
name of Henry HI, Guarini was sent to 
the Polish estates to propose the duke as a 
candidate for the throne of Poland. The 
Mure of this embassy, which involved 
the sacrifice of a part of Guarini's own 
property, was taken advantage of, by hia 
jealous rivals, to deprive him of the &yor 
of his prince ; and, after all his services, he 
was dismissed. He now passed his time 
in literary retirement, partly in Padua, and 
parthr on his oWn estate, but was recalled, 
m 15JB5, to the office of secretary of state. 
Ho again attained b, distinguished rank in 
the court, but, two years after, retured a 
second time, because the duke, in a dis- 
pute between Guarini and his daughter- 
m-lavi;^ gave a deci«on which displeased 
birp. He then continued some time in pri- 
vate life. In 1597, he entered the service 
of Ferdinand I, grand-duke of Tuscany, 

which he soon quitted. Suspecting that 
the duke had &vored the marriage of his 
youngest son, which had been conchided 
privately, against Guariid's will, he left 
his court, and retired to that of the duke 
of Urbino. After some time, he returned 
to Ferrara, but resided alternately at Yea- 
ice, Padua and fiome, on account of the 
numerous lawsuits in which his litigious 
spirit involved him. In 1605, he went as 
an ambassador of his native city to the 
court of Rome, to cooffratulate Paul V 
on his elevation. He died at Venice, in 
1612. Guarini is one of the most elegant 
authors and poets of Italy, as is shown by 
his letters, his SegreUtrioy a dialogue, his 
comedy Uldropica, his BSmtj and, above 
all, by his Pagtor Fido. This pastoral 
drama, which was first represented at Tu- 
rin, on the marriage of Cnarles Emanuel, 
duke of Savoy, with Catharine of Austria, 
and afterwards fi^quentiy brought upon 
the stage, and translated into many lan- 
guages, Imis rendered him immortal The 
flligfatest glance shows that this piece is 
by no means an imitation of the wMnto, 
to which it is superior in ingenuity, epi- 
gnmmatic trnns and poeticid omament, 
— cliaracteristics which nave Inrou^t upon 
him undeserved reproach, as being ill 
adapted to the pastoral drama. Guarini's 
wniks appeared at Ferrara, in 1737 (four 
volumes, Ito.). His Trattato deUa poiiU- 
ea LiberUi (written about 1599) was fixst 
minted at Venice, in 1818, with his life by 

GuASTALU. ; a duchy in Upper Italy, 
on the Po^ in the Austrian dojznnicMis, 
and the duchy of Modena, containing 33 
square miles, with 7900 inhabitants. Its 
chief place, of the same name, on the 
Crostolo and Po, contains 5500 inhalMt- 
anta. Guastalla formeriy belonged to 
the dukes of Mantua. The line becom- 
ing extinct in 1746, it was given to Parma, 
and, in 1795, was comprised, with all the 
dominions of this house, in the Italian 
repubtic. In 1815, it was annexed to the 
duchy of Parma, and given to Maria Lou- 
isa, wife of Napoleon, as duchess of 

GuATiMALA (for an account of the 
county of this name, see Cetdnd Ameri- 
ca). Guatimala is also die largest of the 
five states of the republic of Central 
America, formed fit>m the okl captaiii- 
generalafaip of the same name. It ues w 
the north-western part of the republic, 
bordering on Mexico^ the gulf of Hondu- 
ras, and the Pacific ocean. It is divided 
into l^pmUdM, 

GcTATiMALA, La Nubva (fht Nbw)\ seat 


«f die ledenl ^QfvemuMDt of CiiDtnl 
Ammc% wrtMe^UKoptl see, atuaied on 
the river Vacaa^ near the P8ci6c ooeen, 
with a irood haifoor ; let 14^ 4Xy N.; Ion. 
9r25^W. In April, 1830, k WB8 needy 
destroyed by an earthquake. Previous to 
this, the irihat»tants were about 40,000; 
the houaes were handsome, but built low, 
on account of the freauency of earth- 
quakes ; the streets broad, and the nume- 
rous churehee and public buiidinoB diff- 
tinguiflhed for their elegance. It was 
founded in 1775^ in consequence of the 
destruction of the old city oy an earth- 

GoATA {ptidkan); a genus of plants, 
aflied to the mynle, containing nearly 40 
species, natives of the intertropical parts 
ik Anaerica, with one or two exceptiona 
They are trtes or shrubs, with opposite 
entire leaves, and axillaiy white flowenu 
The P.pjfttferum attains the height of 18 
ordO foet, and is now cukivated in all the 
inteitropcal parts of the globe, for the 
oke ofiis fruit, which hss a sweet, ame* 
able flavor, and is ccmsidered very whole- 
some. The young branches of this bee 
sre quadrangular; the leaves, oval-acute, 
and the fruit shaped like a pear, and about 
as large as a pullet's e^, yellow without, 
with a fleshy pulp, and is eaten either in 
a crude state, or in the form of jellies. 
The wood, which is very hard, is much 
used for various mechanical purposes, as 
also for burnings and makes excellent 
charcoaL This tree hss been cultivated, 
wid& complete success, in the south of 

GuAXACA, or Oaxaca ; a state of Mexi- 
co, situated between Puebia and Guati- 
mala, about 240 miles in length and 120 
in breadth. The soil is fertile, producing 
com, maize, cocoa, cochineal, suoar, hon- 
ey, and fruits of every kind. Here are 
mines of gold, sibrer and crvstaL Mul- 
lieny trees, for the cultivauon of silk, 
liave been introduced by the Spaniards. 
There are 150 Indian towns, besides 
300 villages and upwards of 150,000 na- 
tivea, who are tributary to the Spaniards. 
Population, 534,000. 

Udaxaca ; a town in Mexico, capital of 
the state of the same name ; 90 miles S. by 
W. of Vera Ciuz, 195 miles S. S. E. of 
Mexico; Ion. 98^ 96" W.; lat 17° 30^ N. 
Population in 1792, 24,000. This town, 
also called AnUqwa% is the see of a bish- 
op. It is agreeably situated in a valley, 
on a river abounding with fish, which 
nms into the Alvarado. 
. GuATAquiL, a province of Colombia, 
in New GraniBda, lies akmg the Pacific 

ocean, on the Guayaquil river, and oa the 
north side of the cuff of the same name. 
P<^iidalion, about 9o,OOa St^>le8, cocoa, 
cotton, tobacco, salt, wax, riee and honey. 

Guataquil; a city of Cofombia, aiul 
capital of the province of the same name, 
on the west side of Guayaquil river. It 
possesses an excellent seaport Ship-dm- 
oer abounds in the vidmty, &t>m which 
many vesseb have been built It is 150 
miles S. S. W. of Quito; Ion. 79» 56^ W.; 

Gi7ATAqurL Bat, or GuLV, extends fixmi 
eujpt St Helena to Ponuide Picoe, up- 
wards of 100 miles ; and, extending in- 
land, in the form of a triangle, receives, at 
its bead, Guayaquil river. The gulf is 
chequered by numerous iedaiids, one of 
which. Puna, is of conriderabte size. 

GuBiTZ, Frederic William, one of the 
best wood-engravers in Germany, was 
bom in 1784. He is professor in the 
academy at Berlin, and teacher of the ai| 
of engraving on. wood, which he has car- 
ried to creat perfection. He tb also a 
writer of some talent, and has edited a 
^periodical {Der OtHUschqftar) in Berlin, 
since 1817. 

GuDoxoR {gobioy Cuv.). These fish are 
distinguished by having the dorsal and 
anal fois short, and without spines. At the 
angle on each side of the mouth, there is 
a small beard of a quarter of an inch in 
lenffth. Ndther jaw is fiimished with 
teeui, but, at the entrance of the throat, 
there are two triangular bones, that per- 
form the ofSce of grinders. These fidi 
are taken in gentle streams, and are gener- 
ally of small size, measuring only about 
six inches. They are brought together by 
raking the bed of the river, which makes 
them crowd in shoals to the spot, expect- 
ing food fit>m this disturbance. Tbev 
are spoken of by Aristotle ; and old Wit 
louafaby says that they are preferred, by 
the rlngUsb, to every other nver fish. 

GuxBERS, or GusBRKs, or Gauxrs (i. e., 
infidels); the fire-worshippen in Persia; 
in Incua called Pcotmu, They call 
themselves BehatdUj or followera of the 
true fidth, and live chiefly in the deseits 
of Caramania, towards the Persian gulf, 
and in the province Yerd Keram. . These 
people, who are but litde known, are la* 
oorious and temperate cultivators of the 
ground. The monnera of the Guebers are 
inild. They drink wine, eat all kinds of 
meat, marry but one wife, and Uve chaste- 
ly and temperately. Divoroe end polyga- 
my are prohibited by their relision ; but if 
a wife remains barren during tnefint nine 
yean of marriage, the husband may take 


a noond wife. Tliey worthip one Su- 
pfeme Being, whom they call the EUmtd 
SpHtf or YwL The mm, moon and plan- 
ets they beUere to be peopled with ration- 
al beingSy acknowledge light as the primi- 
tive cause of the good, darkness as that of 
evily and wondiip fire, as it is said, from 
which they, have received their name. 
But they themselves say, that they do not 
woi^p fire, but only find in it an image 
of the incomprehensible God ; on which 
account they ofier up their prayers before 
a fire, and maintain one uninteiraptedly 
burning on holy places^ which their pro- 
phet Zoroaster fq. v.), they say, kindled 
4000 yean ago. Their holy book is called 
ZefuMveito. (q. v.) One of the peculiar- 
itiee of the Guebers is, that they do not 
buiy their 'dead, but expoae the bodies 
upon the towers of their temples, to be 
devoured by birds. They obs<^e which 
part the birds first eat, uom which they 
judge of the fate of the deceased. 

G0KLF8, or GuELPHs (from the Italian 
Guef/i and the German fFe(/en); the 
name of a celebrated family, which, in 
the 11th centuiy, was transplanted from' 
Italy to Germany, where it became the 
ruling race of several countries. The 
family still continues in the two hues of 
Brunswick, the royal in England, and the 
ducal in Germany. Accorainff to Eich- 
hom*s UrgesMchU dea HauBta dtr Wtlftny 
tliia house first appears distinctly in the 
9th century, in the reign of Charlemagneb 
The memory of this ancient name has 
lately been revived by tlie foundation of 
the Hanoverian Guelf order. (See Han- 
over.) The term Gue{^is abo applied to a 
powerful party in the middle ages, which^ 
m Germany, and, at a later period, in 
Italy, opposed the German emperors and 
their aaherents, called the Oibeknes, (See 
Frederic von Raumer's Gtachichte dor 
ffiiAeyutou/en, Leipac, 182a) The fiunily 
of the Guelfe, in different branches, pos- 
sessed considerable estates in Germany, m 
the 11th century. Azzo, of the family of 
Este in Italy, lord of Milan, Genoa and 
other cities of Lombardy (died in 10971 
acquired some of these estates by his 
marriage with Cunigunde, the heirees of 
the Guelfs. His son, Guelf I (died 1101), 
became duke of Bavaria, ana inherited 
the estates of the. other Guelf lines. The 
son of Guelf I acquired, by marriage, the 
estates in Saxony which belonged to his 
wife's father, duke Magnus. The emper- 
or Lothaire gave (1137) the duchy of Sax- 
miy to his son-in-law, Henry the Gene- 
rous, grandson of Guelf I. This Hemy. 
oo the death of Lothaire, opposed Conrad 

Sof the house of Hohenstaufen, wl)o 
been elected emperor, was put under 
the ban of the empire, and most of hw 
vast posseasious confiscated. Afler his 
death, his son, the fiunous Hemy the 
IJon,' received, in 1139, only the duchy 
of Saxony, and his hereditary estates in 
this coundy, the Bavarian neft having 
been given to his uncle Wolf. In 1140, 
vinsr having broken out between Wolf and 
Frederic, brother to the emperor Conrad, 
the words fVdf and WmUingm became 
the war-cries of the respective parties iu 
the battle at Weinsberg. WailNingeii, in 
the present kingdom ofWfirtembeig, was 
an estate of the house of Hohenslanfen 
(q. v.), to which Conrad beloiKged, and 
the Italians afterwords changed the word 
(as to is oflen changed into £-, q. v.) into 
GhtbdUnL The contest, which, m the be- 
ginning, vras merely between the two 
Runilies, spread, at length, more and more 
vridely, and became an obstinate struggle 
between two political parties. This contest 
was not a mere fiunily quarrel, like many 
of the disputes of the middle ages. It 
' vras a strife of opinions, involvii^g impor- 
tant interests, conducted, it is true, in 
many instances, with a senseless disr^pard 
both of justice and expediency, owing to 
the crude notions of the period, rrapecting 
the rights and weU-bemg of nations, but 
still having great objects in view. The 
ware of the Guel& and GKbelines became 
the struggle between the sphitual and 
secular power, through which it was 
necessary that western Europe should 
pass, to shake off the dominion of the 
popes, which was now on the point of 
cru^ing idl national independence, afber 
having completed its proper work of rais- 
ing Europe from a state of barbarism. 
(See Qrtgcfry Vll.) The popes^ who en- 
deavored to reduce the German emperors 
to acknowledge their supremacy, and the 
cities of Italy, strugghng for independence 
and deliverance from the oppreanve yoke 
of these same emperors, formed the party 
of the Guel&. Those who &vorea the 
emperora were called Gibdi$u». Italy 
underwent ^reat sufferings during tliis 
contest, as did Germany also, whi<3i eent 
army after airny to be swallowed up in 
this lion's cave whence none return^ as 
a German emperor called it There is 
little doubt that the inconsiderable pro|^- 
ress of Germany in public law and politi- 
cal well-being was, in a great measure^ 
owing to this struggle, which cx>n6iinie(i 
her strength and engrossed her attention. 
The contest continuM, with bitterness, for 
almost 300 years. These parties appearoci 



in Italy luuler many difierent names^ qb 
the hianehi and neri (white and black), in 
Florenoe, &c. Hiatoiy shows no in- 
Btance of a more untiring and cruel party 

GuEBciNo (properly (jSim^rancesco Bar- 
6teri, iwmamed Guercmo da Cento firom 
his Bqiiinting)| a celebrated painter, was 
lx>m at Cento, near Bologna, in 1590. By 
his own genius he discovered the first 
pfiaciple»of his art, and afterwards per- 
fected himself in the school of Lodovico 
Caracci. An academy which he opened 
in 1616, attracted a great number of schol- 
ais from all parts of £uroi)e. The king 
of France ofi^red him the situation of his 
&8t paiufier; but he pfeft^rced to accept 
an apartment in the palace of the duke of 
Modeaa. In his character he was mild, 
apr^)lt, courteous and benevolent, and 
rea^to assast his fellow artists. He died 
in 1666, at Bologna, where he had settled 
after the death of Guido. His principal 
works are to be found in the museums of 
Rome, Parma, Piacenza, Modena, Reggio 
and T^uis. The manner which he £st 
adopted was too strong, and resemUedthat 
of Gsravaggio. His second and best pe- 
riod was coinpounded of the Roman, Ve- 
netian and ^lognese schools, blended, 
however, with somewhat of Caravaggio's 
bold opposition of light and shade. His 
last manner was a palpable imitation of 
Gmdo, and is inferior to the other in 
power and elegance. He acquired great 
weakh by his profession, which he be- 
i»towed libendly m acts of charity, building 
chapels and feunding hospitals. Few 
painters have labored with so much fecili- 
ty and rapidity. Having been reauested 
by some monks, on the eve of a leativa], 
to paint God the Father, for the grand 
akar, he finished the picture in one night, 
by torch light. We have, also, on intro- 
duction to the art of dravring from his 
pen. Guercino, moreovo-, etched some 
prints in a style of excellence. 

GirERiCKE, Otto von, burgomaster of 
Magdeburg, was one of the most distin- 
guiSied experimental philosophers of the 
17th century. He was bom at Magde- 
burg, Nov. So), 1602 ; studied law at I^ip- 
eic, Heknstadt and Jena; mathematics, 
and particulariy geometrv and mechanics, 
at Leyden ; travelled in France and Eng- 
land ; acted as chief engineer at Erfurt ; 
became, in 1627, counsellor at Magdeburg ; 
and, in 1646, burgomaster, and counsellor 
of the elector of Braudenbui^, but resign- 
ed his offices five years before his deatli, 
and repaired to his sons, at Hamburr, 
where he died May 11, 1686. In 1650, 

VOL. VI. 8 

he invented the air-pump, about the time 
that a similar idea occurred to Robeot 
Boyle in England. This discoverv chang- 
ed the whole aspect of natMral philosophy, 
and gave rise to a more intimate acquaint- 
ance with the nature and effects of air. 
In 1654, he made the first public eiperi- 
ments with Ids machine, at the diet at 
Ratishpn, before the eniperor Ferdinand 
III, his son Ferdinand IV, king of Rome, 
several electors and other estates of the 
empire. The first air-pump, with which 
Guericke almost exliaustea the air fit>m 
two hemispheres, is preserved in the 
royal libraiy. at Berlin. Guericke also 
invented an air-balance, and the small 
j^lass figures, which were used before the 
invention of the barometer (q. vj, to show 
the variations of temperature. The press- 
ure of the atmosphere he exhibited by 
means of two large hollow hemi^eres 
of copper and brass, an ell in diameter. 
These being fitted closely together, the air 
contained in the hollow ^here thus form- 
ed was exhausted by means of an air- 
pump. Guericke then harnessed horses to 
strong rings, attached to the heuuspheres, 
and uiey attempted in vain to separate 
them. The number of the horses was in- 
creased to 30 without success. An addi- 
tional number at lengdi made them part 
with a loud report. He was also an 
astronomer. His opinion, that the return 
of comets might be calculated, has been 
confirmed. His most important observa- 
tions, collected by himself, anppeared at 
Amsterdam, in folio (iu 1672]^ entitled 
Ea^ptrmeiUa nwa^ vi vocaniMagdehwgica^ 
dt vacuo SpaUoy &c. (See Mr-Punm.) 

Guerillas (Spanish diminutive of^jfuer- 
m, war), in the war for Spanish mde- 
pendence, was the name of the hght, 
irregular (roops, who did much injury to 
the enemy, wtiile tlieir disconnected char- 
acter and active movements secured tliem 
fifom suffering much in rctuni. They 
consisted chiefly of peasants, who, in the 
ardor of patriotic zeal and religious fenati- 
cism, having put to deatli such French- 
men as fell into tlieir bunds on the first 
retreat of the French forces, fled to the 
mountains, on their retuni, to avoid their 
resentment, collected in numbers, chose 
leaders, and carried on a partisan waifiue, 
without being paid or dr^sed in unifbim. 
They appeared sometimes in small bands, 
sometimes to the number of 1000, han^g 
on the outskirts, picking off nngle soldiers, 
attacking small detachments, intercepting 
couriers; and it was with difficulty that 
the French could keep up any communi- 
cations. The general Juan Martin Diaz, 



sumamed El Empuinado (q. v.), fiiat or- 
ganized them with some syfltem, in the 
vicinity of Madrid, after Saragoflsa had 
been taken by the French ^1806), and 
3|kun, by the defeat of its anniea, seemed 
lost beyond recovery. Romana, however, 
extended the plan much further. They 
contributed to sustain the confidence of the 
people in the final success of their arms, 
and to maintain a ^irit of determined re- 
sistance. They fought even to the c^iital, 
which was occupied by the enemy. It 
was a no less important circumstance, that 
every advantage gained bv the Spanish or 
English troops was proclaimed, by their 
means, in all quarters, with the rapidity of 
lightning, apd oflen, of course, with great 
exaggerations. Sir Robert Wilson (q. v.) 
had likewise a great influence in the or- 
ganization and success of the gueriDas. 

GuiaiN ; a pupil of Regnault; one of 
the most distinguished painters of the 
modem French scho^. His style is noble 
and graceful; his coloring transparent and 
haraionioua The first picture, by which 
he made himself known, was the Sacrifice 
before the Statue of iEseulapius, taken 
firom the Idyls of Gesner. The work has 
defects, which are easily accounted for by 
the youth and inexperience of the artist. 
It is in the galleiy of Versailles. He next 
painted Geta murdered by his Brother 
Canicalla,andaflerwardsCoriolanu& His 
Marcus Sextus, in 1800, excited general 
admiration. It breathes the deepest feel- 
ing. The noble exile is represented as on 
his return, when he finds his wife dead. 
Gu^rin's next work, HyppoUtus and PhcB- 
dra, in 1802, was honoraoly mentioned by 
the judges of the decennial prizes. This 
picture has many beauties, though there 
is something extravagant and theatrical 
about it It was received with great ap- 
plause, but the modest artist was not sat- 
isfied with it, and desired to study the 
true spirit of the art in Italy. After his 
return, it was proposed to hiui to paint 
Napoleon pardoning the Revolters at Cai- 
ro, and he knew how to take advantage 
of tlie fevoroble points of the subject The 
noble forms, me glowing colors, the 
splendid Oriental costume, the brilliant 
sty, the peculiarities of the country, the 
unity of action and variety of feeling, die 
contrast between the Europeans and Asi- 
atics^ — all was made subservient to the 
genius of the artist On the left stands 
Napoleon, elevated above the rest, and in 
profile. The expression of prudent distrust 
and silent earnestness in the emperor, is a 
masterpiece of execution. The distribu- 
tion of light is admirable. A tree hang- 

ing over a group of Frenchmen, throws 
upon the Egyptians shade interspersed 
with streaks flight, so that the tawny in- 
habitants form a stroncer contrast with 
the brilliant and cloudless sIqt. For the 
exhibition of 1812, Gu^rin painted his 
splendid Andromache. His Cephalus and 
Aurora is ftill of elegance, and possesses 
an almost magic charm. In 1817, the 
artist exhibited two still finer paintings — 
a Dido listening to the Stoiy of iGneas, 
and a Clytemnestra at the moment that 
iEgistbus is instigating her to assassinate 
her sleeping husband. It was a stroke 
of genius to select a sombre, red light for 
this scene. Gu^rin has painted but few 
portraits, but they all do honor to his 
skilL In 1817, the king proposed to hkn 
to paint the portrait of the hero of La Ven- 
due, Henri de la Rochejacquelin, in the 
act of storming an entrenchment It is 
a highly expressive picture. Gu^rin is a 
member of the acaaemy of fine arts and 
of the legion of honor. He is amiable 
and unpretending. 

GuB&ivsET, an island in the English 
Channel, near the coast of Normandy and 
Brittany, lies in Mount St MichaePs bay, 
a spacious gulf formed be cape La Hogue 
in Normandy and cape Frehille in Britta- 
ny ; in 49« 19^ N. fat ; 2«» 40^ W. km. 
llus beautift]} island is 9 miles in length 
and about 90 in circumference. It is 
abundantly viratered, though, from its lim- 
ited size, none of the streams are consid- 
erable. The soil throughout is rich and 
fertile, and yields very &e pasture. The 
cows are much esteemed, }aelding abun- 
dance of excellent mDk. A great number 
of them are yearly exported to England. 
Ve^tables are also excellent, and in great 
vanety. Timber, with the exception of 
the elm tree, is not lofty, but luxuriant. 
Most kinds of fiuit and fiowers grow in 
profusion; and so genial is the climate, 
that myrtles and seraniums flourish in the 
open ground, and the more hardy species 
of the oran|fe tree, the Seville, will miotify 
with very htde shelter in winter. Thou- 
sands of that beautiful flower, tlie Guern- 
sey lily, are eroorted yeariy to England 
and France. The fig tree attains great 
luxuriance, and sometimes reaches a re- 
markable size. The aloe tree firequently 
blossoms here. One of the most useful 
ve^tables is a marine plant, called vorec, 
wmch is used both for fuel and manure. 
Both the judicial and executive authori- 
ties are exercised by a bodv called the 
rcnfol cow% composed of 12 jurats, the 
procureur or attorney-general, and the 
comptroller or solidtor^genereL But the 



task of rakuig monev to defray public 
expenses, is commitled to what w caHed 
the jfofeff of 4dibaratum^-^ political body 
coniposed of the coTemor for the time 
beings the haiiiH^ & jurats and the pro- 
cureur, the 8 rectore of the 10 patisnee. 
and the united voices of the constaljiee of 
each parish, the total number of Totera 
being 83, Application must, however, in 
certain cases, be made to the king, for per- 
miasioQ to cany into effect the levies pro- 
posed by this l>ody. Guernsey is divided 
mto ten parishes, the churches appertain- 
ing to which were consecrated b^ween 
the yean 1111 and 1312. Diasentere, 
more particularly the CalWnists and Meth- 
odisiB, are veiy numerous, and have sev- 
eral chapels. The Roman Catholics are 
few. The society of Friends or Quakera 
are rather increasing in number. Popu- 
lation, 30,827. Steam vessels and sailmg 
packets ply daily between Portsmouth, 
Plymouth, Southampton, and many other 
ports of England, to this island; there is 
also a constant communication kept up 
between this and the opposite Frenoh 

GusRRERo, Vicente, president of the 
United Mexican States, is a Creole by 
birth, and is said also to be partly of In- 
dian extraction. He took anns against the 
royalislB at the ve^ commencement of 
the revolution in Mexico, and has never 
ceased to occupy a prominent position in 
the affiure of that country. In 1819, after 
Hidalgo, Morelos and Mina had succes- 
sively ftjien victims to their zeal in the 
cause of independence, and the patriots, 
being unsuccessfiil every where, were 
captured, cut up or dii^rsed, Guerrero 
continued in arms in the province of Val- 
ladolid, at the head of a formidable gue- 
rilla in the Herra Caliente. The pubuca- 
tion and general adoption of the terms of 
accommodation between the Mexicans 
and Spaniards, proposed bv Iturbide, 
known as the plan of Iguala, and the 
new impulse thus imparted to the revolu- 
tion, gave emfdoyment and importance to 
Guerrero once more, until the usurpation 
of Iturbide placed him in opposition to all 
the steady republicans. When Santa Alia 
raised the standard of revolt in 1823, and 
the success of the insurgents under him 
and Victoria gave the republicans a chance 
of overturning the mushroom emperor, 
Guerrero, with Bravo, fled from Mexico 
in secret, and placed himself at the head 
of a body of troops in the west. The re- 
sult of all these movements was the de- 
thronement of Iturbide, the adoption of 
the constitution of 1824, and the election 

of \^ctoria as president, and Bravo as vice- 
president of the Mexican States. In the 
orgaiuzatioh ofpolitical parties which en- 
sued, ^neral Chierrero oecame the rally- 
ing pomt of the liberal or popi^ party, the 
YoiUnos, and was also repeatedly called in- 
to active service in his mintaiy capacity, by 
reason of the civil troubles which the anx- 
ious impartiality of jMwsident Victoria rath- 
er tended to augment than to moderate. 
In 1827, Guerrero was despatched to Vera 
Cruz, to put down the disorderly move- 
ment of colonel Rincon, and quelled tiie 
rebellion without a struggle. In December, 
1827, don Jos^ Montaiio, a colonel in the 
army, set afi>ot at Otumba an insurrection 
for the forcible reform of the government, 
in order to counteract the influence of the 
Yorkino party. In Jamiary following, 
ffeneral Bravo, the vice-president, who was 
the leader of the Escoceses, or tiie aristo- 
cratical party, lefl Mexico, in order to join 
the rebels, and stationed himself at Tulan- 
cin^, where he issued a manifesto de- 
claring himself in &vor of •the views of 
Montatio. To suppress this insurrection, 
general Guerrero was hastily despatched 
at the head of a large force, to which Bra- 
vo and his associates surrendered witii 
little or no resistance. The Yorkinos were 
now triumphant Bravo was banished 
from the republic ; and Guerrero, as the 
most prominent individual of the success- 
ful puly, was imiverBaliy 16oked upon as 
the probable successor of Victoria in the 
presidency. But the Escoceses, and the 
Mexicans of Spanish birth, who all be- 
longed to that party, and who knew that 
their expulsion would be the immediate 
conseouencc of the government's beinff 
placea entirely in the hand of the Yorki- 
nos, rallied all their streneth to mm tiie 
scale against Guerrero. Nothing could 
exceed the disappointment of the friends 
of the latter, when the election of Septem- 
ber, 1828, took place, and it appeared 
that don Gomer redraza, the secretary of 
war, had the votes of ten states, while on- 
ly eight declared for Guerrero. It appears 
that many moderate men of the Yorkino 
party united with the whole body of the 
Escoceses to produce this result Pedraza 
had been an active partisan of the Yor- 
kinos, and had been particularly active 
and instrumental in putting down the in- 
surrection of Otumba, and with it Bravo, 
the hope of the Escoces party. Neverthe- 
less, being deemed more moderate in his 
political principles than Guerrero, the Es- 
coceses tnrew their votes for him, as their 
last resource, to prevent the introduction 
of a radical and proscriptive administra- 


tion, which they knew would come, if 
Guerrero should be elected. The Yorki- 
nos loudly exclaimed against the election of 
Pediaza, as having been effected by bribery 
and milltaiy violence. In a country of 
stable laws and well organized govern- 
ment, the defeated part}' would have 
awaited the result of a constitutional in- 

Suify into the legality of the election, 
lut in Mexico they order things other- 
wise. The Yorkinos determined to resort 
to arms to prevent the elevation of Pedra- 
za to the presidency ; and g^eral Santa 
Aiia, who, since the Ml of Iturbide, had 
been hving in comparative retirement at 
Jalapa, sauced a small body of troops, 
marched to Perote, and gained possession 
of the casde, before the ^venunent were 
well aware that another civil war had brok- 
en out. Here he issued a manifesto, pro- 
posing that the people and army ^ould 
annul the election of Pedraza ; that Guer- 
rero should be declared president; and 
that the Spanish residents should be ex- 
pelled from Mexico. When informatioa 
of these incidents reached the government, 
Santa Aiia was denounced as a rebel, and 
a force was sent against him, which he 
found himself unable to withstand, and 
retired into the mountains of Oaxaca. But 
meanwhile measures were secretly plan- 
ning in the capital for a more decisive 
movement in favor of Guerrero. It was dis- 
covered by the executive that don Lorenzo 
de Zavala, the governor of the state of 
Mexico, was in coirespondence vrith San- 
ta Aiia. He was arrested, but found 
means to escajpe. Soon afterwards, a bat- 
talion of militia, aided by some troops of 
the line, took possession of the artilleiy 
barracks, caUed the acordada, situated on 
the outskirts of the city, and, being joined 
by general Lobato, by Zavala, and by oth- 
er persons of distinction, announced their 
intention to annul the election of Pedraza, 
and to force the government to expel the 
Spaniards. But as the constitutional author- 
ities were resolved not to give up the point 
without a struggle, a violent contest en- 
sued, in some of the principal streets of 
the city, during the three first days of De- 
cember, in which many persons were kill- 
ed on both sides. At length Guerrero 
openly joined the insuxgents, with a rein- 
forcement of his friends ; on which Pedra- 
za lefl the city, and, on the 4th, president 
Victoria agreed to a partial accommoda- 
tion. ^See Mexico.) Victoria was obliged 
immediately to appoint a cabinet favorable 
to the insurgents, including GueiTero him- 
self as secretary of war. Fmall^', when the 
national congress assembled m January, 

some of the votes ^ven for Pedraza veere 
pronounced to have been illegally obtain- 
ed, and Guerrero was declared to be reg- 
ularly elected president, with Anastasio 
Bustamenteas vice-president The new 
magistrates were inducted into office in 
April, 1829, soon after which the expedi- 
tion of Barradas (see Mexico) gave em- 
ployment to the government, and a subject 
of engrossinff interest to the people. The 
better to enable tlie president to meet tlie 
exigency, he was invested ^^th extraor- 
dinary powers ; but after the victory over 
the Spanish troops, and when the invad- 
ing expedition was destroyed, Guerrero 
evmcea an unwillingness to relinquish the 
dictatorship, which became the cause or 
pretext of^ another revolution. He had 
previously abolished slavery, September 
15, 1829, the anniversary of Mexican inde- 
pendence, vnth a promise of indenmity to 
the proprietors when the resources of the 
ffovermnent pennitted it BviBtamente, 
the yice-presiaent, took command of tlie 
army of reserve stationed at Vera Cruz, 
and commenced his march towards Mex- 
ico, for the purpose of reforming the gov- 
ernment by force. Guerrero lefl tlie city 
to meet him ; but no sooner was he gone, 
than the troops in Mexico revolted, and 
declared for Bustamente ; in consequence 
of whicii, Guerrero, and the other leailerB 
of the acordada revolution, resigned their 
offices, and Bustnniente assumed the reins 
of government. He was not destined, how- 
ever, to continue in the tranqiul exercise 
of power. Disturbances soon broke out 
afresh, and in September, 1890, Guerrero 
had collected a laree force in Valladolid, 
and established a form of government in 
opposition to that of Bustamente, and the 
whole country was agitated by troops 
in arms, in different parts and under va- 
rious chie&, for the purpose of either 
preventing or effecting the reinstatement 
of Guerrero. 

GuEscLiiT, Bertrand du, constable of 
France, a man renowned for talent and 
courage, was born about the year 1314, at 
die casde of Motte-Broon, near Rennes. 
The poets derive the origin of his family 
from a king of the Moors. Like most of 
the nobles of his time, he could neither 
read nor write. From childhood, he long- 
ed but for war and for Imtde. He unit^ 
his young companions into a regiment, 
made himself their general, and, mviding 
them into companies, taught them to form 
in order of battle. Acooraing to the de- 
scriptions which remain of him, he was 
of a vigorous frame, with broad shoulders 
and muscular arms. His eyes were smalU 


iively, and fiiU of fire. Uk ftce bad noth- 
ing pkafling in it **l am very urij," aaid 
he whena youth ; ^ I «an never pleaae the 
ladieB; but I shall at least know how to 
make rnvself teniUe to the enemies of my 
king." He rose entirely through his own 
exertions. At the age of seventeen, he 
won the prize at a tournament at Rennes, 
where he had gone against the will and 
without the Imowledge of his father. 
From this time he was always in arms. 
After the ^sastrous battle of Poitiers, in 
1356, he came, while king John was yet 
a prisoner, to give assistance to his eldest 
son, Cfaaries, who then held the regency. 
Mehm surrendered; those of his party 
obtained their fieedom, and many other 
towns yielded to him. Charles V, who, in 
1964, bad succeeded his father, rewarded 
in a suitable manner the services of Cues- 
clin, who, in the same year, gained a victo- 
ry at Cocfaerel over the king of Navarre. 
These successes hast^ied the peace. He 
next supported Henrv, who had assumed 
the title of king of Castile, against his 
brother, Peter the Cruel. He deprived 
this prince of his crown, and secured it to 
Heniy, who rewarded bun with a large 
sum of money, and raised hfan to the dig- 
nity of constable of Castile. Bertrand 
soon after returned to France, to defend 
his country against England. The Eng- 
lish, hitherto victorious, were now every 
where beaten. Advanced to the rank of 
constable of France, he attacked them in 
Maine and Anjou, and even made their 
leader prisoner. He brought Poitou and 
Saintonge under the dominion of France, 
80 that the English retained only Bdi • 
deaux, Calais, Cherbourg, Brest and Bay- 
orme. He died in the midst of his tri- 
umphs, before Chateau-neuf-de-Randon, 
July IS, 1980. His body vras buried with 
roval honors, near the tomb which Charles 
V had desicnated for himself. France, since 
him, has had among her many generals 
but a single one who can be compared to 
him, — ^Tureime. Both were equally brave, 
modest and generous. Du Guesclin was 
twice marrira, but left no children, except 
a natural son, Michael du Guesclin. 

GuEUX (^ff^egors). This title was, in 
the time of Pnuip II, under the govern- 
ment of the blood-tlurBty duke of Alba, 
ffven to the allied noblemen, and the 
other malcontents in the Netherlands. In 
1654, Philip sent nine inquisitors there, to 
execute the decrees of the council of 
Trent, and occasioned thereby a great 
excitement among both Protestants and 
Ci^ofics. The nobles bound themselves 
by a compact, known under the name of the 

compromuej not to appear before the nine 
inquisitors, and, in solemn procession, 
made known their resolution, in 1565, to 
Maivaret, duchess of Panna, then at the 
head of government Their declaration 
was received with contempt. The prin- 
cess, during the audience, happening to 
show some embarrassment, me earl of 
Barlaimont, president of the council of 
finance, whispered' to hor that she ought 
not to manifest any fear of such a mob of 
beffgars [toi de gueux). Some of the con- 
fecterates overheard this, and, on the even- 
ing of the same day, commurucated it at a 
meeting of their members, who imme- 
diately drank to the health of the guettx, 
and agreed thereafier to be called by that 

Guevara, Louis Valez delas Duenasy, 
a dramadc poet, who, for his wit and hu- 
mor, deserves to be called tlie AmuiwA 
Scarrtm, was bom at Ecija in Andalusia, 
in 1574. He aoplied himself to the study 
of the law, and lived as a lawver in Ma- 
drid. By tus inexhaustible funa of humor, 
he oflen excited the lau^ter of his numer- 
ous hearers, and of the judges, even in the 
most serious causes. It is rdlated of him, 
that bv this means he once saved a crim- 
inal m>m death, and obtained the ac- 
quaintance of the king (Philip IV). The 
monarch, who knew lus talent for poetn\ 
induced him to write comedies. (Philip 
rV himself sometimes vtrrote pieces, 
which were eiven to Guevara to revise, 
and afterwaroB often exhibited at courL) 
In this new career Guevara obtained no 
small success. His i>iece8 deserve, for 
tlieir excellent delineations of character, 
and their richness in strokes of genuine 
comic humor, the praise which Lope de 
Vepi has given them. That, however, 
which especially established the poetical 
fame of Guevara, was his Diablo Cojudo, 
MennoricH de la otra Vidoy a romance 
written with equal elegance and wit ; in 
which the poet descries with great hu- 
mor and spirit, and loshes with inimitable 
satire, the matmerBof his countrymen 
and Ufe in Madrid. This Spanish ro- 
mance afforded the idea of Le Sage's fa- ^ 
mous DiMe Botteux. It was ntendly 
translated into French (bv the author of 
Leduren anmaantesV and into Italian. 
Guevara died at Madrid in Januaiy, 1646, 
at the age of 72, to his last day enjoying 
the favor of the monarch, and to his last 
day a warm, and often extravagant ad- 
mirer of the other sex. Many of his witty 
sayings have become &miliar to the people 
in his country, and to this day are often 
heard as proverbs in Spain. There are sev- 



eial other Spanish poets of the same 

GuGLiELHi, Peter, was bom in 1727, at 
Massa Carrara, where his father, Giacomo 
Guffliehni was chapel-master of the duke 
of Modena. He studied music with his 
&ther until his Mshteenth year, and af- 
terwards went to mples to the .conser\'a- 
torio di Loretto, then under the direction 
of the celebrated Durante. Guglielmi 
showed httle taste for music, but Durante 
kept him to the study of counterpoint and 
of composition. He left the institution in 
his twenty-eighth year, and immediately 
began to compose comic and heroic ope- 
ras for the Italian theatre. In each he 
was equally successful. He was invited 
to Vienna, to Madrid, and to London, and 
returned to Naples about the fiftieth year 
of his age. Here he made a roost brilliant 
display of his talents. Two masters, 
Cimarosa and Paesiello had taken pos- 
session of the great theatre in Naples, and 
contended for the palm. He took a noble 
revenge upon the mtter, of whom he had 
some cause to complain. 'To every work 
of his adversary he opposed another, and 
was always victorious. In 1793, Pius VI 
named lum chapel-master of St. Peter's, 
which gave him an opportunity of dis- 
tinguislung himself in sacred music. He 
has left more than 200 pieces, remarkable 
for their simple and beautiful airs, for their 
clear and ncli harmony, and for their 
spirit and originally. He died in 1804, 
in his 77th yew. His son, Peter Charles, 
is likewise a distinguished composer. 

GniAivA ; a country of South America. 
This name was formeriy given to the 
country extending ftom the Orinoco on 
the north to the Amazon on the south ; 
but the part called Spanish Guiana now 
forms a province of Colombia, and Porta- 
gutse (Swana now belongs to Brazil. The 
rest of the coimtry belongs to the Blng- 
lish, Dutch and French. English Guiana 
contains three small colonies, viz. Esse- 
quibo, Demerara and Berbice. The prin- 
cipal town is Stabroek. Dutch Guiana, 
often called Sitrinam, is watered by the 
river Surinam. Parimaribo, the capital, 
* is a pleasant town. French Guiana, 
called also Cayenne, is noted for pro- 
ducing the Cayenne pepper. Cayenne, 
the capital, is situated on an island. Gui- 
ana is of a mild climate for a tropical 
country. Along the sea-shore, and ft>r a 
considerable way into the interior, the 
country is an extensive and uniform plain 
of unequalled fertility. In the intejrior, it 
rises into mountains, which frequently 
contain a great variety of mineral sul!- 

stances. Rich and fertile valleys are in- 
terspersed throughout these mountainous 
tracts. These uncultivated parts are cov- 
ered witli immense forests, which are in- 
tersected with deep marshes, and by ex- 
tensive savannas or plains covered with 
luxuriant herbage. The country is water- 
ed by the tributary streams of the Ori- 
noco and the Amazon. Guiana i» over- 
risd with the most luxuriant vegetation, 
unding in the finest woods, in fruits of 
every description, and in an infinite variety 
of both rare and useful plants. Many of 
the trees ^w to the hei^it of 100 reet ; 
they consist of every variety, of such as 
are valuable for their hardness and dura- 
bility, as well as of others, which are 
richly veined, capable of taking the finest 
polish, and well adapted for all sorts of 
ornamental furniture ; while otliers yield 
valuable dyes, or exude balsamic and 
medicinal oils. The fitut trees are in 
great variety, and the fruits they yield are 
of the most exquisite deUcacy and flavor. 
Wild animals and beasts of prey are 
abundant These are the jaguar, which 
is a powerful and ferocious anirrial. ; the 
coug^, or red tiser, resembling a grey- 
hound in shape, but larger in size ;. tlie 
tiger cat ; the crabbodago, not much larger 
than a conmion cat, and exceedingly 
ferocious ; the coatimondi, or Braziliaii 
weasel ; the ffreat ant-bear ; the porcu- 
pine ; the hedgehog ; the armadillo ; the 
sloth ; the opossum of difterent kinds ; 
the deer ; the hog ; the agouti ; the liz- 
ard ; the chameleon. In the rivers are to 
be found the alligator ; the tapir, resem- 
bling the hippopotamus of the old conti- 
nent, but of^much smaller size, not being 
larger than a small ass, but much more 
clumsy ; the manati, or sea-cow, about 
16 feet in length ; the paca, or spotted 
cony ; and the pipa, a fiideous and de- 
formed animal Of the serpent tribe 
there are various species, from the large 
aboma snake, which grows to the lengtli 
of 20 and 30 feet, to Uiose of the smallest 
size. The woods of Guiana are filled 
with every variety of tlie feathered spe- 
cies, many of which, there is reason to 
believe, are but imperfecdy known to nat- 
uralists. Those most commonly seen are 
the crested eagle, a verj"- fierce bird, and 
very strong ; the vulture ; the owl ; the 
black and white butcher-bird ; parrots of 
different kinds, and of the most brilliant 
pluma^ ; the toucan ; the pelican ; the 
tiger-bml ; herons of difterent kinds ; the 
flamingo ; the humminf-bird of various 
species ; tlie plover ; the woodpecker ; 
the mocking-bird. The vanqpire bat is also 



found in Guiana, and grows to an enor- 
mous rize, measuring about 32^ inches 
between the tips of the two wings. It 
sacks the blood of men and cattle when 
they are fast asleep. After it is full, it 
disgorges the blood, and begins to suck 
msAif untQ it reduces the sufferer to a 
state of great weakness. The riyers of 
Guiana abound with fish, many of which 
are highly prized by the inhabitants ; and, 
owing to the heat and moisture of the 
climate, insects and reptiles of all sorts 
are produced in such abundance, that the 
annoyance from this source is inconceiva- 
ble. These insects are fli^ ants, mos- 
quitoes, cockroaches, lizards, jack-fif«n- 
iards, a larve species of wasp, fire-flies, 
centipedes, &c. The native inhabitants 
of Guiana are continually recedinff from 
the districts which are occupied ny the 
EiuropMeans. They chiefly conast of the 
following tribes, viz., the Ccuribbees, the 
WorrowS, the Accawaws, the Arrowauks. 
From the earliest period, the Dutch colo- 
nies in Guiana have been exposed to dep- 
redations from fugitive Negroes, who, at 
difier^t periods, have been driven, by the 
crael^ of their masteis, to take refuge in 
the woods. At one time, the colony was 
threatened with destinction from these 
bands of deserter slaves. As the Euro- 
pean troops who were sent against this 
enemy generally fell a prey to the climate, 
a corpB of manumitted Negroes was farm- 
ed, bv whom the slaves were pursued 
into the woods ; and the colony has been 
since fineed from this sotwce of annoyance. 
GuiBERT, Jaeques-Antoine-Hippolite, 
count o^ was boni at Montauban in 1743, 
educated at Paris, and accompanied his 
fither to Germany, during the seven 
years' war, at the age of 13. In the batde 
of BeUing^usen, in 1761, finding that the 
ordeiB which he carried were render- 
ed unseasonable by a change of circum- 
siBiioes, he had the boldness to alter them, 
and adapt them to the existing state of 
afifaiis. In the Corsican war in 1766, he 
obtained the cross of St Louis, and soon 
after, with the rank of colonel, the chief 
command of the newly-levied Corsican 
lepon. He employed his leisure hours 
in fiteivy occupations, and his Am g^- 
nhtdde TaeHque, prMdi (rwiDucoursntr 
rftai de la PoliHque d dela Science mUi- 
taire en Eunpe (Londmi, 1772), probably 
written during the German campeinis, 
attracted the more attention, as at mat 
time areform was going on in almost all the 
annies. He afterwards travelled for mili- 
tary ptnrposes throuffh Germany. His 
journal, JwmaliPun Voyage en,memagne. 

faU en 1773, OuwageposOiume de Owbtrt^ 
pMU par »a Veuve, et prkidi tPune MtHce 
histonque surla Viede PAutettr^par Tbu- 
longeoHj auec Figures (1803), was but a 
mere sketch for the authors use, but is 
interestuig for its descriptions and anec- 
dotes of celebrated men, especially of 
Frederic II, whose great character Guibert 
passionately admired. His tragedies have 
not retained their place upon the stage. 
In 1779 appeared his Difense du Systhnc 
de Guerre modeme,, In 1786, he became 
a member of the French academy. In 
1787, he wrote his famous eulo^ on 
Frederic II, one of the most splendid 
monuments ever raised to the memory of 
diis great king. Gulbert's eulogies, among 
which are one upon Thomas, imd another 
upon l'£n)inasBe, are among his most fin- 
ished works. Vigor, ftncy, cTeamess, and a 
certain ardessness, engage the reader, and 
cause him to excuse many instances of 
neffligence. Guibert was a field-marshal, 
and member of the council of war— an of- 
fice which gave him much trouble. He- 
died in 179^ in the 47th year of his age. 
He was distinguished for ambition and for 
activity of spuit. 

GnicciARDiNT, Francis, a celebrated 
historian, was bom March 6> 1482, at Flor- 
ence, where his family was of distin- 
guished rank. He obtained so great a 
reputation as a jinist, that in his 23d vear 
he was chosen professor of law, and, al- 
though he had not yet reached the lawful 
age, was appointed ambassador to the 
court of rerdinand the Catholic, of 
Spain. When Florence (1512) had lost 
her liberty thitiugh the usurpation of tlie 
Medici, he entered the service of that 
famify, which soon availed themselves of 
his talentSb He was invited by Leo X to 
his court, and intrusted with the govern- 
ment of Modena and Reggio. This office 
he discharaed also under Adrian VI, to 
the general satisfaction ; and afterwards, 
when Clement VII (de' Medici) ascended 
the papal chair, Guicciardini was sent, as 
luogotenente of the pope, to Romagna, then 
torn by the fhctions of the Guelfs and 
Gibelines, and mfested by robbers, where, 
by a severe and upright administration of 
justice, he soon succeeded in restoring 
tranquillity. He also contributed here in 
other ways to the public good, by construct- 
ing roads, by erecting public buildings, and 
by founding usefuf institutions. Having 
been appointed Heutenant-^neral of the 
pope, he defended Parma with great valor, 
when besieged by the French (at least he 
savs SOU! his own history; An^li, author 
of'^a history of Parma, accuses him, on the 



contraiy, of great eowardicc). At a later 
period, aAN- the death of Giovanni de' 
Medici, Guicciardini was invited by the 
Florentines to succeed him in the com- 
mand of the fiimous bande nere ; but the 
pope still claimed his services for a time. 
Having quelled an insurrection in Bologna, 
he returned, in spite of the instances of 
the holy father, to his native city, where, in 
1534, he began his great worit, on the Histo- 
ly of Italy, which 1^ since been repeatedly 
published, and has obtained for hrni great 
reputation. It extends irom 1490 to 1534. 
In his retirement he was not without in- 
fluence on state afiairs, and liis counsels 
often restrained the prodigality and the am- 
bhion of Alessandro de' Medici, who e»- 
teemed him very highly, as did likewise 
ChariesV, whose interests he had promot- 
ed in his negotiations at Naples, and who, 
when his courtiers once complained that 
he preferred the Florentines to them, an- 
swered, *^ I can make a hundred Spanish 
grandees in^a minute, but I cannot make 
one Guicciardini in a hundred years.** 
When Alessandro de* Medici was mur- 
dered by one of his relations (Lorenzino, 
1536), and the Florentines, under the di- 
rection of cardinal Cibo, wished to restore 
the republican constitution, Guicciardini 
opposed it with all his power, and main- 
tained that to preserve the state firom be- 
coming the prey of foreigners or of ftctions, 
the monarcldcal form of government ought 
to be retained. His eloquence and the 
force of his ai|;uments triumphed, and 
Cosmo de* Medici was proclaimed ^^nmd- 
duke of Florence. Guicciardini died in 
1540, and, according to his own directions, 
was buried, without pomp, in the church 
Santa Fehcita in Florence. It is related of 
him,that his love for study was so great,that, 
like Leibnitz, he often passed two or three 
da3rs without rest or food. One of his 
woiks, which was afterwards trandated 
into FVench, his Advice on political Sub- 
jects, was published in 1SS25, at Antwerp. 
The FlorentiDe J. B. AdrianHwho died 
1579), in his btoria 6/i tuoi Teinpt (new 
edition, 1823), which may be regarded as 
a continuation of the work of Guicciar- 
dini, has ffiven a good narretiye of events 
between 1536and 1574. This work was 
first published after the death of the au- 
thor in 158a The reader of Guicciardku 
is sometimes offended by a want of meth- 
od. A more impcHtant defect, however, 
is, that ins statements cannot always be 
depended on as derived fiom the best 
sources, so that he must be read with cau- 
tion. One of the best criticisms on Guic- 
ciardini ii contained in Leopold Ranke's 

Zur BnHkneutrerCk$diiiMidireOter{L^p' 
sic and Ber^ 1824). Guicciardini has 
often been called the Balian PobfbmB. 
Of the 5K) books of his history, the 4 last 
are unfinished, and are to be considered 
only as rou^h drafte. He is much too 
prolix, and the satirist Boccalini, in 
his Raggtta^i di Panuuo, makes a Spar- 
tan, who has been condemned to read 
Guicciardini for having used three words 
when he could have expressed his mean- 
ing in two, faint away at the first sen- 
tence. Guicciardini also wrote poems. 
In the beginnmf^ of a poetical ej^e* en- 
titled SimlicasBumt (TRalia <d Crigtianu- 
sirno jRe Franeuco Primo, he expresses the 
feeling so commonly exhibited by Italian 
writers, ever since the time of Dante, in re-, 
gard to the distracted state of tlieir coun- 
tiy. The epistle begins thus : — 

Aalia afflUtaf nuda e mi$erandaj 

CV or dt? prineipi suoi stanca si lagna, 

A Ttf FnmcescOf questa carta manda. 

Guides ; in some armies, persons par- 
ticularly acquainted with the ground, who 
serve in the staff, to give the necessaxy 
infonuation, and point out the best route 
for an army. As it is, however, impossi- 
ble always to have officers of this kind, 
some annies have geographical engineers 
attached to the staff, whose particu- 
lar sljidies are geography and topo^- 
phy. Napoleon gave the name of rttufes 
to his first body of guards, formed after 
he had been cm the pouxt of being sur- 
prised and taken prisoner in a castte oq 
the Mincio («ee his awn oeoounf, LasCases^ 
Mhnoritd, &c voL ii, p. 3, ed. of 1624.) 
GiTiso Abstiho. (See Aretino.) 
GiriDO Rsin ; the most charming and 
grac^l painter whom Italy ever produc- 
ed. His ftmily name was Rem, but he is 
always called Ckddo, In ftct, many of 
the old masters are best known by their 
Christian names. He was bom at Bo- 
logna, in 1575. His fiofaer, Samuel Reni, 
an excellent musician, at first intended 
that his SOB should devote himself to mu- 
sic, for vdiieh he siiowedsome talent; but 
he soon discovered in die boyagrealer ge- 
nius ftnr painting, and had him iostruotod 
by the Dutch artist IMonysius Calvaert 
(q. v.), who was then in ni|^ repute at 
Bolofina. In this cdebraled school, Guido 
is said to have studied chiefly the works 
of Albert D(irer. This becomes probable 
if wc consider some of lus earher works* 
in which, particulaily in the drapery, oc- 
casional resemblance may be traced to 
the style of Albert D&rer. In the meaa 
time, the school of the Caracci, at Bok>gna» 
on account of its novelty and superior 


taste, b^gan to eclipse the fonner, and 
Guido joined it ia iiis IXHh year. He 
soon save his teachers occasnon to admire 
his talisnts, and is even said to have excit- 
ed the jealousy of Annibal Carecci. Gui- 
do's desire to behold the treasures of art 
in Rome, induced him to visit that city, 
with two of his fellow students, Domeni- 
chino and Alhani. There he saw some 
of the paintings of Caravaggio, who was 
gready admired for his powerful and ex- 
pressive (though often coaise and low) 
manner, which Guido imitated. His rep- 
utatioD soon mead, and cardinal Bor- 
^lese employed him to paint a crucifixion 
of St. Peter for the church DeUe Tre 
Fontane. The powerful manner of this 
picture, and several others of the same 
period, which Guido did not, however, 
long retain, increased his ftme; and 
when, at the cardinal's request he com- 
pleted the Aurora, so beautifuliy engraved 
by Moi^hen, the admiration was univer- 
sal. Paul V, at that time, employed htm 
to CTobellish a chapel on Monte Cavallo, 
with scenes from the Tde of the virgin 
Maiy. Guido accomplished this work to 
the satisfiiction of the pope, and tvas next 
intrusted with the painting of another 
chapel in Santa-Maria-Maggiore. These 
wons were followed by so many orders, 
that he was unable to execute Uiem all. 
To this period lus Fortuna, and the por- 
tndtB of Sixtus V and cardinal Spada, may 
be assigned. Guido's paintings are sen- 
eially considered as belonging to three 
dtfl^nt manners and peri^. The first 
compriseB those pictures which resemble 
the maimer of the Caracci, and particu- 
larly that of Caravag»o. Deep shades, 
narrow and powerfid ngbts, strong color- 
ing, in short, an effort after great effect, 
itiBdnguish his works of this first period. 
The second manner is completely oppos- 
ed to the first, and was adopted by Guido 
himself as a contrast to the works of Ca- 
nvaggio, with whom he was in constant 
controversjr. Its principal features are 
light colonng, litde shade, an agreeable, 
though oflen superficial treatment of the 
subject. It is quite peculiar to Guido. 
His Aurora forms the transition fiiom the 
first to the second style of his paintings. 
A third period commences at the time 
when Guido worked with too much haste 
to finish his pieces, and was more intent 
upon the profits of his labot' than upon its 
fiune. It may >be distinsuished by a 
greeMikii gray, and altogemer unnatural 
coloring, and by a general carelessness 
and weakness. This last manner is par- 
liculariy rema]kable,in the large standard, 

with the patron ssint of Bologna, aid 
more or less in a number of other paint- 
ings of that period. During the govern- 
ment of pope Urban VIII, Qaido quarrel- 
led with nis treasurer, cardinal Spinola, re- 
specting the price of a picture, and re- 
turned to Bologna. There he had already 
executed his St. Peter and Paul for the 
liouse Zampiere, and the Murder of the 
Innocents for the Dominican church, and 
was on the point of embeUishing the chapvl 
of the saint with his pictures, when he 
was called back to Rome, loaded with 
honors, and received by the pope himself 
in the most gracious manner. But he 
soon experienced new difSculties, and ac- 
cepted an invitation to go to Naples. Be^ 
lieving himself unsafe at this place, on 
account of the hatred of the Neapolitan 
artists agamst foreign painters, he returned 
once m<N« to his native city, never to quit it 
asain. At Bologna, he fiiushed the chapel 
above mentioned, painted two beautiful jnc- 
tures for the church Dei Mendicanti, an As- 
cension of Mary for Genoa, and a number 
of otheis for his native city and other places, 
paiticulariy for Rome. While in Home, 
Guido had established a school. In Bo^ 
logna, the number of his pupils amounted 
to 200. He now worked mostly in haste, 
accustomed himself to an unfinished, af- 
fected style, became Bei^ligent, had many 
things executed by hb pupils, and sold 
them, after having retouched them, as his 
own works ; and all this merely to satis- 

ghis unfertunate passion for gambling, 
e often sold his paintings at any price, 
and became involved in pecuniary embar- 
rassments, which were the cause of his 
death, in 164S. If we analyze Guido's 
productions, we find his drawing not al- 
ways correct, rarely powerful and grand, 
his attitudes without much selection, 
sometimes not even natural. Yet his 
drawing has a grace peculiar to him, a 
loveliness consisting rather in the treat- 
ment of the whole, than in the execution 
of the parts. This pace and loveliness 
are ofl^ to be found only in his heads. 
His ideas are generally common, the dis- 
tribution of the whole rarely good ; hence 
his larger works have not a pleasing effect, 
and are not so much valued as his smaller 
works, particularly his half-lengths, of 
which he painted a great number. The 
disposition of his drapery is generaUy 
ea^ and beautiful, but often not in har- 
mony with the whole piece, and with the 
nature of the substance which it is intend- 
ed to represent. An elevated, varied, dis- 
tinct expression is not to be looked for in 
his works. For this reason, he rarely 



racoeeded m adult male figurefl^ in which 
power and fimmesB are to lie represented. 
The best are from his early penod. But 
Quido's element was the representing <yf 
youthful, and paiticulaiiy female figiuea. 
In them he manifested his fine insdnct 
fix the deBcate, graceful, charming, ten- 
der and lovely. This is shown particular- 
ly in his eyes, turned towards heaven, in 
his Madonnas and Magdalene. His col- 
oring is rarely true, often fidls into yellow- 
ish, greenish and ^ver gray, yet is gener- 
ally agreeaUe, and proves the very great 
ease and power with which he managed 
his pencil, which, however, often degener* 
atee into mannerism. Guido not only work- 
ed in relievo,bnt also executed some statues, 
and a considerable number of etchings, 
with his own hand, which exhibit ease 
and delicacy, and are much esteemed. 
It might almost be said, that his dmwing, 
in these engravings, is more conect and 
noble than even in his paintings. Amonf 
the number of his pupils, who remained 
more or less ftithful to his style, are ctistin- 
guiahed, Guido Congian,8imone Contari- 
ni Pesarese, Francesco Ricchi, Andr. Stre- 
ni, Giovanni Sementi, G. Bat. BologninL 

Guixinfz. (See AquUttmOj and Dqwi- 

GniONEs, Joseph de, bom at Pontoise, 
in 1721, is distinguished for lus knomdedgo 
of the Oriental Tanffuages, which he stud- 
ied under the celetnated Stephen Four- 
mont He was a^^inted roj^d interpret- 
er in 1745, and, m 1753, was chosen a 
member <^ the academy of belles-lettres. 
He applied himself particularly to the 
study of the Chinese characters; and, 
comparing tiiem with those of the ancient 
languages, he thought he liad discovered 
that Ihtff were a kind of monograms, 
formed from three Phasnician letleri, and 
therefore concluded that China must have 
been peopled by an Egyptian colony. 
The Ji/urnd des SaoanSf and the Memoirs 
of the Academy, he enriched, during the 
space of 35 years, with a great number 
of contributions, which display profound 
learning, great sagacity, and many new 
views. At the age ofnear 80, he was reduc- 
ed to povertjr by the revolution ; but, even 
in this situation, he retained his equanimi- 
^,his disinterestedness and his indepen- 
dence, which would not allow him to re- 
ceive Bupp<Ht from any one. He died at 
Paris, in 1800. Among his numerous 
worics, the first place belongs to his JEKt- 
toire QMraU du Hmu, des Turca, du 
Mogols d des tsutrta TakartB Occidtniaux 
(five volumes, 4to.}. Id this work, the 
materials for which he had drevm fix>m 

valuable, and, in part, untouched- stores of 
Eastem knowledge, to which he had gain- 
ed access by a profound study of the lan- 
guages, much lisfat is thrown upon the 
history of the caliphates, of the cnisadea, 
and,general]y, of the Eastern nations. Aa 
regards industry, he has given us no cause 
to ccanplain; but we often feel the want 
of a carefiil style, of a nice taste and a 
just discrimination. The language 6*6- 
quently shows maiioB of neglecL A bet- 
ter taste would have given a more power- 
fill translation of the peculiar Oriental 
expressions. He needed a more phik>- 
sophic mind to understand ftdly the poe- 
try of the East, to lay open the causes of 
events, to point out the most striking cir- 
cumstances, which he has often slightly 
passed over. De Guignes,]ike Herbelot, 
drew fitnn a large number of manu- 
scripts, and, like him, often fiills into rep- 
etitions and sometimes contradictioDs. 
His Mimmart dan» Uqud onprowe que les 
Ckmois mmt une Cotonie EgjffAiame is of 
value. TrandationB of the CSbotc 
(by fiither Gaufail), one of the sa- 
books of the Chinese, and of the 
Military Art among the Chinese (by Arny- 
ot), were revised and pubGahed by De 
Guignes, besides other pieces, and S3 pa- 
pers in the Memoirs of the Academy, and 
contributions to the MUees H ExtndU dt 
la BibUothique royole. His son Christian, 
bom in 1759, was likewise skilied in the 
Chinese language and literature, and 
wrote several diasertations upon them. 
His Chinese dictionary, with the definitions 
in French and Latin, is a masterpiece of 
typography, and is generally esteoned. 

Guild; a society, fintemity, or com- 
pany, associated for carrying on com- 
merce, or some particular tnde. The 
merehant guilds of our ancestors answer 
to our mcNdem corporations. The socie- 
ties of tradesmen, exclusively authorized 
to practise their art, end governed by the 
laws of their constitution, played a very 
important part in the middle ages. Few 
institutions show the progress of civili- 
zation ID a stronger light than that of 
guilds, from the met rude mixture of all 
kinds of labor, its division, the establish- 
ment of corporations, the corruption of 
these b^ privileges, which are m some 
cases highly abmird, down to their total 
abolition, and the restonifion of liberty to 
human industry. Though the division of 
labor is comparatively of recent date, yet 
the division of the people by occupations 
is one of the oldest and rudest political 
institutions of which history makes men- 
tion. These divisions by occupations or 



(q. T.)^ fleneimll^ took thtfir rise, how- 
ever, mra a iufierenoe of national origuiyas 
with tbeEgyptiana, Indiana, &c. TheRo- 
mans had various meehanical fiatemitiea 
(coBegia et corpora op^icmn) which might 
oe con^Mired to modem guilds, as they 
had the right to enact by-laws. In the 
later times of the republic, these societies 
not unfirequently appeared as political 
parties; and, on this account, their ii^u- 
ence was restrained, and they were paitly 
abolished afler the establishment of the 
monazchy. In Italy, the cradle of the 
elasB of free citizens in the middle ages, 
and particularly in the Lombard cities, 
those Goimecting links between the an- 
cient and modem civilization, some re- 
mains of these Roman institutiona, or rec- 
oileetions of them, probably contributed 
to revive the guilds, which naturally pre- 
sented themselves as an excellent means 
of suppofting the citizens against the no- 
bility, by unithig them into powerful bod- 
ies. With the increasing importance of 
the cities, which became the seats of 
industry, and with tiie establishment of 
their constitutions, begins also the exfien- 
aioQ of guUds. The chief reason that 
mechanical industry was freely developed 
in the middle ages, at the same time 
with agricultural, which had been ex- 
clusively cultivated by the Oreeks and 
Romans, was the independence which the 
mechanics acquired with the mvirth of 
municipal and civil liberty. Mechanical 
industry has always been essentially of a 
denoocratic character^ and would never 
have flourished under the feudal system. 
It is not possible now to give the exact 
date of the oriipn of these societies in 
Upper Italy. iSaces of them are found 
in the 10th century. Thus, in Milan, we 
find the mechanics united under the 
nsme crtdenHa. It is certain that small 
societies of mechanics existed as eariy as 
the IStli century, which appear, in the 
ibOowiiig ceiitury, to have oeen in the 

We even meet with abuses in these bod- 
ies as eariy as this period ; and, several cen- 
turies later, the guilds became the subject 
of bitter and just c<Hariplaint, particularly 
thoee in German]^ « When the advantages 
of these associations became known and 
feh, they rapidly increased; and, in the 
stn^gles of the citizens and the nobility, 
the principal reastance against the latter 
was made by the corporations. As soon 
as the citizens acquired an influence on 
the administration, die guilds became the 
baaia of the mumcmal constitutions, and 
eraiy one, who vrisbed to participate in 

the municipal govemmKtt, was oblund'to 
become the member of a guild. &»Bee 
we find so often distinguished pe^le be- 
longing to a dasB of mechanics, ofwhose 
occupation they probably did not know any 
thing. This mixture ofsodal and political 
character, as well as the insignifiGance of 
the individual, considered merely as such, 
is a natural consequ^ice of the rti^ness 
of the period. Just principles are the 
work of time. It is only by slow deoees 
that the true is separated finom the felse, 
the essential finm the unessential Politi- 
cal, like religious and scientific principles, 
are at first always vague and incoherent 
Men must have long e^qperieoce of the 
concrete before they farm just notions of 
the abstract Thus it is a characteristic 
of the middle ages, that political n^ta 
were considered as arising fifom roecial 
privileges. All that men eiQoyed was 
looked upcm as a gift fimn the lord para- 
mount In fiict, the idea of the rights of 
man, as an individual, has been developed 
only in very recent times. Even the an- 
cient republics had no just conception of 
it In Germany, the esUibhshment of 
guilds was also intinuttely connected with 
that of the constitutions of the cities, (q. v.) 
The latter were different according as the 
ancient Roman, or the old German organ- 
ization of the community prevailed ; the 
relations among the mechuiics were also 
very differrat The mechanical arts 
were at first chiefly practised bv the vil- 
leins ; and, even in tne time of Charle- 
magne, they appear to have been pursued 
on the estates of the feudal lords, by the 
bondsmen, as is still the case on the great 
possessions of Russian noblemen. Com- 
merce could not, however, be carried on by 
bondsmen (in Rusna they are permitted to 
trade). Although there earlv existed five 
mechanics, yet they were also under the 
protection and jurisdiction of the feudal 
lord, before the privileges of the cities 
were acknowledged, except in cities of 
Roman orisin (for instance, Cologne). 
These privikges early secured to them, 
as a distinct cuss of vassals, a sort of or- 
ganization under the direction of the 
masters of each trade, as appears fit)m the 
oldest law of the city of Strasburg, which 
seems to belong to me 15th century ; and 
out of this the ffuilds in Germany may 
have originated. (See Ekhhom^s Deutsche 
StaaU- wnd BechUguekichie^ vol ii ; and 
his JVeaHfc on ike Ongm of Hu ConditU' 
Uona of German Cities^ in the ZeUschri/l 
flirGe$(hickaiehe Rechiswiuenahdufi, vol i. 
No. 2, and vol. ii. No. 2 ; and Hiuhnarm's 
GesckidUe des Ursprunga der Sl&dU in 



DeuUMmd.) The full developement of 
the guilds iu Gennapy fiills in the last 
half of the 12th centuiy, and the oldest 
examples are thoee of the cloth-shearefs 
and retailers in Hambul:^ (H^)* the dra- 
pere (1153) and ^oemakers in Magde- 
buiv ( 1157), But they possessed no politi- 
cal importance in Germany before the Idth 
centuiy, when a struggle arose between 
diem (the laboring dasees) and the citizens 
belonging to ancient famihes, the civic oris- 
' tocracy. The guilds were victorious, and 
became so powerful, that even persons of 
''free occupations" joined these associa- 
tions, as the allodial possessors of land 
sometimes placed themselves under feudal 
lords. The corporations of merchants and 
mechanks became more and more con- 
firmed in their privileges and monopolies, 
whilst die countiy people sufiered by be- 
ing made, in many respects, the skives of 
the guilds. Particular branches of indus- 
try were often subject to restrictions in 
fi&vor of the guilds, which were sometimes 
of a most offensive nature. The guilds 
became insupportable aristocracies, some- 
times allowing onW a certain number of 
master mechimics m the place, and sel- 
dom admitting an^ one into their associa- 
tions except favontes of the masters. The 
examinations for the admission of a jour- 
neyman to the rank of a master were 
used as means of extorting money, and 
^vere often combined with the most ab- 
surd humiliations. In some parts of Ger- 
many, there were from four to five differ- 
ent guilds of smiths, which did not allow 
each other the use of certain tools. The 
ffuilds are now abolished in a considera- 
ble portion of Germany ; and yet many 
persons wish to restore the ancient order 
of thin^is, as a support of aristocrotical 
distinctions, and as tending to repress that 
free exercise of industiy which is so &- 
vorable to the growth of the democratic 
spirit. Attempts were made to check the 
insolence of the ffuilds by laws of die 
empire, as in 1731, out without success. In 
France, the guilds also originated with 
the increasing importance of cities, and 
became general in the reign of Louis IX ; 
but they became subject to ^uses, as in 
Germany, and were abolished at the time 
of the revolution. Their restoration was 
also desired by those who vrished for the 
return of the Bourbons. In Enj^land, the 
societies of mechanics are important 
principally in a political respect, on ac- 
coimt of their connexion with the demo- 
cratic element of the constitution. These 
societies originated in England, as on the 
continent, at die time of the developemmt 

of the importance of the cities. In the 
towns where they still exist, they have an 
important influence in the election of rep- 
resentatives, and in the municipal admin- 
istraticm. Therights of a ''freeman," with 
which is associated the privilege of voting 
in the cities or borougpbs, are often con- 
fined to the members of these societies, of 
which the membership is obtained by 
serving an apprenticeship, or by purchase. 
As the principal privilege of these socie- 
ties consists m this right of voting, per- 
sons not mechanics are fi«quendy admit- 
ted members, to jrive them this privilege. 
These guilds, in England, have no right to 
prevent any man from exercising what 
trade he pleases. The only restriction on 
the exercise of trades is the statute of 
Elizabeth, requiring seven years* appren- 
ticeship. This the courts have held to 
extend to such trades only as were in 
being at the time of the passage of the 
statute; and they consider seven years' 
labor, either as master or apprentice, as 
an apprenticeship. 

Guilder. (See Coins.) 

Guildhall ; the city hall of London. 
It was first built in 1411, but almost entire- 
ly coiiFiimed in the great fire. In 1669, it 
was rebuilt The firont vras not erected until 
1789. The most remarkable room of diis 
edifice is the ha]l,153 feet long, 48 broad,and 
55 high, capable of containing from 6000 to 
7000 persons, and used for city feasts, the 
election of membera of paiiiament and 
city officers, and for all public meetuigs 
of the livery and fi^eemen. Monuments, 
erected at the expense of the city, to die 
memory of lord Nelson, William Pitt 
eari of Chatham, William Pitt his son, 
and Beckfbrd, lord mayor in 1763 and 
1770, whose celebrated reply to his maj- 
esty George III is engraved beneath, or- 
nament this halL In another room, that 
of the common council, is a coUection of 
pictures, some of great merit; among 
others, Copley's Destruction of the Span- 
ish and French Flotilla before Gibraltar, 
and T^nmy portraits of distmguished per- 
sons. The dinner which was given here, 
in 1815, by the city of London, to the em- 
peror Alexander of Russia and other 
monarchs, cost £20,000. 

Guilford ; a post-town and seaport in 
New Haven county, Connecticut, on 
Long Island sound ; 15 miles east New 
Haven, 96 miles south Hartford ; Ion. 72^ 
42^ W.; lat 41° 17' N.; population, in 
1820, 4131. (For the population m 1830, 
see U, States.) It comprises four perish- 
es, and contams seven houses of public 
wcNTship. It has two harbors, and carries 



on conaderabje tnde^ dudfy with New 
York. SboemakiDg is a conmdenible 
bmineaes and ]ai)ge quantitiee of oyBtera 
are obtained here. The borough was in- 
corpoiated in 1815, and is pleasantly situ- 
ated about two miles {h>m tlie harbor. 
The Indian name of GuiUbid was Mt- 

GciLJLEMiNOT, Armaud Charles, coimt, 
lieutenant-general, created (leer of France 
October, 1823, was bom in the Bek^c 
provinces, in 1774, and received a careful 
education. During the insurrection of 
Brebant against Austria, in 1790, he 
fbu^t in die ranks of the patriots. On 
then- subjection by the power of the 
house of Hapsburg, he fled to France, 
where he received a place in the staff of 
geneml Dumouriez. Beinff imprisoned 
in Lille, after the defection of this general, 
he escaped by flight, and concealed him- 
self in the ranks of the French army. 
He was soon received into the stafl* of 
general Moreau, to whom he remained 
gratefully attached, even in his misfbr- 
tunes. In the year 1805, Napoleon em- 
ployed him in the army in Gennany, and, 
in 1806, uipointed bun his aid-de-camp. 
In 1806, he served in Spain, as chief of 
the stafT of marshal Bessif^res, and after tlie 
victoiy at Medina del Rio-Secco, was made 
seneial of brigade, and an officer of the 
^gion of honor. In 1809, he wos em- 
ployed by Napoleon on a mission to the 
Persian courL He remained some time 
in the East, and several months at Con- 
stantinople, and received the Turkish or- 
der of the crescent and the Persian onler 
of the Sim. In the compaips of 1812 
and 1813, he distinguished hmiself in tlie 
battles of the Moskwa, of Liitzen and Baut- 
zen. He rendered essential senice by re- 
pelling the attack of the Swedes upon 
bessau (September 28, 1813), and, in con- 
sequence, was promoted by Napoleon to 
the rank of general of division. Afler 
the restoration, Louis XVIII named him 
grand officer of the legion of honor, and 
gave him the cross of St Louis; he also 
appointed him, at the return of Napoleon 
mm Elbe, chief of the general staff in 
the army which the duke of Bern was to 
ciMDcnand. He held the same rank in the 
array which, in June, 1815, was aasem- 
I Med under the walls of Paris ; and he 

' ngned, in the name of marshal Davoust, 

the capitulation of that city. Ho was af- 
terwards appointed director of the topo- 
graphical military bureau in the ministiy 
^ of war; and, in 1816 and 1817, in con- 
f junction with the commissionerB of the 
Swiss confederacy, settled the boundary 

VOL. VL 9 

line between France and Switzeriand, aa 
was stipulated by the trniQr of 1815. In 
the war with Spain, in 182^ general Guil- 
leminot received the important poet of 
major-general in the French army, at the 
express desire of the duke of Angou- 
Mme, but against the will of the duke of 
Belluno, then minister of war, who desir- 
ed the place for himself. In this capacity, 
he directed the whcde campaign, from 
April 7 to the liberation of King Ferdi- 
nand (October 1, 1823), who rewarded 
him with his order. Guilieminot then 
distributed the French armv of occupa- 
tion in the fortresses, concluded a contract 
with the Spanish government for its sup- 
ply, &c., and returned, in the middle of 
December, to Paris, where an embassy to 
Constantiiiq>le was given him. General 
Guilieminot, by his nroclamation, dated 
Andujar (August 8, lo23), which was in- 
tended to put a stop to the arbitrary treat- 
ment of the constitutionalists by the Span- 
idi royalists, had rendered himself obnox- 
ious to the absoludsts. The duke of An- 
ffouldme, however, reposed entire confi- 
dence in him ; for GiuUeminot, as major- 
Seneral, had executed, with great pni- 
ence, the plan of reducing Spain by 
moderation, of restraining the political 
fanaticism of the soldiers of the faitli and 
of the people ; and, by a liberal policy, 
inducing the Spanish leaders, Morillo and 
Ballesteros, ana the commanders of the 
castles, to capitulate, and the members of 
the cortea to disagree ; and had happily at- 
tained the object of the six months' cam- 
paign, the taking of Cadiz. In 1826, be 
was permitted to return from Constanti- 
nople to Paris, to defend himself before 
the house of peers, in the trial of Ouvrard, 
relative to die contracts for supplying the 
French army in Spain. Bcmg acquitted 
of any blame in the affiiir, he returned to 
Constantinople in Augtist of the same 
year. General Guilieminot is one of the 
best informed of the French officers, and 
we may expect from him a history of the 
late wars. (For his conduct in the affaire 
of Greece, see Greece. ) 

GuiLLOTiN, Joseph Ignatius, a French 
physician, wqs born at Saintee, in 1738. 
He was at first a Jesuit, and professor m 
the Irish college at Bordeaux, but after- 
words stndied medicine, and lived in Par- 
is, lie was one of the commissioners 
appointed to examine the pretended cures 
of Mesmer, which he contributed much 
to discredit. A pamphlet (in 1788J on 
some abuses in tlie administration, gamed 
liim ^at popularity, and caused his elec- 
tion mto tno national convention. Here 



he was principally occupied with intro- 
ducing a better organization of the medi- 
cal deportment A machine, which he 
proposed should be uaed for the purpose 
of capital punishment, was called, from 
him, the gwUloHne,{<\,y,) He narrowly 
escaped simering himselt by this instru- 
ment. He died in 1814, at Paris, where 
he was much esteemed as a physician. 

Guillotine. This instrument has 
been erroneously called an invention of 
GuiUotin, a physician at Paris, durins the 
French revolution, concerning wnose 
character very false notions nave also 
been entertained. (Su ike preceding arti- 
de,) A similar instrument, called man- 
noto, was used in Italy for beheading 
criminals of noble binh. The motden, 
formerly used in Scodand, was also con- 
structed on the same principle. The con^ 
vention ha\dn2 determined, on die propo- 
sition of Guillotin, to substitute decapita- 
tion for banging, as being less ignomin- 
ious for the family of the person ej^ecut- 
ed, the guillotine was adopted, also on 
his proposition, as bemg the least painful 
mode of inflicting the punishment. It 
was erected in the place de Grhe, and the 
first criminal suffered by it April 25, 1792. 
Portable guillotines, mode of iron, were 
afterwards constructed. They were car- 
ried from place to place, for the purpose 
of executing sick persons. Tliis machine 
consists of two upright pillars, in the 
grooves of which a mass of^iron, sharpen- 
ed at the lower extremity, is made to 
move by cords. Being raised to a certain 
height, it hWs, and at once severs the head 
of Uie criminal (who is laid upon a hori- 
zontal scafibkUng] from his body. It is 
much surer than tne sword or axe, which 
is sometimes used for decapitation, and 
of which we read, in many instances, that 
several blows Iiuve been necessary to put 
an end to the life of tlie sufferer. In the 
rei^ of terror, it was called notre tres 
Sannte-GuiUoHne by the most ^nolent po- 
litical fanatics. It is still the common in- 
strument of capital punishment in France. 

Guinea ; a name which modem Euro- 
peans have apphed to a lai*ge extent of the 
western coast of Africa, of which the 
limits are not very definite. The Euro- 
pean geographers, however, seem now to 
have agreed in fixing, as the boundaries of 
Guinea, the Rio Mesurado and the west- 
em extremity of Benin, comprehending a 
space of about 13 degrees of longitude. 
This large territory is usually divid^ into 
four portions, called the Grain coast, the 
Ivory coasiy the Gold coaaty and the iSZoce 
coast. The Grain coast, called also the 

Mak^uMOf or Ptpper coasts extendi from 
the Mesurado to the villure of Growa, 
about ten miles beyond cape Palmas. The 
aromatic plant from which this coast de- 
rives its name, appeared, when Europeans 
first landed on this coast, a delicious luxu- 
rv. As soon, however, as they 
familiar with the more delicate and exqui- 
site aromatica of the East, this coarser one 
fell into disrepute ; and as this coast af- 
forded neither gold nor iv(»ry, and was not 
fiivorable for procuring slaves, it has been 
comparatively little frequented. About 
ten miles to the east of cape Palmas com- 
mences what by European navigators is 
termed the hory coast. This name is de- 
rived from the great quantity of ivoiy, or 
elephants* teeth, which is brought finom the 
interior countries. Gold is also tolerably 
plentiful. Although the Ivory coast is th us 
tolerably supplied with materials of trade, 
it has never been veiy extensively fi^- 
quented. The Ivory coast is populous 
and thickly set with villages, but does not 
contain any town of much consideration. 
It reaches to cape ApoUonia. The Gold 
coast extends from cape Apollonia to the 
Rio Volta, which separates it fix>m the 
Slave coast Of all parts of Guinea, and* 
indeed, of the African coast, it is the one 
where European settiements and trade 
have been carried to the greatest extent. 
It has been frequented at dififerent times 
bv the Portuguese, the Danes, Swedes, 
Iiutch and British. Britain has now a 
more extensive footing upon this coast 
than any other nation. She maintains a 
range of forts, the expense of which is 
defrayed by the African company, out of 
a grant of £23,000 per annum, made by 
government for that purpose ; but the 
trade is thrown open to all the subjects of 
the British nation. Although the Gold 
coast is situated almost immediately under 
the line, the tbennometcr luis scarcely 
been known to rise above 93 degrees, and 
tiie common heat of midsummer is only 
from 85 to 90. The country, fiiom the 
sea, appears like an immense forest, parts 
only or which are cleared for the pur- 
pose of cultivation. High lands arc seen 
in various directions, crowned with lofly 
trees and thick underwood ; the soil along 
the coast varies fix>m a light, sandv and 
pBvelly texture to a fine black mould and 
foamy clay. As we advance into tlie 
iiiterior, it sensibly improves, and, at the 
distance of six or eight miles firom tho 
shore, becomes rich in the extreme, and 
fit for any species of cultivation. The 
natives inhabiting the Gold coast present a 
considerable variety. The most prominent 



pbceiBlMlclbytlieFantMfl. OflMeywm» 
another power, beftm afanost unknown to 
EnropcMoiB, hat occupiad a oonapicuoua 
place. ThiaiflAaiiMiteeftheaovereignof 
which has wviged repeated and aucceaaful 
wanagahMttheFMiteea. OapeCoaatCaatle 
is the Gspilal of the BrWflh aettlements on the 
Gold coeat; and fotta ara also maintained 
at Acra, Dizeove, Soecondee, Commendo 
and Anamaboe. That at Winnebah haa 
beeik fiiven up. The Skve coaat extenda 
from the Rio votea to the bay and river of 
La^^OB, which aepomte it from Benin. Of 
all the partaof native Africa yet explored 
fay E nro pn a iW) thia ia the one where culti- 
Tation and the ana have been carried to the 
greateac petftct&on. The countiy here 
waa In a moat flouriahing and proeperoua 
atata, when h leoeived a fatal blow, about 
the middle of kat century, by the Invaaion 
of the king of Dahomey, who, having con- 
quered it, reduced the principal towna to 
aahea, and maaaacrad a great proportion 
of the population. This coaat haa aince 
coDtmiied to form part of the territoiy of 
Dahomey, and la pnremed by a viceroy, 
who reaidea at Qnwhee ; but, under tlua 
feroeioiia and military tyranny, it haa never 
reoovered ita ancient wealth and proa- 

GKifinA; an Enghrii gold coin, worth 
31 ahllMngi aterimg. Guineaa were first 
coined, m the reign of Charlea II (1663), 
of moid which the EngliA procured from 
GuHMB) and hence the name. Till 1718, 
they were of the value of 30 ahillinga ater- 
ling. (9eeGom.) 

GtmocA Cl€»tb, Mariners give the 
name of Gninea to a much greater extent 
of the AiHcan eoaat than ia recogniaed by 
geography ; and, in commerce, aeveral 
artidaa made for the African trade are 
caHed by thia name. Guinea cloth ia a 
lund of ealioe^ caicahted for the African 
mnket, when it la an important article ci 
baner. There are alao Guinea knive8,&c. 

OumBA PEppsft. {Bee Onfeimt Pepper.) 

GtTuntA Pie [ooois oobmfo). Thia well 
known little aumal ia a native of South 
America, and ia now domeaticated both 
in Europe and tbia country. Aa writarB 
make but little mentioti of ita halntB and 
maanera in a wild atate, moat that ia 
known respecting it haa been derived from 
oboervationa on tbe domeaticated animaL 
It is a reatleaa, grunting litde quadruped, 
aeldom remaining quiet more than a few 
mlniiiea. It foeda on bread, grain, ftuh or 
weigtitMaif giving a decided oreierence to 
pandey. It broMla when only 3 montha 
old, aind generally bringa forth every 3 
montha, having from 4 to 13 young onee 

at a time; hence the produce of a angle 
pairmightbeathouaandintheyear. From 
their beinc ao prolific, they would become 
innumerable, were not vast numbers of the 
young eaten bv cats, killed by the malea, 
or deatroyed by other meana. Aa they 
are very tender, multitudea periah firom 
cold and moiature. In the apace of 13 
hours after birth, the young are able to 
run about. In their habita, they are ao 
extreme^ cleanly, that if the young, by 
any accident, are dirtied, the female takea 
aucb a dialike to them aa never to aufl^ 
them to approach her. The principal 
emptoymentof the male and female aeema 
to conaiat in amoothing each otherVi hur, 
winch being performed, they turn their 
attention to the young, whoae hair they 
take particular care to keep unruffled, 
biting them if they prove refractory. Their 
aleep is ahort, but fiiequent ; they eat rap- 
idly, like the rabbit, a little at a time, but 
often. They repoae fiat on their belly, 
and, like the dog, turn round aeveral timea 
before they lie downJ Their manner of 
fighting is very singular, and rapears ex- 
tremely ridiculous. One of them seizes 
the neck of bis antagonist with its teeth, 
and attempts to tear the hair fitim it ; in 
the mean time, the other tuma hia tail to 
the enemy, kicks up like a horse, and, by 
veay of retaliation, acratchea the aidea of hia 
opponent with his hind feet Their skii» 
are acareely of any value, and their fleah, 
though edible, ia not aavoiy. fiufibn 
obeervea of them, ''By nature they are 
gentle and tame; thejr do no miachie^ 
but they are equally mcapable of good, 
for they never form any attachmenta : 
mild by conatitution ; docile through 
weakness ; almost insensible to eveiy dis- 
ject, they have the appearance of livins[ 
machines, constructed for the purposes of 
propagation and of representing a species.** 
GciscARD, Robert, duke of Apulia and 
Calabria, a son of tbe celebrated Tancred 
de Hauteville, was bora in 1015. Haute- 
ville had many sons, and his estate in 
Normandy waa amalL Thia mduced his 
three ekleat aona, ViTllliam the honarma 
(Bnw-<2e/cr»)» Daaobert and Humphrey 
to go to Italy and offer their aeryicea to 
the Italian princes, then engaged in con- 
tinual wars. Fortune, courage and cun- 
ning enabled William the IronarnB, who 
knew bow to take advantage of the 
vreaknesB of the Italian princea, to get 
poaaeasion of Apulia. Robert Guiacard, 
who, in the mean time, had grown up, 
burned witii the deare of sharing the 
splendid fortune of his brother m Italy. 
A little band of adventureis waa aoon 



found, in those timefl, so prone to adven- 
turous enterprisesy who were ready to 
follow him in the expectation of a rich 
booty. Robert, who was no ways in- 
ferior in courage to his brothera, soon 
distinffuisbed lumself in many battles; 
and the soldiers, moved by his exploits, 
unanimously proclaimed biro, after the 
death of his brother Humphrey, count of 
Apulia — a dignity which he accepted 
without hesitation, although to the preju- 
dice of the rights of his brother's chil- 
dren. He then conquered Calabria, in 
the possession of wnich he was con- 
firmed by pope Nicholas II, although that 
pontiff had not long before exconunu- 
nicated him for his outrages. Robert, 
grateful ibr this fiivor, bound himself to 
pay to the holy see an annual sum ; 
and fix>m this the feudal claims of the 
papal see on Naples, which exist to this 
day, are derived. In ApuUa itself^ Guis- 
card ruled with absolute power. This 
country had, till his reign, preserved a 
numb^ of privileges, and some fiimis 
of a constitution ; but scarcely was he at 
the head of the state, when he destroyed 
them ; and hence naturally arose discon- 
tents and conspiracies among the nobil- 
ity, who, at that time, were alone in pos- 
session of any rights. Robert punisbed 
many of these with dealh, and reduced 
the others to submission. He now began 
to think of conquering Sicily, the inves- 
titure of which the pope had already 
promised him. He sent, therefore, h& 
youngest lNX>ther, Roger, whose valor had 
already been dis^yed in many battles, 
at the head of 900 resolute vrarriors, to 
take possession of this island. Roger 
made himself master of the city of Mes- 
sina, with this small band, in 1060. In 
the following year, the two brothers 
united conquered the Saracens on the 
plains of Enna; but the misunderstand- 
mg which broke out between the victors, 
prevented them fh>m deriving all the 
advanta^ which mi|^t have resulted 
from this victory. Guiscard had prom- 
ised Roger the half of Cabtbria, in case 
his exi^ition to Sicily should prove 
successful ; but he was now unwilbi^to 
allow him more than two cities. The 
complaints of Roger irritated his brother, 
who deteimined to imprison him. But 
the soldiers of the former made them- 
selves masters of the person of Robert 
himself and Roger was magnanimous 
enough not to take advantage of this 
success. Guiscard, touched with this 
generositv, was reconciled to his brother, 
and fulfilled his promise. Roger now 

conquered nearly the whole of die iaiand, 
and became the fint count of Sici- 
ly. Ghiiscanl, in the mean time^ be- 
sieged all those cities in Lower Italy 
wluch, as yet, were in the hands of the 
Saracens. Some of these detained him 
ak>ngtime; as, for instance, Salenio and 
Bari, before the latter of which places 
Guiscard was encamped for four years, 
and endured all the violence of the 
weather and the dangen of the war, In a 
miserable hut, composed of branches of 
trees and covered with strew^ which he 
had caused to be bulk near the walls of 
the city. He at length succeeded in 
conquering ail the provinces which now 
form the kingdom of Napiesy and he 
would have extended hm vietorioua course 
still ftrther, had he not been excommiini- 
cated by Gregory VII, on account of his 
attack on Bensvento, and oUiged to con- 
fine his ambition within these limits. 
The betrothment of his daughter Helea 
to Constantine Duces, die son and heir 
of Michael VII, gave him afterwards an 
opportunity of interforiiig in the afftirs 
of the Greek empire. He fitted out a 
considerdi>le fleet, and sent his son Boe- 
mond to the conquest of Corfii^ while 
he himself went to attack Durazze. A 
tempest and a contapous disease had near- 
ly finstrated this expedition. Alexis Com- 
nenus, then emperor of Constantinonley 
approached witn superior foiees. The 
armies joined batde under the wbDs of 
Durazzo, where the victory at firrt in- 
clined to the side of the Greeks ; but the 
courage of Guiscard gave the battle a 
difierent turn. He rallied the already 
flying bands of his soldien, led them 
anew to die combat, and gained a com- 
plete victory over forces ax times as 
numerous as his own. Durazzo was 
compelled to surrender. Robert pene- 
trated into Epirus, approached Theasa- 
lonica, and filled the cqntal with terror. 
In the midst of this victorious career, he 
was recalled by the infbrmalian that Hen- 
ry IV (q. v.), emperor of Germany, had en- 
tered Imly. He gave the command 10 Boe- 
mond, and hastened home to asnst €hea- 
ory VII, who was besieged in the castle 
of"^ St Angelo, against &e Germans. 
Henry IV was compelled to retreat; 
Gregory was released, and conducted to 
Salmio as a place of safeQr. Guiseard 
now hastened again to Epirus, where he 
repeatedlv defeated the Cireeks, and, by 
means or his fleet, made himself master 
of many of the islands of the Arehipel- 
ago. lie was upon the point of advanc- 
ing against Conaumfinople, when his 



death took ploce io the uiand of Ceph- 
akmia, July 17, 1066, in the 70th year 
of his age. Wb &nny refloated, and the 
Graek empire wbb saved. Guiacard's 
coipae was put on board a galley, which 
lumiing aground at Venusa, the remains 
of the TietoriotM prince were deposited in 
the church of the Holy Trinity. His sons 
Boemond and Roger, after much dispute, 
divided the cmiquests of then- father, the 
fimner receiving Thremum, and the hitter 
Apuha. Robert Guiscard left behind him 
tho gloiy of having protected leaminf^, 
and of behig highly estimable in all his 
private relations. His appearance was 
martial, his ftame powerftil, and his cour- 
age unbounded. The school of Salerno 
ebims him as its founder. 

GxTiscBARO, Charles Gk>ttlieb, an able 
writer on militarv tactics, was a native of 
Magdebonr. After studying at the uni- 
versities of Halle, Maihurg and Lievden, 
he entered into the service of HoUand, 
and, while thus employed, found leisure 
to prepare materials for his Mhnoina 
mmtniits war Us Chtes et ks RommnSj 
vrfaich appeared' in 1757 (in 2 vols., 4to.), 
and met with great approbation. Tlie 
same year, he entered as a volunteer into 
the allied army, and acquired the esteem 
of prince Feidinand of^ Brunswick, who 
recommended him to the king of Prus- 
sia. He was a ftivorite of Frederic the 
Great A dispute having once arisen be- 
tween them respecting the name of the 
oonomander of Caesars tenth legion, in 
which Guischard proved to be right, 
Frederic gave him the name of this com- 
mander (Qittnfitf IcQius), by \d)ich he 
afterwards fi^quently called. Be- 
i the woric already mentioned, he 

the author of Mhrunrta CrUiques et 

fEtburiques sw phuitun Poinis tPAnHqui' 
ti miUiairt (4 vols., 8vo.), upon which 
work Gibbon bestows very high enco- 
mimns. Guischard died in 1775. 

Ouiss ; the name of a celebrated noble 
fimiiy in France, a branch of the house 
of Lonaine. Claude de Guise, fifth son of 
Ren^, duke of Lorraine, bom in 1496, estab- 
ftihed himself in France, and married An- 
tnaette de Bourbon in 1513. His valor, 
luB enteipriang spirit, and his other noble 
qualities, obtained for him great consid- 
entkm, and end[>led him to become the 
Ibunder of one of the fint houses in 
Franoe. In 15Q7, for the sake of doing 
him honor, his coimty of Guise was 
changed to a duchy, and made a peer- 
age. At his death, in 1550, he left six 
HODS and ftve daughters, of whom the 
Hdett married James V, king of Scot- 

land. The splendor of the house vras 
mincipally supported hv tiie eldest son, 
Guise (Francis, duke of Lorraine), bom 
in 1519, and called Le BaUtfri (the scar- 
red), from a wound which he received in 
1545^ at the siege of Boulogne, and which 
left a pennanent scar on his fiice. He 
showed distinguished courage, in 1553, at 
Metz, which he defended with success 
against Charies V, although the emperor 
had sworn that he would rather perit>h 
than retreat without having eftected his 
object In the battle of Renti, Aug. 13, 
1554, he dispbyed remarkable intrepidity. 
He also fought with success in FlanderB 
and in Italy, and v^as named lieutenant- 
general of all the royal troops. The star 
of France began again to shme as soon cs 
he was ploc^ at the head of the army. 
In eight days, Calais was taken, with the 
territory belonging to it, in the middle 
of winter. Tliua the Enghsh lost tiie 
ci^ without recovery, after having held 
it 310 years. He afterwards conquered 
ThionviUe fix>m the Spaniards, and provefl 
that the good or ill fortune of whole 
states often depends on a single man. 
Under Henry A, whose sister he had 
married, and stiU more under Francis 11, 
he was the virtual ruler of France. The 
conspiracy of Amboise, which the Prot- 
estants had entered into for liis destruc- 
tion, produced an entirely opposite effect. 
The parliament gave him the title of 
scmioT of his cowfdry. After the death 
of Francis II, his power began to decline. 
Then grew up the factions of Cond^ and 
Guise. On the side of the latter stood the 
constable of Montmorency and marshal de 
St Andr6 ; on the side ofme former were 
the Protestants and Colicny. The duke of 
Guise, a zealous Cadiolic, and an enemy 
to the Protestants, determined to pursue 
them sword in hand. After having pass- 
ed the borders of Champagne, at Bassi, 
March 1, 15GS2, he found the Calvinists 
singing tiie psalms of Marot in a bam. 
His party insulted them; they came to 
blows, and nearly 60 of these unhappy 
people were killed, and 200 wounded. 
This unexpected event lighted the flame 
of civil war throughout the kinffdom. 
The duke of Guise took Rouen and Bour- 
ses, and won the battle of Dreux, Dec. 19, 
1562. On the evening after this victoiy, 
he remained, with entire confidence, in 
the same tent with his prisoner, the prince 
of Cond^, shared his oed with him, and 
slept quiedy by the side of his rival, 
whom ho rM;arded as a relation and a 
ftiend. At that time, the duke of Guise 
was at the height of his fortune. He 



words the point, and marked below the tm> 
der mandible by a triangular prominence,by 
their light body, supported by larve wings, 
by slender legs, palmated feet, and a small 
lund toe. They are timid and cowardly, 
except in defence of their young. Gene- 
rally seen in large flocks, the old and 
young separate ; the larger species fre- 
quent the sea, the smaller, lakes or rivers. 
They walk vriih tolerable ease, and - swim 
%vell, but are incapable of diving. They 
keep much on the wing, and their fli^t is 
rapid, strong, and long sustained, even in 
heavy gales. In sitting, they contract their 
neck, and rest on one foot They are ex- 
tremely voracious, fighting with each other 
for prey. They are patient of hunger, 
but will feed on every kmd of animal fw)d, 
cither dead or alive, putrid or fresh. Their 
principal food, however, is fish, of which 
they will follow the ^oals; they catch 
them with n^t ability, duting down like 
an arrow. They breed only once a year, 
laying fix)m two to four eggs. The spe- 
cies are exceedingly numerous, and re- 
semble each other greatly. The culls are 
continually fiditing with each other, and 
the strong pmnderinf the weaker. No 
sooner does one rise from the water, with 
a fish in its bill, than it is immediately pur- 
sued by others, stronger than itself, and the 
first that reaches it tears away the spoil. 
Should, however, the latter not instantly 
swallow the booty it lias acquired, it is, in 
turn, pursued by otbera ; and, even if it has 
perfonned this process, it is oftentimes 
obliged to disgorge it, when it is seized by- 
one of the pursuers, before it can reach 
the water. The facility which the guUs 
have of vomiting their rood has been \Sken 
notice ofj even in their captive state. Some 
of these birds have been tamed, but, even 
then, they have always discovered the 
same quarrelsome and voracious habits. 
When two are kept together, tlie weaker 
generally becomes the victim of the ill na- 
ture of the other. Ahnost all the gulls 
that apjpear on our coast are also inhabit- 
ants of^ Europe. This genus is not well 
understood by naturalists, and much con- 
fbsion exists as to the species. 

Gum ; one of the proximate principles of 
vegetables, disdnguished by the foltowing 
properties :~It is an insipid, modorous, un- 
cry'stallizable solid, more or leas trampa- 
rent, the various colore which the difler- 
ent kinds possess being derived from 
mixtiwe witn coloring principles while 
exuduiff in a fluid state. It is insoluble 
in alcohol, and extremely soluble in wa- 
ter, in which properties it vs the reverse 
of resin. It difiers from mucilage only 

in being deprived of the w»ter which 
rendered it fluid ; and, of eoune, when 
water is added, it again becomes muci- 
hige. This mucilage is apparently not 
susceptible of fermentation, and may he 
kept for a long tkne, as it is less dis- 
posed to spontaneous changes than almost 
any vegetable product Its chemical com- 
position so nearly approaohes sugar, that 
It may be converted mto it by means of 
nitric acid. Gkim, as above defined, is 
identical in all vegetables, and the differ- 
ent kinds vary only in the quantity and 
quafity of the substances tmited with them. 
It exists naturally almost pure in gum 
Arabic and gum Senegal, ana, more or less 
mixed, in the gum which exudes from 
Uie plum, cherry and other firuit-trees, as 
also in tlie mucilage of flaxseed, slippery 
ehn, &c. Various resins and sum-resinVt 
are commonly confounded under tins ap- 

Gt7M Arabic is the product of the mi- 
mosa itUoUca and some other species of 
the same genus, inhalnting the sandy parts 
of Arabia, Egnrpt, Sehegal and Central Af- 
rica. It exudes spontaneously, in a fluid 
state, and remains attached to the branches 
after it has concreted and become solid. 
This exudation takes place continually, 
during the whole of the dry season, from 
Octo&r to June, but more copiously im- 
mediately after the rains. December and 
March are the two months in which this 
pim is coUected by the Arabs, with whom 
it is an important aliment, those tribes that 
are continually wandering in the desert 
often making it their principal article of 
food during a great part of the year. Gum 
Arabic is obtainea in rounded masses 
transparent, or of a light yellow color, 
capable of being easily reduced to a pow- 
der, insipid to me taste, or possessing a 
slight acidity, which, however, is only per- 
ceptible by those who use it habitually. 
It 18 easily soluble in water, and the solu- 
tion has the property of conveying pulver- 
ized solids mrougfa a filter, whidi would 
separate them were they suspended mere- 
ly in water : thus it is unpocrible, by this 
means, to separate powdered chaypcoal 
fiom gum water. In pharmacy, gum Ara- 
bic is employed to suspend in water sub- 
stances which, otherwise, could not be 
kept equally diflhsed, as balsams, fixed 
oils, reans, &c.; but its principal con- 
sumption is in manufiictures, forming the 
bans of crayons and cakes of water-col- 
ors, as well as of writing-ink, and several 
liquid colors, serving to increase the con- 
sistency of tliese cMors, and to prevent 
their spreadiog in calico printing, awMrding 



A clear cement for jominff liglit subitaieeB 
which may be prepared iu a moment, 
gtvinff a luatro to libandi, silks, ^1^^ 
which, boweyer, is destroyed by the appli- 
ealkm of water. It is, besides, used for a 
great Tariety of purposes. In medicine, 
it is frequently employed, especially in 
dysenteriee, as a demulcient, ana enters in- 
to the composition of a variety of emol- 
lient preparBti(»i& Gum Senegal does not 
di^r in its sensible properties ; indeed, 
the chief part of the gum Arabic of com- 
merce is lMt>u|^t fh>m Senegal, and con- 
stitutes the most important article of 
trade with that countiy. 

Gum Resirs apparently combine the 
properties of gums and resins, beinff part- 
ly soluble in water, partly in alooluM ; but 
dbey are evidoitly compound substances, 
finrmed of two or more vegetable princi- 
ples, which, indeed, are often in a state of 
mere mechanical mixture. Aloes, ammo- 
niac, aasafoBlida, galbanum, gamboge, oli- 
banum, scanunony, and a great variety 
of concrete juices, are referred to this 

GiTif; a fire-arm, or weapon of offence, 
vHueh forcibly dischaiges a ball, shot, or 
other offinisive matter, through a cylin- 
drical barrel, by means of cunpowder.— 
Gun is a seneru name, under which are 
included divers, or even most species of 
fiie-anna. They may be divided into 
great and smalL Great guns, called, also, 
by the general name eannon»j make what 
we also call ordnance^ or arUOenf, under 
wbikAi come the severed sorts of'^cannon. 
(See Gosmon, JMlUry, &c) Great guns, 
of all sorts, cannons, carronades, dz^., 
whether of iron or brass, are cast in sand, 
and afterwards bored. Small guns, mus- 
kets^ fbwlinir-pieces, &C., are forged from 
bars of maUeable iron, hammered to a 
proper width, and then turned over a 
mandril, or cylindrical rod, so as to form 
a tube with a bore smaller than that of the 
intended piece. The edges overlap about 
hidf an inch, and are finnly welded to- 
gether. The tube is then hammered, in 
semicireular grooves, on an anvil hoUow- 
ed for the purpose. It is aflerwurds bored 
with several instruments, of difierent sizes, 
in succession, till the hoUow is sufficiently 
large and smooth. A strong plug is firm- 
ly screwed into the breech, so as to make 
it perfectly close. The projecting parts 
of the barrel, the flight, the loops which 
ftsteo it to the stock, &c., are soldered 

GcN^TERT signifies the science of using 
artillrr)'^ against an enemy judiciously, and 
to the greatest eflect. Besides an accurate 

acquaintance with themaiMgementafoid- 
nance of all kinds, the ranae and force of 
every kind, the cham and diraetiim ne- 
cessary for dififerent distances, their mate- 
rials, me manner of making and of pre- 
serving them, with the component parts, 
the kinds, the ftbricadon, the efilect of 
pmpowder, and the method of preserving 
it, with the manner of preparing and onui* 
agin^ every thinjr that appertams to am- 
munition, ue axtiUeriBt must be able to in- 
struct his men in their exercises^ both on 
honeback and on foot; he must be well 
acquainted with the management of the 
horses, that are used to transport the can- 
non and to mount the flvingartiUeiy ; must 
know how to hames them to the cannon ; 
how to move and mancDuvre with them on 
ground of every kind ; how to repair, at 
die moment, any sudden damage ; and 
must be thoroughly acquainted vrith tac- 
tics, especially with the peculiarities of the 
ground, and vrith the art of availing him- 
self of them most iudicioaaly in the dis- 
position of his artiilery. Hemust, finally, 
oe able to attack or defend any position ; 
he must have an aocurate acqiiaintance 
with the science of fortification ; but espe- 
cially he must be practically skilled in 
throwing up battenes and other fiekl- 
worin, so that he may be able, by dispos- 
ing his artilleiy before or within a strong 
place, to assist the enemeermosteflfoctual- 
jy in its attack or defence. Besides^ the 
artiUerist has often the reipladon of the 
lichts^ and other ngnals, m time of war, 
of the fire-woiks in peace, &c. All this 
must be learned by experience, and by the 
smdy of auxiliaiy sciences. Mathemat- 
ics (particularly the doctrine of curves, to 
calculate the path of the balls), physics 
and chemistry are v«nr necessary, m order 
to undentand the effect of ptnvder, and 
the nianuftcturinff of ammumtion, as well 
as that of all kmds of fire-works. A 
knowledge of mechanics is, also, very 
useful, for understanding the theory of 
carriages, for moving la^ loads, when 
necessary, and on many other oeca- 

GunpowDxa is a mixture of sahpetre, 
sulphur and charcod. If we may be- 
lieve the relations of the misrionaries, and 
the reports of the Chinese historians, the 
Chinese were first acquainted with the ap- 
plication of gunpowder. Perhaps it pro- 
ceeded from them to the Arabs ; for» in 
1331, the Moon used it in their operationa 
before Alicant, and certainly in 134% at 
Algesiras; in 1250, the Arabs probably 
us^ a mixture similar to gunpowder be^ 
fore Damietta, and perhaps also in a naval 



It in the year 1065. Amtrng 
the fiuropeaoB, the traces of this inven- 
tioii ore sdll mope ancient ; for the Greek 
fire, which was first employed m 068, 
must haye, at least, contained sahpetre 
mixed with pitch, naphtha, &c^ since it 
was customaiy, by means of it, to huri 
stones finom m^aluc tubes. The first in- 
formation of the knowledge of the Euro- 
peans with regard to the chemical mix- 
ture of powder, is found in the 9th centu-» 
IT, in a bock composed by Marcus GtbC' 
chuB, preserved in the university of Ox- 
ford, which also accurately explains its 
composition. Roger Bacon (who died in 
12d4) was likewise aeouainted with the 

Sower which saltpetre nas, when set on 
re, of producing a thundering report 
The discoYBrer of the power ofpowder, 
when confined and set on fire, of^propd- 
ling heavy bodies, was, according to com- 
mon r^>oft, fintfaold Schwaitz, a monk, 
who is said to have lived at Mayence, be- 
tween 1290 and 12SXL He, in some of his 
experiments in alchemy, had put the nux- 
ture into a mortar, and, having accidental- 
ly dropped into it a spaikof &«, to lus as- 
tonishment, saw the pesde fly off into the 
air. Other traditions attribute this inven* 
tion to Constantine Antlitz of Colo^ 
(see De Boucher's Jtfiisiotre stir fOr^^^ 
delaPoudnhCanony However this may 
be, powder was scansdy applied to mili- 
tary uses before 1350, and the accounts of 
the use of cannons in the battles of CMcy 
(1346), Poictien, kmd still eariier enga|;e- 
ments, have arisen fit>m the various signifi- 
cations of the woid amnon. In ld5& 
powder is mentioned in die accounts of 
the treasuiy of Nuremburg ; in I960, the 
house of assembly at Lfifa«ck wos bunied 
by the imprudence of the powder manu- 
fiusturen ; and, in 1965^ tfie maigreve of 
Misnia had pieces of artilieiy. In the 
course of a rew yetn sfbrwards, it was 
knovm over all Europe. Thus the fint 
traces of this invention would appear to 
be found in Germany ; other naliona, 
however, have put in their claims to this 
honor. The proportion of the inrndi- 
ents in the oonmosition of gunpowder, is 
diflerent in dinerent countries: in die 
Prussian powder-mills, 75 parts of saltpe- 
tre, llil parts of sulphur, and 13^ ports of 
charcoal are used ; but in the French 
mills, 75 parts of salmetre, 12i| of coal, 
and 1521 or sulphur. In the manu&eture 
of this article, which is canied on in very 
different ways, much depends upon the 
goodness of the ingredients. The cnide 
saltpetre is broken up, moistened and ex- 
posed to the action or a slow fire, contin- 

vtaUv skfanmed and violently agitated, till 
all the moismre evaporates, and the salt- 
petre remains in the form of a fine pow- 
der. The sulphur is pulverized after hav- 
ing been well purified. The chttcoal m 
that derived from the alder or any other 
soft wood or bushes, as, for example, hemp 
stalks, which are burned with great care in 
a confined room, and reduced to a fine 
powder. These three insredients are then 
moistened, brought under a stamping, or 
more commonly a rolling mill, where two 
metallic, or, winch are tetter, marble cyl- 
inders, turn round a fixed vertical wooden 
pillar, and crash to pieces the mixture, 
which lies upon a round smooth sunbce 
of the same materiaL Other nulls effect 
this bruising operation by several law 
iron rtumera, revolving upon a metalfic 
plate, aniilar to a painter's grinding stone, 
or by a rapid revolution of the mixture in 
cssks containing metallic balls. Afler the 
mixture, in some one of these vinays, has 
been acted on in the mills for the space 
of six or ei|^t hours, and when the ingre- 
dients are united, and form one homoge- 
neous mass, it is pressed, while yet wet, 
by means of cylindric roUere of wood, 
throuffh a sieve of perforated parehmem, 
by vrfaich the powder is fbrnaed into 
mins. In other mills, this process of 
mrming it into grains takes place after 
the powder has been pressed between two 
boards into a solid cake, and then submit- 
ted twice to the operation of a grooved 
roller. The powder, after it has been 
{(rained, is spreeA upon boards in the dry- 
inff-houises, and exposed to the stronr heat 
of an oven fiir two days. In order to 
prevent its taking €je^ the oven is well 
lined virith clay and copper. Of late 
yean, this process of diying has been 
sometimes effected by means af steam. 
Finally, the powder is s(Hted by being 
passed through several aieves. In the 
first, or coarsest, remains what is entirely 

useless ; through the 8ec<»d 


^ passes 

second-sized, or cannon powder ; and 
tlut>ugh the third and kst the finest, or 
musket povrder. The powder, thus pre- 
pared, is packed in oaken casks. In or- 
der to provide against accidents, the Eng- 
lish use copper casks or vessels, with the 
tops screwed on. Copper vessels are also 
used in the U. States. Good gunpow- 
der must be of a slate cc^or, uniform, 
round and pure grain, and also bavcvs^ 
unifbnn color on being broken up ; npr 
should it leave liehind it, either on the 
hand or on paper, auv Mack spots. When 
set on fire, it riiould burn at once, vrithout 
crackling or leaving upon paper any op* 



peannces of its comfauition. MThen ap- 
plied to the tongue, die taste should be 
extremely c(x>liBg. In order to prove its 
8treD^[th, let any person apply an accurate- 
ly fitting ball to a small mortar, and the 
disianee to which the ball is thrown will 
wove the strength of the powder. The 
rrsnchjsoTenunent quwtoetU is a moitar 
seven French inches in diamet^, and 
three ounces of powder must throw a 
copper globe, of oO pounds weight, 900 
ieet ; otherwise the iK>wder is not admis- 
able. An tprwnaU is sometimes used 
wUch is inaccurate ; the powder throws 
back the cover of a small moitar, and 
with it a wheel, ^fdaich catches in a steel 
spring ; the strength is determined bv the 
tooth, at which tne wheel remains fixed. 
This method is defective, because the 
spring is weakened by use. Another 
method is, to suspend a small cannon as a 
pendulum, and to iudge of the strength of 
the powder by ttie force of the recoil, 
which will describe a greater or less arc 
of a circle. In the preservation of pow- 
der, fire and water must both be carefiilly 
guarded against Powder destined for 
inilitaiy purposes, should be deposited in 
an aiiy Duilding, removed at least 1000 
paces fix>m any habitation, provided with 
li^itning rods, and sunounded with waUs, 
ditches and palisadoes ; there sbould be a 
guard constantly set, to inevent the intro- 
duction of fire, and to hinder all persons 
fit>m entering, who have things about them 
that will produce ^re. These buildings 
sbould contain openings for the ftee pas- 
sage of die air ; the casks should stand 
upon a platfbim of wood, at a distance 
fi^m the wall, and the powder itself should 
be sunned and dried eveiy one or two 
years. If the powder is to be kept in 
damp places^ as, for example, in the case- 
mates (arched passages under ground) of 
fortresses, the walls should be intemallv 
covered with lead, and a vessel filled with 
uDslacked lime placed in the middle of the 
apartment, so that the moisture of the at- 
raomhere may be attracted by the lime. 
In the tranepoitation of gunpowder, dusL 
which is liaMe to penetrate the cracks and 
joints of the caws, should be carefiilly 
guarded against, as d\e firiction may pro- 
duce ezploaon. It is also necessaiy for 
its good preservation, that the carnages 
and vessels in which it is transported 
should be water-tight. We mav efiectual- 

L' preserve it fipom moisture, by dipping 
cask and the sackcloth covering into 
melted pitch. Vessels prepared in this 
way, and containing powder, may be im- 
mersed in the water for weeks, without 

baviag their comoBtB in the least it^uied. 
The eofects of this substance, when set on 
fire, are truly wonderfuL When powder 
is heaped up in the open air, and then in- 
flamed, it detonates without report or 
efifect A smaO quantity (mT powder left 
fiee in a room, and fired, merely blows 
out the windows ; but the same quantit}', 
when confined in a bomb within the same 
chamber, and inflamed, tears in pieces and 
sets on ^xe the whole house. Count 
Rumford loaded a mortar with one-twen- 
tieth of an ounce of powder, and placed 
upon It a 24 pouna cannon, weighing 
8081 pounds; ne then closed up every 
opening as completely as possible,uid fired 
the charge, which burst tne mortar with a 
tremendous explosion, and raised up tbis 
immense weight. Whence such and sim- 
ilar effects arise, no chemist as yet has 
been able, satisfiictorily, to exj^ain ; and 
the greater part of the explanations hith- 
erto made are nothing but descriptions of 
fiictB. The best explanation is, that the 
azote and oxy^n pases of the saltpetre, 
and the caiiiomc acid gas fix>m the char- 
coal, which had hitherto been in a solid 
state, are set firee, and the expansive pow- 
er of aU these gases requires much more 
room than tliey previously occupied. 
They now endeavor to overcome the ob- 
structions to their expansion, and this ten- 
dency is very much mcreased by the in- 
tense heat generated by the gases. The 
confined steam operates in the same way, 
although this is not the only cause of die 
phenomenon, ss Rumford supposes. 

Gunpowder Plot ; a conspiracy form- 
ed in the second year of the reign of 
James I (1604), for the purpose of destroy- 
ing the king and parliament at a blow. 
The Roman Cathohcs having been disap- 
pointed in their expectations of indul- 
gence firom James, Catesby and Percy, 
two Catholic ffendemen of ancient fiimily, 
with a few others of their persuasion, de- 
tennined to run a mine below the hall 
in which parliament met, and, on the first 
day of the session, when the king and the 
royal family would be present, involve all 
the enemies of the Catholic religion in 
one common ruin. A vauh below the 
house of lords, which had been used to 
store coak, was hired, two hogsheads and 
96 barrels of powder lo<lged in it, the 
whole covered with fagots, and the doons 
thrown open so as to prevent suspicions. 
As the ^oung prince Cnaries and the prin- 
cess Ehzabeui would be absent, measures 
were token to have them seized, and 
Elizabeth proclaimed queen. The secret 
of the cons{Hnicy was communicated 



to more Ihaii 90 peraoDBi and had been 
faithjfoUy kept for neair a year and a half. 
Ten days, however, before the meeting 
of pariiament, a Catholic peer received a 
note fit>m an unknown hand, advising 
him not to attend at the parliament, aa it 
would receive a terrible blow. This be 
communicated to the secretary of state, 
lord Salisbury, who, although apprehend- 
hig nothings thought proper to lay it be- 
fore the king. James saw the matter in a 
more serious light; and, on searching the 
vaults below the hocises of pailiament 
(Nov. 5, 1605), Guy Fawkes, an officer in 
the Spanish service, who had been em- 
ployed to fire the powder, was found at 
the* door, with the matches in liis pocket, 
and the gunpowder in the vault was dis- 
covered. Fawkes was put to tlie torture, 
and made a fiill discovery of the conspir- 
atois, who, with their attendants, to the 
number of 80 persons, liad assembled in 
Warwickshire, deteimined to defend them- 
selves to the last. Percy and Catesby 
were kiUed in the attack ; tbe others were 
made prisoners and executed. Lin^rd 
(Histoiy of England, vol. ix, chap. 1) gives 
a veiy full account of the conspiracy, 
which does not materially differ from the 
statement above given. It has been, howev- 
er, asserted by others, that it was all a plot of 
Salisbury's, to effect the ruin of the Cath- 
olics, and that the warning csme from his 
hands. In support of this, they allege that 
most of the conspirators declared them- 
selves ignorant of tne extent of the conspir- 
acy, the Jesuits, who were implicated in 
it, protested tlieir innocence, and that die 
French ambassador, who made inquiries 
on tlie spot, entire^ exculpates them. 
(See Lettres e# JSfegocialions (PAntome Le- 
fix/n 4j^ la Bo(2ene.) In the calendar of 
the church of England, the 5th of No- 
vember is duly noticed as aholyday at the 
public offices; and the Common Prayer 
book contains « A Foim of Prayer with 
Thanksgiving, to be used yeariy upon the 
Fifth day of November, for the bapiiy De- 
liverance of King James I," &c. It is cu»- 
tomaiy for boys in England, as it was for- 
meriy in New England, to make an effigy 
representing Guy Fawkes, which they 
carry about, singing certam verses,* and 

* These verses are : 

" Remember, remember 
The fifth of November, 

Qiwpowder treaaon and plot ! 
We know no reason 
Why gunpowder treason 
Snould ever be fbrsot. 
Holla, bojs! Huzza! 
" A stick and a stake, 
f For king William's sake ; 

aakinff Ifor materials to bmn the figure. 
Scuffles between boys of different quar- 
ters of the town were common on this 
occasion, at least in Boston, Massachu- 

GuwTEB, Edmund ; an excellent Eng- 
lish mathematician, who flourished in the 
reign of James I, and distinguished him- 
self by his inventions, which have never 
yet been superseded, though some of 
them have been subsequently much im- 

Guntek's Chain; the chain in common 
use for measuring land according to tlie 
true or statute measure ; so called from 
the name of its inventor. The length of 
the chain is 66 feet, or 22 yards, or four 
poles of five jst^% and a half each; and 
It is divided into 100 links of 7.92 inches 
each. 100,000 square links make one acre. 

Gunter's Line ; a logarithmic line, 
usually graduated upon scales, sectors, 
&c. It is also called the Ztne of lines 
and line qf numbersy bemg only the log- 
arithms graduated upon a ruler, which 
therefore serves to solve problems instni- 
mentally, m the same manner as loga- 
rithms do it arithmetically. It is usually 
divided into a hundred {mrts, every tenth o? 
which is numbered, beginning with 1, and 
ending with 10 ; so that, if the first great 
division, marked 1, stand for one tenth of 
any integer, the next division, marked 2 
vrill stand for two tenths, 3, three tenths, 
and so on ; and tlie intermediate diviaon 
will, m like manner, represent one hun- 
dredth parts of an integer. If each of the 
great diviaons represent ten integers, then 
vnll the lesser divisions stand for integers; 
and if the great divisions be supposed each 
100, the subdivisions will be each 10. — 
Use of GwnUi*8 Line :— 1 . To find the prod- 
uct of tuH) numbers. From 1 extend the 
compass to the muldplier ; and the same 
extent, applied the same way from the 
multiplicand, will reach to the product. 
Thus, if the product of 4 and 8 be re- 
quired, extend the compasses from 1 to 4, 
and that extent, laid from 8 the same wav, 
will reach to 3^ their product — 2. 7\> di- 
vide one number by anoiker. The extent 
from the divisor to unity vrill reach fiom 
the dividend to th« quotient ; thus, to di- 
vide 96 by 4, extend the compasses fix)m 
4 to 1, and the same extent will reach fit>m 
36 to 9, the quotient sought--3. Tofwd a 
fywrOi pnmmiional to Ovree given numbers. 
Suppose the numbers 6, 8, 9: extend the 
compasses from 6 to 8; and this extent, 

A stick and a stiuup 
For Guv Fawkes' rump. 
Holla, boys tHazza'" 



laid from 9 the same way, will reach 
to 12, the fourth proportional required — 

4. TV^Siid a mean /^rogffifumal&efioeefiai^ 
itoo given numbers, suppoee 8 and 32 : 
extend the coinpasees from 8, in the left- 
hand port of the line, to 32 in the right : 
then, DiBectiug this distance, its half will 
reach from 8 forward, or from 32 buck- 
ward, to 16, the mean proportional sought. 
— 5. 7h extract the square rooiofa numKr, 
Suppoae 25 : bisect the distance between 
1 on the scale and the point representing 
25; then half of this distance, set off from 
1, wiU give the point representing die root 

5. In the same manner, the cum root, or 
that of any higher power, may be found 
by dividing the distance on the line, be- 
tween 1 and the given number, into as 
many equal parts as the index of the pow- 
er expresses ; then one of those parts, set 
from 1, will find the point representing the 
root required. 

Gunter's QuABRArvT is a quadrant 
made of wood, brass, or some other sub- 
stance ; being a kind of stereographic pro- 
jection on the plane of the equinoctial, the 
eye being supposed in one of the poles ; 
so that the tropic, ecliptic and horizon form 
the arches of circles; but the hour circles 
are other curves, drawn by means of sev- 
eral altitudes of the sim for some particu- 
lar latitude every year. This instrument 
is used to find the hour of the day, the 
sun's azimuth, &c., and other common 
problems of the sphere or globe ; as also 
to take the aldtude of an object in decrees. 

Gij:»ter's Scale, usually called, by 
seamen, the gunter, is a large plain scale, 
having various lines upon it, or great use 
in workinff the cases or questions in navi- 
gation. This scale is usually two feet 
Umf, and about an inch and a half broad, 
with various lines upon it, both natural 
and logarithmic, relating to tri^nometiy, 
navigation, &c On the one side are the 
natural fines, and on the other the artificial 
or logarithmic ones. The former side is 
first divided into inches and tenths, and 
numbered from 1 to 24 inches, running 
the whole length, near one edge. One 
half of the length of tliis side consists of 
two plane diagonal scales, for taking ofiT 
dimensions for three places of figures. On 
the other half of th!is side, are contained 
various lines relating to trigonometry, as 
performed by natural numbers, and maxk- 
ed thus, viz., Rhumb^ the rhumbs or points 
of the compass ; Chordj the line of chords ; 
;SXne, the lineof sines; 7\m^n the tangents; 
S. T^ the semi-tangents : and at the other 
end of this hal^ are, Leag^ leagues or 
equal parts; Bkumbf anotherfine of mumbs; 

VOL. VI. 10 

M, L^ miles of loiuptude ; Chor^ another 
line of chords. AJsOy in the middle of 
this foot are L. and P^ two other lines of 
equal parts: and all these lines on this 
side of the scale serve for drawing or 
lading down the figures to the cases in 
tngonometiy and navigation. On the 
other side of the scale are the fi^owing 
artificial or logarithmic lines, which serve 
for working or resolving those cases, viz., 
& /{., the sine rhumbs ; T. it, the tanj^t 
rhumbs; JVViin5 Jine of numbers; iSitiie, sine^ 
V, S^ the veraed sines ; Tang^ihe tangents ; 
Jkferi., meridional parts ; £.i^., equal parts. 

Gunwale, or Guvnel, of a Ship, is 
that piece of timber which reaches on 
either side of the ship, fifom the half^deck 
to the fore-casde, being the uppermost 
bend, which finishes the upper works of 
the hull in that party and wherein they put 
the stanchions which support the waistr 
trees. This is called thegunwaky whether 
there be guns in the smp or not. — ^The 
lower part of any port, where any ord- 
nance is, is also termed the gunumU^ 

GuRNAEo (tritdOf Uil). T(NyXa, which 
the Romans caOed mtifliif , does not be 
lonf^ to this genus, though it was included 
in It by Aitedi. These fisk which are 
marine, all afiford excellent rood. They 
have a scaly bodv, of a uniform shape, 
compressed laterally, and attenuated to- 
wards the tail. The head is broader than 
the body, and slopes towards the snout, 
where it is armed with spines ; the upper 
jaw is divided, and extends beyond the 
lower. The eyes are near the top of the 
head, large and prominent, particulariy 
the upper margin of the orbits. The dor- 
sal finis are unequal, the first short, high 
and aculeate; the second lonff, slopins 
and radiate. The ventral and pectoru 
are uncommonly large, and finom theur 
base hang three loose and slender sip- 
pondages. Manv of the species utter a 
peculiar noise when taken ; many of the 
species are provided with pectoral fins, 
sufiiciently large to enable them to spring 
out of the water. One of the species has 
been denominated the lyre fish, on account 
of its bifurcated rostrum, which bears a 
&int resemblance to that instrument 

Gdstavus I, king of Sweden, known 
under the name of Guskams Fasa, bom 
in 1^ was a son of duke Erich Vasa, 
of Grypaholm, and a descendant of the 
oki royal fiunily. He was one of those 
great men, whom Nature so seldom pro- 
duces, who appear to have been endowed 
by her with every quality becoming a 
sovereign. His handsome person and no- 
ble countenance preposBessed all in his 



ftyor. Hit arllen eloquence was ir- 
resiBtible ; his conceptions were bold, 
but his indomitable spirit brought them 
to a happy issue. He was intrepid, and 
yet prudent, full of courtesy in a rude age, 
and as virtuous as the leader of a party 
can be. When the tyrant Christian ll of 
Denmark sought to make himself master 
of the throne of Sweden, Gustavus re* 
solved to save his country fiom oppres- 
sion ; but the execution of his plans was 
interrupted, as Christian seized his per- 
son, aiid kept him prisoner in Copenha- 
g«i as a hostage, with six other distin- 
guished Swedes. When, at last, in 1519, 
be heard of the success of Christian, who 
had neariv ccmipleted the subjection of 
Sweden, ne resolved, while yet in prison, 
that he would deliv^ his countfy. He 
fled in the dress of a peasant, and went 
more than 50 miles the first day, throurii 
an unlmown countiy. In Flensborff, he 
met with some catde drivers fix>m Jutland. 
To conceal himself more securely, he took 
service with them, and anived happily at 
Lflbeck. Here he was indeed recognised, 
but he was taken under the protection of 
the^senate, who even promised to support 
him in his plans, which he no longer con- 
cealed. He then emixuked, and luided at 
Oabnar. The garrison, to whom he made 
himself known, refhsed to take the pait of 
a iusitive. Proscribed by Christian, pur- 
sued by the soldiers of the tyrant, rejected 
both by fiiends and relations, he turned 
his steps towards Dalecarlia, to seek as- 
fliatance fiom the inhabitants of this prov- 
ince. Havinff escaped with difficulty the 
dansers which surrounded him, he was 
well received by a priest, who aided him 
with his influence, money and counsel 
Afler he had prepared the minds of the 
people, he took the opportunity of a 
festival, at yvidch the peasants of the 
canton assembled, and appeared in the 
midst of them. His noble and confident 
air, his misfortunes, and the general ha- 
tred against Christian, who had mariced 
the veiy beginning of his reign by a cruel 
massacre at Stockhohn, — all lent an irre- 
sistible power to his words. The people 
rushed to arms ; the castie of the governor 
was stonned; and, imboldened by this 
success, the Dalecariians flocked together 
under the banners of the conqueror. From 
this moment, Gustavus entered upon a 
care^ of victoiy. At the head of a self- 
raised aimy, he advanced rapidly, and 
completed the expulsion of the enemy. 
In 1531, the estates gave him the titie of 
adaunUbraior. In 1§23, they proclaimed 
him king. Upon receiving tms honor, 

he appeared to yield with recret to 
the wishes of the nation ; but he de* 
ferred tiie ceremony of the coronation, 
that he mifdit not be obliged to swear 
to uphold me Catholic rehflnon and the 
rights of the clergy. He mt that the 
good of the kingdom required an amelio> 
ration of the afiSurs of the chureh ; and he 
felt, too, that this could only be efifected 
by a total refoim. His chanceUor, Larz 
Anderson, advised him to avail himself of 
the Lutheran doctrines to attain his object. 
Gustavus was pleased with this bold plan, 
and executed it more by the superiority or 
his policy than of his power. While he 
secretly mvored the pro^press of the Lu- 
theran religion, he divided the vacant 
ecclesiastics dignities among his favorites ; 
and, under pretence of liehtening the bur- 
dens of the people, he laid upon me clergy 
the chaige of supporting his anny. Soon 
afler, he dared to do roll more: in 1527, 
he requested and obtained fix>m the estates 
the abolition of the privileges of the bish- 
ops. In tiie mean while, the doctrines of 
Luther were rapidly spreading. Gustavus 
anticipated all seditious movements, or 
suppressed them. He held the malecon- 
tents under restraint ; he flattered the am- 
bitious ; he gained the weak ; and, at last, 
openly embraced the faith which the 
greater part of his subjects already pro- 
fessed. In 1530, a national council 
adopted the confession of Augsbuig for 
their creed. Gustavus, after having, as he 
said, thus conquered his kingdom a sec- 
ond time, had nothing more to do but to 
secure it to his children. The estates 
granted this request also, and, in 1542, 
abdicated their nght of election, and estab- 
lished hereditary succession. Although 
Sweden was a very limited monarchy, 
Gustavus exercised an ahnost unlimited 
power; but this was allowed him, as he 
only used it for the benefit of his countiy, 
and he never violated the forms of the 
constitution. He perfected the legislation ; 
formed the character of the nation ; soft- 
ened mannere ; encouraged industry and 
learning, and extended commerce. Afler 
a glorious reign of 37 years, he died in 
1560, at tiie a^ of 70. (See Von Archen- 
holz's Gesehichte Chiutava Wtua (Histoiy 
of Gustavus Vasal published at Tubmgen, 
1801, 2 vols.) 

Gustavus II, Adolphus, the greatest 
monarch of Sweden, was a son of Uharles 
IX (who ascended the Swedish throne 
upon the deposition of Sisismund), and a 
grandson of Gustavus Vasa. He was 
bom at Stockholm, in 1504, and received 
a most careful education. At the age of 



152, he entered the anny, and, at 16^ direct- 
ed all affidiBy afmeared in the state coun- 
efl and at the head of the army, obeyed 
as a Boldier, negotiated as a minister, and 
commaiided aa a king. In 1611, after the 
death of Charles IX, the estates gave the 
throne to the young prince, at the age of 
18y and, without regard to the law, declar- 
ed him of age ; for they saw that only the 
moat enenretic measures could save the 
kingdom m>m subjection, and that a re- 
CQOcy would infaUibly cause its ruin. 
Ilie p^ietrating eye of Gustavus saw in 
Axel Oxenstiem, the youngest of the 
ooimseDors of state, the great statesnum, 
whose advice he might foDow in the most 
dangerous situations. He united htm to 
hinnelf by the bands of the roost intimate 
fHendahipw Denmaik, Poland and Rus- 
sia were at war with Sweden. Gustavus, 
unabfe to cope at once with three such 
powerful adversaries, engaged, at die 
peace of Knared,in 1613, to pay Denmark 
1,000,000 doUars, but received back all 
that bad been conquered fiom Sweden. 
After a successful campaign, in which, 
accoiding to his own confession, his mili- 
tary talent was formed by James de la 
Gmdie, Rusaa was entirely shut out from 
the Baltic by the peace of Stolbowa, in 
1617. But Poland, ahhou^h no more 
suecesrful against him, would only con- 
sent to a trace for six years, which he ac- 
oeptEMl, partly because it was in itself ad- 
vantBgeous, partly because it afforded him 
opportunity to undertake somethii^ deci- 
sive agamst Austria, whose head, the em- 
peror Ferdinand 11, was striving, by all 
means^ to increase his power, and was 
likewise an irreconcilable enemy of the 
Protestants. The intention of the emper- 
or to make himself master of the Baltic, 
and to prepare an attack upon Sweden, 
did not admit of a doubt But a still 
more powerful inducement to oppose the 
progress of his anns, Gustavus Adolphus 
found in ^e war beitween the Catholics 
and the Protestants, which endangered at 
ODce the freedom of Germany and the 
whole Protestant church. Gustavus, wh6 
was truly devoted to the Lutheran doc- 
trines, detennined to deliver both. After 
explaimng to the estates of the kingdom, 
in a powerful speech, the resolution he 
had taken, he presented to them, with 
tears in his eyes, his daughter Christina, 
as his heiress, with the presentiment that 
he should never again see his country, 
and intrusted the regencv to a chosen 
conncil, excluding his wife, whorn, how- 
ever, he tenderiy loved. He then invaded 
Germany in 16^0, and landed, with 13,000 

ineii, on die coasts of Pomeraaia. What 
difficulties oj^poeed him on the part of 
diose very pnnces for whose sake he had 
come ; how his wisdom, generosity and 
perseverance triumphed over inconstancy, 
mistrust and weakness; what deeds of 
heroism he performed at the head of his 
army, and how he feU, an unconquered 
and unsullied general, at the batde of L(it- 
zen, Novemb^ 6, 1633, may be seen in 
the article Thirhf Ytmf War. The 
curcumstancee immediately attending his 
death have long been rekted in varioua 
and contradictorv ways; but we now 
know, from the letter of an officer who 
was wounded at his side, that he was 
kiUed on the spot, by an Austrian ball. 
The king's bun coat was carried to Vien- 
na, where it is still kept; but Bernhard 
von Weimar carried the body to Weissen- 
fels to give it to the queen. There the 
heart viras buried, and remained in the 
land for which it had bled. 

Gustavus Illf king of Sweden, bom 
in 1746, was the i^ldest son of Adolphna 
Frederic, duke of flolstein-Gottorp, who 
was chosen to succeed to the Swedish 
throne in 174^ and of Ulrica Louisa, sis- 
ter of Frederic 11 of Prussia. Count 
Tessin, to whose care the prince vras in- 
trusted from his fiflh year, endeavore^"^ 
form his mind aud character with a c^ 
stant view to his future destination, and 
was especially amdous to restrain the am- 
bition of the youth, and to inspire him 
with i^e^pect for the constitution of Swe- 
den. His successor, count Schefrer, jhu*- 
sued the same course ; but the ambition 
of the young prince was not eradicated. 
His docility or disposition, afbbility of 
marmers, and gentieness, concealed an ar- 
dent thirst for power and action. Manly 
exercises, science and the arts, the pleas- 
ures of society, and displays of splendor, 
united with taste, appoured to be his fa- 
vorite occupations. Sweden was then 
distracted by factions, especially those of 
the fM^B and ftoto, by vniich names the 
partisans of Russia and Franoe were dis- 
tinpuiihed. Both parties, however, were 
imited in their efforts to weaken the roval 
power as much as pos^ble. The £ither 
of Gustavus, a wise and benevolent 
prince, had found his situation quite po*- 
plexing. Gustavus himself encountered, 
with great boldness and art, the difficul- 
ties which met him on his accession to 
the throne, after his father's deadi, Feb- 
ruary 12, 1771. He established the order 
of Vasa, to gain over some enterprising 
officers of the army, and a party was 
fonned, principaJlv eonsiBting of young 




officers devoted to him. Emissaries 
were sent to nm over the troops station- 
ed in the other parts of the kingdom. 
Some influential individuals, aroonff 
whom were the counts Hermanson and 
Schefier, had also joined the royal party. 
A new plan was devised, and the parts so 
distributed, that the king's brothers were 
to begin the revolution in the country, 
while the king himself should commence 
operations in the capital Agreeably to 
this plan, the commandant of Christian- 
stadl^ captain Hellichius, one of the truest 
and boldest adherents of the king, Auirust 
12, 1772, caused the city gates to be ^lut, 
and all the entrances to be guarded, and 
published a manifesto against the states 
general. Prince Charies then appeared 
before Christianstadt, and conuuenced a 
pretended siege, wherein no one was in- 
jured. The lung, in the mean time, play- 
ed his part so peifectly, as to dissipate the 
suspicions of me secret committee of the 
states. The committee ordered patrols 
of the citizens in the capital, which the 
, king always attended, and, by his insinu- 
* nting address, gained over to his cause the 
principal part of the soldiery and many 
of the officers. While he was thus pre- 
paring for tlie decisive moment, he ap- 
^l^ed serene and composed; and, on 
" ^"""'iHe evening preceding the accomplish- 
ment of the project, ne held a splendid 
court, which he enlivened by his anability 
and gayedr. On the following day,Au- 
ffUBt 19, 177% afler taking a ride, the 
king went to the council of the estates, at 
the casde, where, for the first time, he en- 
tered into a wann dispute with some of 
the counsellon. He then went to the ar- 
senal, on horseback, where he exercised 
the guard. In the mean time, the officers, 
upon whom he thought he could depend, 
assembled, in consequence of a secret or- 
der to that effect, and accompanied him 
to the casde, where, at that tune, tliey 
were changing guard, so that those who 
were retiring, and those who were mount- 
ing guard, met. With the entrance of the 
king into the castle, the revolution began. 
The king then collected the officers about 
him, in the guard room, unfolded to 
them his plan, and demanded their sup- 
port Most of them were voung men, 
and were immediately^ gained over by tlie 
thought of delivermg their country. 
Three older officers, who refused, had 
theur swords token from them by the 
king. The rest swore fidelity to his 
cause. The kmg's address to the soldiera 
was received wim loud acclamations. He 
then set a guard over the entrances to the 

hall of the council, and commanded them 
to remain quiet, after which he returned 
to the arsenal, amidst the acclamations of 
the people, and secured the adherence of 
the regiments of artiUeiy. A public proc- 
lamation exhorted the inhabiumts of 
Stockholm to remain tranquil, and to 
obey no orders but those of the kinf. 
Cannon were planted, guards distributed, 
and several persons arrested, bf wav of 
precaution. Thus was the decisive blow 
struck without bloodshed, and the kinc 
returned to the casde, where he received 
the congratulations of foreign ambassa- 
dors, whom he had invited to his table. 
On the following day, the majgistrates of 
the city took the oath of allegiance in the 
great mariLet-place,amid the acclamatious 
of the people. But it was necessary for 
the estates also to approve of the revolu- 
tion, and to accept the new constitution, 
by which ^e roval power was enlarged, 
not so much at the expense of the estates 
as of the council The next day, they 
were summoned to meet at the castle, 
where they found themselves without any 
attendants. The court of the castle was 
guarded by soldiers, cannon were planted 
before the hall of assembly, and a can- 
noneer stationed at each piece with a 
lighted match. The king appeared with 
a numerous rednue of officers and unu- 
sual pomp, depicted, in a forcible manner, 
the situation of the kinadom and the ne- 
cessity of a reform, declared the modera- 
tion of his views, and caused the new 
constitution to be read, which yns imme- 
diately approved and confirmed by sub- 
scription and oath. Almost all the public 
officers retained their stations ; those per- 
sons who had been arrested were set at 
hberhr, and the revolution was completed. 
The king now exerted himself to promote 
the prosperity of his country. In 1783, 
he went through Germany to Italy, to use 
the baths of Fisa, and returned to Swe- 
den the following year through France. 
During his ab6ence,*a fimiine had destroy- 
ed thousands of his subjects ; the people 
murmured ; the nobility rose against the 
kin^s despotic policy, and the estates of 
the Kingdom, in 1786, rejected .almost all 
his propositions, and compeUed him to 
make great sacrifices. A war having 
broke out between Russia and the Porte, 
in 1787, Gustavus, in compliance with 
former treaties, determined to attack the 
empress of Russia, who had promoted 
the dissensions of Sweden. War was 
declared in 1788 ; but, when the king at- 
tempted to commence operations by au 
attack on Friedrichsham, he was deserted 



by the greatest part of his army, who re- 
fused to engage in an offensive war. The 
king retired to Haga, and thence to Dale- 
oarna, in search of recruits. He soon col- 
lected an army of determined defenders 
of their country, and delivered Gothen- 
biug^ which was hard pressed bv the 
Danes. Meanwhile, however, the msur- 
rection of the Finnish army, which had 
concluded an armisdce with the RusBian& 
still continued. The critical situation of 
the kingdom required the convocation of 
the estates. To overcome the opposition 
of the nobility, he constituted a secret 
coomaittee, of which the nobUitv chose 
12 membeiB from their own number, and 
each of the estates, who were devoted to 
the king, six. The nobility, however, 
continuM their opposition to the king, 
who, being encouraged by the other es- 
tates to avail himsdf of eveiy measure 
he might think advisable, finalhr took a 
decisive step, arrested the chiera'of the 
opposition^ and exacted the adoption of 
the new act of union and safety, April 3^ 
1789, which conferred on him more ex- 
tensive powers. The war was now pros- 
ecuted with great energy and with va- 
rious success, ffioodybatdes, especiallv 
by sea, were pained anh lost ; but although 
Gustavus vahantly opposed superior forces, 
yet the desperate state of his kingdom, 
and the proceedings of the congress 
at Reichenbach (q. v.l inclined him to 
peace, which was concluded on the plain 
of Werelie, August 14, 1790. Untaught 
by the warnings of adversity, he now de- 
termined to take part in the French revo- 
lution, and to restore Louis XVI to his 
throne. He wished to unite Sweden, 
Russia, Prussia and Austria, and to place 
himself at the head of the coalition. For 
this purpose, in the spring of 1791, he 
went to Spa and Aix-Ia-Ubapelle, con- 
cluded a peace with Catharine, and con- 
vened a meeting of the estates at Gefle, in 
Januaiy, 1792, which was dissolved, in 
four weeks, to the satisftction of the king. 
Here his assassination was agreed upon.. 
The counts Horn and Ribbing, the barons 
Bielke and Pechlin, colonel Liliehom,and 
many others, had conspired to murder 
him, and restore the old aristocracy. An- 
kancitBm (q. v.), who personaUy hated the 
king; b^ged that the execution might be 
intrasted to hiuL A masauerade at 
Stockholm, on die night of March 1& 
1798, was chosen for the perpetration of 
the crime. Just before the beginning of 
the ballf the king received a warning ncrte, 
but he went, at about 11 o'clock, with 
count Essen, stepped into a box, and, as 

all was quiet, into the halL Here a crowd 
of maskers surrounded him, and, while 
one of them ^count Horn) struck him 
upon the shoulder, with the words, ** Good 
night, mask,'' the king was mortally 
wounded, by AnkarstrcBm, with a shot in 
the back. With remarkable presence of 
mind, he immediately took alt the neces- 
sary measures. He expired March 29, 
after having arranged the most important 
affairs with serenity (see ,^rmfeU\ and sign- 
ed an order for proclaiming his son kmg. 
Gustavus IV, Adolphus, the deposed 
king of Sweden, was bom Nov. 1, 1778, 
and, on the death of his father, Gustavus 
m (March 29, 1792], was proclaimed 
king. He remained 4i years under the 
guitfdianship of his uncle, Charies, duke 
of Sudermannland, then regent (after- 
wards king Charles XIII), and ascended 
the throne Nov. 1, 1796. In his 18th 
vear, he was betrothed to a princess of 
Mecklenburg, when the empress Catha- 
rine invited him to St Petersburg, with 
the design of iiiarryiiighim to her grand- 
daughter Alexandra Paulowna. c)very 
thing was ready for the marriage, and the 
assembled court waited for the young 
king, when he refused to sign the mar- 
ria^ contract, because it embraced some 
articles which he would not concede to the 
empress ; among others, one securing to 
the young <}ueen the free exercise of the 
Greek religion in her palace, which was 
contrarv to the fundamental laws of the 
Swedish kingdom. Nothing could chan^ 
the determination of Gustavus ; he retu-- 
ed,and shut himself up in his chamber, so 
that a stop was put to the whole ceremo- 
ny. Soon after (October, 17971 he mar- 
ried Frederica, princess of Baaen, sister- 
in-law of the emperor Alexander and the 
king of Bavaria. As a striking example 
of his foliar, it is related, that he was once 
on the point of commencing a bloody 
war with Russia, because he insisted on 
paintinff a boundary bridge, with the 
Swedish color on the Russian side. 
When the northern powers were nep>- 
tiatingthe renewal of me armed neutrahty, 
directed especially i^;ainst Enffland, be 
went to St. Petersburg,m 1801, to hasten the 
conclusion of the treaty ; he was well re- 
ceived by Paul I, who bieirto wed on him the 
cross of St. John of Jerusalem. In July, 
1803, he visited the court of his ftther- 
in-law at Carlsruhe, in order to gain over 
the emperor and the princes ofthe em- 
pire to the ^!OJect, i^ch then seemed 
impracticable, of again placing the Bour- 
bons at the head of the French govem- 
menL He was in Carisruhe when7March 



15, 1804), the duke D'Enffhien was seiz- 
ed in the territoriee of Baden. . Gustavus 
immediately sent his aid-de-camp to Paris, 
with a letter to Bonaparte, for the purpose 
of saving the duke, who, however, was 
shot before the letter was received. Gus- 
tavus sent a remonstrance to Ratisbon, on 
thti subject, and was, excepting Alexander 
I, the only sovereign who openly expressed 
Us indignation at this deed. His rup- 
ture with France, his alliance with Great 
Britain and Russia, and his coolness to- 
wards the king of Prussia, to whom he 
sent back the black eagle, because it had 
been bestowed on Napoleon, were the 
consequence of his hatred of the new 
emperor of France. It having been cal- 
culated that the number 666 was contain- 
ed m the name of Napoleon Bonaparte, 
Gustavus believed him to be theoeast 
described in the Revelations, whose reign 
was to be short, and for whose destruction 
he was called ! His ambassador deliver- 
ed to the German diet of 1806 a declara- 
tion of the king, that he would Uike no 
part in its transactions, so long as its acts 
were under the injfluence of usurpation ; 
he also rejected the offers of peace made 
by Napoleon a short time before the peace 
of Tilsit; and, July 3, 1807, broke the 
truce with France, and even refused the 
mediation of Russia and Prussia, after the 
peace of TUsit He retui-ned the Russian 
order of St. Andrew, as he had formerly the 
PlruBfiian order of the eagle, and, by his ad- 
herence to England, plugged his people in- 
to a disadvantageous war with Russia, and 
became anew tiie enemv of Prussia, and 
then of Denmark. Finland was lost, and 
a Danish army threatened the ftt>ntiers of 
Sweden. Deaf to all solicitations to con- 
clude a peace, he alienated the nobility 
and the army by his caprices, and exas- 
perated the nation by the weight of the 
taxes. Having finally provoked the en- 
mity of En^and, by seizing the English 
ships m the Swedish ports, when that 
power endeavored to bnnghim to reason, 
it appeared plain to every one, that he 
was ready to sacrifice the wel&re of his 
people to his passions. A plot was se- 
cretly formed against him ; the western 
army, assured tlutt the Danes would not 
pass the fit>ntieiis, took up its line of 
march to Stockholm, where the principal 
consfMrators were plotting in the imme- 
diate presence of Gustavus. It was only 
70 mues from the capital when Gustavus 
heard of its approach. He hastened from 
Haga, where he was residing with his 
family, to Stockholm, to defend his cap- 
ital against the rebels. But he altered his 

plan, and determined to go to Linkio|ring 
with the troops which were in Stock- 
holm. He was about to remove the bank 
fiT>m the capital, but first required it to ad- 
vance him $2,000,000, orthegreiitest sum 
which could be raised. The commissa- 
ries refused to comply ; Gustavus showed 
an intention to use force ; upon which it 
was resolved to anticipate him. Such 
was the situation of af&irs on the evening 
of March 12, 1809. The king spent tiiat 
night in preparing eveiy thing for his de- 
parture, and the moment arrived when be 
was to take the money from the bank. 
Three doors of the palace were already 
secured, and all the ofilicera were assem- 
bled, as it was the usual day of parade. 
Field-marshal Klingspor and general Ad- 
lerkreuz, however, once more attempt- 
ed the effect of conciliatoiy proportions, 
when Gustavus highly offended them by 
his insulting manner. Adlericreuz then 
called the marshal Silbersparre and five ad- 
jutants, demanded of the kin^* his sword, 
and declared him a prisoner m the name 
of the nation. Gustavus attempted to 
strike him with his sword, but it was 
wrested from him. Upon his ciy for help, 
some of his fidthful followers mrced the 
doors ; but they were overpowered by 30 
of the conspirators, who rushed in upon 
them. During this struggle, Gustavus es- 
caped, but was seized upon the stairs and 
brought back to his chamber by one of his 
servants, where he broke out into an un- 
governable fit of rage. All the entrances 
of the casde were closely guarded. At 
noon, Charles, duke of Siraermannland, 
published a proclamation, declaring tliat 
he had taken the government into his 
own hands. The revolution was com- 
pleted in a few hours. Gustavus now 
submitted quiedy. Perhaps his religious 
enthusiasm was the cause of his present 
state of mind. At one o'clock at ni^ht, he 
was carried to Drotningholm. His wife 
and children were obliged to remain in 
Haga. Mareh 24, he was remov^ to 
Gripsholm, his favorite place of residence. 
Here he published (Mareh 29) an act of 
abdication, expecting the final sentence of 
the diet, which, on its first session (May 
101 solemnly renounced their allegiance 
to him, and declared the heira of his body 
for ever incapable of succeeding to the 
Swedish throne. Thereupon a fonnal 
act was prepared. The dethroned king 
occupied himself at Gripsholm, princi- 

SiUy in studying the Revelation of^ John, 
e viished to leave Sweden. The estates, 
on the proposition of the new king, Charles 
XIII, setded on him an annual pension for 



himself and family. His private proper- 
ty, as well as that of his wife and son, 
was abo left him. He did not occupy 
the place of residence aasigned to him in 
the island of Wisin^Oe, but (Dec. 6, 
1809) went from Gnpehohn to Gennany 
and Switzeriand, where he lived under 
the title of count of Gottorp. He has nnce 
separated from his wife and children ; and 
his mania^ was, on the 17th of Februaiy, 
1812, at his own request, annulled. The 
same year, he also desired to be admitted 
among the Moravian Brothers at Hermhut. 
Since his separation from his wife, he has 
been accustomed to wear the mystical re* 
lirious badge of the order of St John. He 
afterwards made several tours without anv 
definite object, visited St Peterebuiv, and, 
in 1611, London. In December, 1814, he 
was nuJting preparations at Bale for a visit 
to Jerasalem. In 1815, he presented a 
declaration to the congress of Vienna, as- 
serting the claims of his son to the Swedish 
throne. He finaUy assumed the name of 
Giutavson, and visited Leipsic, in 1827, as 
a private individual. His son Gustavus, 
W110 was bom in 1799, studied in Lau- 
sanne and Edinburgh, was present at Vi- 
enna and Verona at the time of the con- 
gress in 1822, and in 1825 entered the 
Austrian service, as lieutenant-colonel of 
the imperial Hulans. He lives at Vienna, 
and enjoys the tide ofroycd highnes$. He 
has thiee sisters, carefully educated by their 
excellent mother (who died in 1826). The 
eldest was mamed, in 1819, to Leopold of 
Hochbeig, margrave of Baden. 

Gusto; an Italian word signifying 
taste. It often occurs in muse ; as, am 
giutOf with taste. 

Gut, in the West India islands, partic- 
ularly in the island of St. Christopher's, or 
St itittfB, is a term for the openinff of a 
river or brook, such river or bnxm also 
being ^ften so called. 

GuTs-MuTHs, John Christian Frederic, 
bom in Quedlinbuig, 1760, was the first 
German author who wrote extensively on 
the various exercises included in the mod- 
em gymnastics. Guts-Muths was^ for a 
long time, a teacher in the institution of 
Sdzmann, at SchnepfenthaL He wrote 
several worics on gjmnnasdcs. EGs latest 
is the TSitmbudi (rankfbrt on the Maine, 
1818), in which he adopted manv exer- 
dsesy as also the name of the book, fiom 
that of John (q. v.), as the latter had al- 
so adopted many things fiom him. He 
wrote, too, a Geography (2 vols., 1810 — 
1813), and edited a mUothdi der p&da- 
gogtMien Lderahir^Lifarary of Wons on 
Education (]80a--1820, 55 vols.) Guts- 

Mutfas lives, at present, near Schnepfen- 
GuTTA Serena. (See Catar^A 
GuTTENBERo, more properiv Gutek- 
BERo, John, or Henne G&nsedeisch vou 
Soigenloch (Sulgeloch), usually called the 
inventor of printing, was bom at Mentz, 
about 1400. The fiunily of Gutenberg 
called itself noble. In 1424, Gutenbeiv 
was living in Strasburg, and, in 149^ 
entered into a contract with one Andrew 
Dryzehn (Dritzehn) and othera, binding 
himself to teach them all his secret ana 
woudeifiil arts, and to employ them for 
their common advantage. The death of 
Diyzehn, which happened soon after, frus- 
trated the undertaking of the company, 
who had probably intended to commence 
the art of printing ; especially as George 
Dryzehn, a brother of^ the deceased, en- 
gaged in a lawsuit with Gutenberg, which 
turned out to the disadvantaee of the lat- 
ter. When and where the first attempts 
were made at printing cannot be fully 
decided, as Gutenberg never attached 
either name or date to the works he 
printed. This, however, is certain, that, 
about 1438, Gutenberg made use of mov- 
able types of wood. In 1443, he returned 
from Stinsburg, where he had hitherto 
lived, to Mentz, and, in 1450, formed a co- 
partnership vrith John Faust, or Fust, a rich 
goldsmith of this city (who must not be 
confounded with the famous magician 
Faust), who furnished money to establish a 
press, in which the Latin Bible was first 
printed. But, after some years, this connex- 
ion vras dissolfed. Faust had made large 
advances, which Gutenberg ought to have 
repaid ; and, as he either could not or 
would not do it, the subject was carried 
before the tribunals. The result was, that 
Faust retained the press, which he im- 
proved and continued to use in company 
with Peter Sch6fi^ of Gemsheim. By 
the patronage of a counsellor of Mentz, 
Conrad Hummer, Gutenbeiv was again 
enabled to establish a press £e following^ 
year, when he probably printed Hermanm 
dt SMuSptemum Saeerdoium (in quarto)^ 
without the date or the printer's name. 
Here, likewise, as some mamtam, appeared 
four editions of the Donat (Latin gram- 
mar of Donatus), which othera, however, 
ascribe to the ofiSce of Faust and Sch6fier. 
In 1457, the Psalter was printed with a 
typographical elegance which sufficiently 
proves the rapid advances of the new art, 
and the diligence with which it was culti- 
vated. Gutenberg's printing-office re- 
mained in Mentz till i465. About this 
time, he was ennobled by Adolphus of 



Naasau, and died Feb. 24, 1468. Lkde is 
known of his life and woiks, or of tbe 
early p r o g roaa of the art of printing, and 
the introduction of movable ^rpes. Val- 
uable statements and suggesUons on this 
subject are to be found in Fischer's Vtr* 
such zur eHd&rvng aUer 

lin's BeUri^ zur GesehidUe Gutanberg 
fStrasbui^, 1801) ; and in the woiks (S* 
Denis, Lichtenbeiger, Panzer, and many 
other writeiB. 

Guttural (from the Latin guttur^ the 
throat) signifies, in grammar, a sound pro- 
duced chiefly by the beck parts of^tbe 
cavity of the mouth. The palatals g and 
k are nearly related to them. The Greek 
Xf the German ek after a, and ck after t, 
and the Dutch g, are gutturals. The 
Arabian language is full of ffutturals, and 
many of them are unknown m most other 
languages. (See the article H, for the re- 
lation between g and the guttural sound of 
the German ch or the Greek x-) The mod- 
em Greek gives to x a very strong guttural 
sound, like that of the German eh after e 
andaflero. The Irish r isa true guttural. 
The French nasal sound, as in longj is a true 
guttural ; the Eingltsh sound in Icng not 
so much, as it is less nasal. The Span- 
ish n has been called, by some, a naaal' 
guttural. The roughness of the dialect 
of Switzerland is owing to its strong and 
numerous sutturals ; for it not only pro- 
nounces all the gutturals of the German 
language very forcibly, but abo gives to 
gf in many cases, the harsh guttural 
sound of en after a. 

Gut ; a rope used to keep steady any 
weighty body from bearing or fiJIing 
against the ship's side while it is hoisting 
or lowering, particularly when the ship is 
shaken by a tempestuous sea. — Guy is 
also the name of a tackle, used to confine 
a boom forward when a vessel is eoing 
large, and to prevent the sail from shifting 
by any accidental change of the wind or 
course, which would eiKianger the spring- 
ing of tbe boom, or perhaos the upsetting 
of the veaseL— Gt^ is likewise a larse 
slack rope, extending from the head of the 
main-mast to the head of the fore-mast, 
and having two or three large bk)cks fiis- 
tened to it It is used to sustain a tackle 
to load or unload a ship with, and is 
accordingly removed as soon as that ope- 
ration ii finished. 

Gut, Thomas, the founder of Guy's 
hoiqpitaJ, was the son of a lighterman in 
Southwaik, and bom in 16(L He was' 
brought up a bookseller. He dealt largely 
in the importation of Bibles from HoUand, 

and afterwards contracted with Ozfoid for 
those printed at that umversil^ ; but his 
principal gains arose from the disreputable 
purchase of seamen's prize tickets, in 
queen Anne's war, and fit>m his deaungs 
in South sea stock, in 1720. By these 
speculations and practices, aided by the 
most penurious habits, he amassed a for- 
tune of neariy half a million sterling, of 
which he spent about £200,000 m the 
building and endowing his hospital in 
Southwark. He also erected almshouses 
at Tamworth, and benefited Christ's hos- 
pital and various other charities, leaving 
£80,000 to be divided among those who 
could prove any degree of relationship to 
him. He died in I>Bcember, 1724, in his 
81st year, after having dedicated more to 
charitable purposes than any private man 
in English record. 

Gut de Chauliac [Gwdo dt CMIiaco)^ 
a native of Chauliac, on the frontier of 
Auvergne, France, lived in the middle of 
the 14th century, and was the j^hysician 
of three popes. He is to be considered as 
the reformer of surgery in his time. His 
Chxrurgia magna contains most of the 
ofHnions of his predecessors. It was long 
conndered as a classical text book ; was 
finished at Avignon in 1363; and was 
printed at Bergamo (1496, folio). An 
older edition is mentioned (Venice, 1470, 
folio). It has been often repainted, com- 
mented on, and translated into modem 

^UT Fawkes. (See Gvnpwoier PloL\ 
Gut's Hospital, in the borou|Kh of 
London. (See Gwf.) The hospital was 
established for 400 sick persons, besides 
20 incurable lunatics. It contains 13 
wards, and upwards of 400 beds. There 
are three physicians, three surgeons, and 
an apothecary. The averajpe number of 
patients adimtted annually is about 2250» 
besides whom there are 20,000 i»ut-pa- 
tients. This hospital has a collection of 
anatomical preparations, and a theatre for 
the delivery of chemical, medical and 
anatomical lectures. On one evening in 
the week, medical suUects an debated. 
GuTON, Madame. (See (hdetimn.) 
Guts, Pierre Augustin ; bom at Afar- 
seilles, 1721 ; a merchant in Coostantino- 
irfe, and afterwards in Smyrna ; known for 
his travels and his acoounlB of them. He 
subsequently became a member of the in- 
stitute, and of the academv of Arcadians 
in Rome. His first work a|ipeared in 
1744, and contained an account of his 
jeumey fix>ni Constantinople to Sophia, 
the capital of Bulgaria, in a series of letters. 
In 1748, he publuhed, in the form of let- 



ten, an account of his jouniey from Mar- 
Beilles to Snijrma, and thence to Constan- 
tinople. He was mostly indebted, for his 
liteniiy &me, to his Vovage UtUraire de la 
Grkty a woric in wfaicn he compares and 
contrasts, with much acuteness and truth, 
the condition of ancient and modem 
Greece, and their pohtical and civil con- 
sdtution. Guys also made himself known 
as a poet, by hjs Seasons, on the occamon 
of his journey to Naples, which was re- 
ceived with much applause. On the pub- 
lication of his Voyage de la Grhce, Vohaire 
addressed some veiy flattering verses to 
him, and the Greeks conferred on him the 
privileges of an Athenian citizen. Guvs 
died at Zante, in 1799, at the ace of 79, as j^e 
was collecting materials for me third edi- 
tion of his travels in Greece. — ^His son, 
Pierre AJphonse, was appointed secretary 
of the French embassy to Constantinople, 
to Vienna, and to Lisbon ; afterwards con- 
sul in Saidinia ; then at Tripoli in Africa ; 
and, finally, at Tripoli in Syria, where he 
died in 1812. He published letters on the 
Turks, in which he treats of the rise and 
decay of their power. He was also the 
author of the comedy La Mauon de Alb- 
Uhty infbur acts, altered fit>m GoldonL 

GwnnnETT, Button, one of the signers 
of the declaration of independence, was 
bom in England, about the year 1732^ and, 
in 1770, emigrated to Charieston, S. C, 
where he continued the business of a 
merchant, in which he had been previous- 
ly engaged. At the end of two years, 
however, he abandoned conunerce ; and, 
purchasing a plantation vrith a number of 
negroes, on St. Catharine's island, in Geor- 
iria, devoted his attention to agriculture. 
Soon after the revolutionary struggle com- 
menced, he took an active part in tibe 
afiirs of Geoiypa ; and, Feb. 2, 1776, the 
geoetBl assembly of the province elected 
him a representative to the ceneral con- 
greas hela at Philadelphia, n^ere he ap- 
peared May 20. He was reelected Octo- 
ber 9, and, in February, 1777, was ap- 
pointed a member of a convention for the 
purpose of framing a constitution for the 
state ; and the foundation of that after- 
wards adopted, is said to have been fur- 
nidied by him. He was soon chosen 
prraident of the provincial council ; but 
his conduct in this station was obnoxious 
to censure, as he empk>^ed his powers for 
the purpose of thwartmg the operations 
of general Mcintosh, against whom he 
had a personal enmity, in consequence of 
the latter having succeeded in obtaining 
the poet of brigadier-general of a conti- 
nental brigade, to be levied in Georgia, for 

which Gwinnett himself had been a can- 
didate. In May, 1777, Gwinnett was a 
candidate for the chair of governor of the 
state, but fiiiled ; and, on the 27th of the 
same month, a duel took place between 
him and Mcintosh, on account of some 
insulting remarks of the latter. Both par- 
ties were wounded ; but the injury received 
by Gwiimett terminated his life in the 
45th year of his age. 

GwTNN, Eleanor, better known by the 
name of JVeB, the celel»ated mistress of 
king Charles II, was at first an orange 
giri of the meanest description, in the 
play-house. In the first part of her life, 
she gained her bread hv smginc fiiom tav- 
ern to tavern, and ffradually advanced to 
the rank of a popiuar actress at the thea- 
tre royal She is represented as hand- 
some, but low of stature. She was mis- 
tress, successively, to Hart, Lacy and 
Buckhurst, before i^e became the favorite 
of the king. It is said that, in her eleva- 
tion, she showed her pratitude to Dryden, 
who had patronised her in her poverty ; 
and, unlike the other misbesses, she was 
faithful to her royal lover. From her are 
sprung the dukes of St Alban's. She 
died in 1687. 

Gtoes ; a favorite of the Lydian king 
Candaules, who, to convince nim of the 
beau^ of his queen, showed her to him 
naked. The queen was so incensed at 
this shameful act, that she ordered Gyses 
either to murder the king, ascend nis 
vacant throne, and become her husband, 
or to atone for his curiosity by death. Af- 
ter having labored in vain to shake the 
resolution of the queen, he chose the for- 
mer part of the alternative, murdered 
Candaules, and was established on the 
throne in consequence of the response of 
the Delphian oracle. This is the story as 
related by Herodotus. There is a fkble of 
a ma^c ring, which Gyges found in a 
cavern when a herdsman, and which had 
the power of rendering its possessor in- 
visible, whenever he turned the stone in- 
wards. By the aid of this ring, he en- 
joyed the embraces of the queen and 
assassinated the king. To have the ring 
of Gy^ was aflervvards used proverbially, 
sometimes of fickle, sometimes of wicked 
and artful, and sometimes of prosperous 
people, who obtain all they want 

Gtmnasium; the name given by the 
Spartans to the public building where the 
young men, naked (hence the name, fiom 
yvfi W9S, naked), exercised themselves in leap- 
ing,running, throwing the discus and spear, 
wresding and pugilism, or in the penUMon 
(qviinqueHium) so called. This Spartau 



iDidtaticm yvns imitated in moat of the 
cities of Greece, and in Rome under the 
Cttstn. Its obyectB^ however, did not 
remain confined merely to corporeal exer- 
cises, but were extencJed also to the exer- 
cise of the mind ; for here philosophers, 
rhetoricians, and teacheis of other bnoiches 
of knowledge, delivered their lectures. In 
Athens, there were ^ve gymnasia, and 
amonff them the Academy, the Lyceum 
and me Cynosarge. In the first, Plato 
taught ; in the second, Aristotle ; and in 
the dkud, Antisthenes. They were, at 
first, only open level places, surround- 
ed by a wbU, and partitioned off for 
the dmes^ent games. Rows of plane- 
trees wer« pluited fbr the purpose of 
shade, which were afterwards changed 
into colonnades with numerous divisions. 
The gvnmama, at last, were composed of 
a nuEnber of c<nikected buildings, spacious 
enough to admit many thousands. Vitru- 
vius has given an exact description of the 
arrangement of them in his work on 
architecture (5, 11 ). Some gymnasia con- 
tained m(ne, and some fewer apartments ; 
and all wore funsished with a multitude 
of decorations. Here were found the 
statues and altars of Mercury and Hercu- 
les, to whom the gymnasia were dedicated ; 
sometimes, also, the statue of Theseus, the 
inventor of the art of virrestliug; statues of 
heroes and celebrated men ; pamtings and 
foasB-reliefi, representing subjects con- 
nected widi religion and history. The 
Hermes figures (see Hermes) were among 
the most common ornaments of gymna- 
sia. Here vras assembled every thmg that 
could improve the youth in the arts of 
peace ana of war ; every thing that could 
elevate and raise their minds; and, while 
these institntions flourished, the arts and 
sciences also flourished, and the state 
firospered. The governor of a gymna- 
sium was called the fymnasiardu Some- 
times such a gymnasium was ^tyMpaUu- 
trOf which was, properly, only the part 
where the aUdet^ destined for the public 
exhibitions, exercised themselves. Ignara 
is of opinion, that a distinction was made 
between the gynmasium and palaestra, at 
the time when the philosophers and oth- 
ers commenced their lectures here ; that 
the latter was designed to promote phys- 
ical, and the former mental education sim- 
|ri[y. In the latter sense, the high schools 
in Germany, where young men are fit- 
ted for die universities, have been called 
gytmuuioj in modem times. In Rome, 
during the republic, there were no 
buildings which could be compared vrith 
the Greek gymnasia. Under Uie Caesars, 

the public baths bore some resemblance to 
them ; and the gymnasia nmy be said to 
have expired with the thermae. (See 

Chfmnatioj Gtrman, From the time of 
the revival of leaminff, when almost all 
knowledre was derived through the Latin 
and Gredc, — and certainly no existing lit- 
erature could be compared to that con- 
tained in these two languages, — the study 
of them obtained rach possession of the 
schools, that it has, ever since, influenced 
the studies of youth in Europe, and par- 
ticularly in Germany, to sHch a de|^ree, 
that it is very difficult to restore the proper 
balance in schools ofthe higher kind. The 
gymiuxnaj the name of these schools in 
Germany (derived firom the andent term), 
taught Latin and Greek, and the branches 
connected with antiquity, almost to the 
exclusion of other sciences. But, in mod- 
em times, when the namral sciences have 
made such distinguished progress, and 
rich stores have accumulated in manv 
modem literatures, and the importance o}" 
madiematics has been increased, the fiailts 
of this arrangement have become obvious, 
and some authorities, particulariy in Pms- 
sia, have already established institutions, 
in which history, mathematics, natural 
philosophy and modem languages may be 
learaea without Latin. In the gymnaaa 
themselves, more time is allottedto these 
branches tiian formeriy. The gymnasia 
of PrasBia probably cany the scholar far- 
ther than any institutions of a omilar kind 
elsewhere. No limits are fixed for the 
smy of the scholar in each class ; every 
year an examination fbr the next clasB 
takes place, to which every scholar is ad- 
mittea. Classes are generally divided into 
two sections, and a scholar cannot be pro- 
moted fVom the lower into the higher 
vrithout an examination. The last exam- 
ination, to show whether the pupils are fit 
to enter the university, is very severe : fbr 
three days they have to write exercises, on 
questions proposed to them, in history, the 
Latin and Greek languages, mathematics, 
besides themes in Geniian, and in at 
least one foreign modem language, alone, 
shut up in a room, without Inx>1^ ; or, if 
several are together, they remain under the 
eye of a professor, so that they cannot 
talk to each other. The verbal exam- 
ination generally lasts one dav, in presence 
of commissioners appointed by govern- 
ment. The compositions of the scholars 
are sent to the mmister of instraction and 
ecclesiastical a^rs. According to the 
result of the examination, the scholars re- 
ceive testimonials, maiiced No. I, II, or IIL 



The fint k difficult to gain, and 

If miTBle Bcboob or (as is the case in aev- 
eru citiea) orphan aaylunis wkh to send 
scholan lo the uniTenity, their must appty 
to flovemment for comnuaaionen to at- 
tend their examination. Penons who 
have fitted themaelvee for the univeiahy, 
witlioiit attending a gymnasiam, or any 
fldiool, can be examined by a committee 
appointed by the sovemment, which nti 
eveiy half year, ui order to obtain No. I, 
die pupil must write Latin and Greek 
without granupatical fiuilts, and in a pretty 
good styfe ; be able to translate and explain 
one of the most difficult daaeic authors 
(in some gymnasia, Pindar is even taken 
finr this purpose); be well acquainted with 
the branches of the lower pure mathe- 
matics, viz. all below the integral and dif- 
fferential calculus, and prove this bv the 
solution of problems ; nave a knowledge 
of general history, and the most impor- 
tant periods ; know, bendes the Ger- 
man, one or nK»e modem languages, so 
that he can write in them pretty correctly 
(themes are generally takoi, by which the 
scholar shows his logical powers, and the 
soundness of his ideas). If he is to 
Btudy theoloffy, he is also examined in 
Hebrew. Ii he is deficient in either 
of these branches, he can cmly obtain 
No. n. If he is <tefieient in aU, be re- 
ceives No. ni, which indicates that he is 
not fit for the umversity. 

Gtmhasticb (&om Y^inmvruutf peitaiUr 
mf to exerciser if we understand by 
this word aU bodily excises, may be 
most conveniently divided into— 1. mili- 
tuy exercises ; 2. exercises systematical- 
ly ada|)ted to develope the jihysical pow- 
era, and preserve tnem m perfection, 
which constitutes the art of gymnoiHes^ 
propcarfy so called ; 3. exercises for the 
flid^ a most important branch, which has 
been veiY little attended to. The ancients 
divided weir gynmastics into gywmuUea 
mSUariOy gymnattiea mediea (including un- 
der tfaiB h€«d our second and third divis- 
ions)^ and gymmulica ofMefico, or, as Galen 
calb them, vUiioM^ vrfaich were practised 
by pt^o ss i onal athletes at the gymnastic 
nmea, and were in bad repute with re- 
flecting men, even in those times, on 
aeeount of their injurious efibcts on the 
heahh and morals. The class of aym- 
nasties which we have enumeratea un- 
der the second head, have their origin 
in th« exercises of v^ar and the chase. 
The preparation of youth for those oc- 
cupations leads to the introduction of 
gymnastics; and the chase itwlf has been 

by many nations as a prep- 
aration for war; the Spartans and Amer- 
ican Indians are instances. The aodents 
do not inform us preciselv of the origin 
of nrmnasticB, considered as a branch 
<^ education. We fine find them in a 
vjrstematic form amonjjf the Greeks. Tho 
nrst gymnasium is said to have been es- 

led in Sparta. In Athens, alwavs 
disposed to mingle the element of the 
beautiful in whatever she undertook, 
gymnastics were refined fifom the rude 
military charactem, which they bore among 
the Spartans, into an art ; eid the gym- 
nasia became temples of the oraces. 
(See Gynmatium,) Vitnivius (lib. v) gives 
a description of a gymnasium. In esch, 
there was a place called paUutra^ in 
which wrestlinc^ boxing, runnias, leap- 
ing, throwin|; the discus, and othtr ex- 
ercises of this kind, were taught. 6ym- 
nasdcB were afterwards divided into two 
principal branches^- the pakesCiic, taking 
Its name from the /Mtofro, and the or- 
chestric. The former embraced the 
whole class of athletic exercises ; the lat^ 
ter, dancing and the art of gesticulation. 
It is not knovim, with accuracy, what 
particular exercises were usually ^ac- 
tised in the gymnasia. The enthusaaam 
for athletic sports among the Greeks, 
their love of the beautifiu, which was 
gratified in the gymnasia by the sight 
of the finest human forms in the prime 
of youth, and 1^ the halls and colon- 
nades adorned i^^ statues and pictures, 
and occupied by teachen of vrisdom and 
philosophy, rendered these places the 
mvorite resorts of the okl and ^oung. 
Gymnastics evra formed an essential part 
of the celebration of all the great feadvak. 
Afier a time, however, the character of 
the competitora at the Olympian, Isth- 
mian, Nemasan, and other great games of 
Greece, degenerated, as they became more 
and more a separate ckos, exercising, at 
least in many cases, in buikliiMs exclu- 
sively devoted to them. Euripides calls 
them useless and injurious memben of 
the state. It is not precisely known to 
what extent their exercises were prac- 
tised in the rvmnaaiB. The Greeks, as 
weH as the Bomans, set a very hifh > 
value upon the art of swimming. In 
Sparta, even the voung women swam in 
the Eurotas ; and a common phrase of 

contempt, ttnn vuv ^nrt y#a|ifi«rf ffftffmSat 

(he can neither swim nor write), is well 
knovni. It is well worth while to read 
the obseivatioiis of Mercurialis on this 
subject, in lib. iii, cap. 13^ of his valuable 
Jtina ggmnadka apid Antiqyoi cdAeni- 



nuB LSbn sex (Venice, 1569). Ruimiiig 
was ako much esteemed, and the OWm- 
piadfl were, for a long time, named nom 
the yictoiB m the race. Ridinc on horse- 
-oack wae deemed a liberaT exercise. 
Dancinff, by which we are not to un> 
derstand the modem dancing of the two 
sexes intermingled, but the art of grace- 
ful motion, including oratorical gesture, 
together with certain fbimal dances per- 
formed at festivals, was likewise indis- 
Csnsable to an accomplished man. (See 
ucian, ntpt op;^n«f.) Wrestling was also 
much -valued. There are not many ma- 
terials remaining, to enable us to judge of 
the exercises practised by the Grecian 
women. In later and corrupt times, they 
look part in the public games with men. 
With the decline of Greece, the symnastic 
art naturally degenerated, ana became 
sradually reduced to the exercises of pro- 
fessional athlete, which survived for a long 
time the ruin of the land of their birth. The 
Olympic games continued to be celebrated 
several centuries aAer Christ Some late 
travellers have thought that tliey could find 
traces of the ancient games remaining 
even in our day. ^ You have the Pyrrhic 
dance as yet," says Byron. The Romans, 
under the emperors, imitated the gymna- 
sia as tliey dia every thin^ Grecian ; but 
tlieir estauishments were htde better than 
places of vicious gratification. The thei^ 
ins, or baths, in Italy, took the place of 
the gymnasia in Greece. Among the Ro- 
mans, gymnastics never became national, 
as they may be said to have been among 
the Greeks. There are some indications, 
indeed, of eariy gynmasdc games, — ^we 
mean the consualia ; but with this stem, 
martial and practical nation, gymnastics 
took altosether a more militaiy char- 
acter. They were considered merely as 
preparatory to the military service, or, 
when they constituted a part of the exhibi- 
tions at festivals, were practised only by a 
particular class, trained for bratal enter- 
tainmenti, at which large bets were laid 
among the spectators, as is the custom at 
the English races. (Martial, ix, 68 ; Sueto- 
nius, Tit, 8.) Veffetius gives us infomoa- 
tion concerning; me exercises in which 
the yoimg soldiers were trained, and they 
were of very useful character. When all 
the acquisitions of the human intellect 
were lost for a season, and some for 
ever, in the utter corraption of the latter 
ages of the Roman empire, and the erap- 
tion of wanderine bamarians, the gym- 
nastic art perished We may date its re- 
vival from the commencement of tourna- 
ments, the first of which were held in the 

9th and 10th centuries in France, and 
may have had their origin in the militaiy 
games of the Romans, aided by the mar- 
tial spirit of the descendants of the Ger- 
man conquerors of France. They re- 
ceived, however, their full perfection fix)m 
the spirit of chivalry. The first tourna- 
ments were fought with blunt weapons, 
which were called armes gracieusts. At 
a later period, sharp weapons were intro- 
duced, and many fatal encounters hap- 
pened before the eyes of the ladies. About 
the year 1066, Godefit>y de Preuelly col- 
lected the roles and customs of tourna- 
ments into a code, which was afterwards 
generally adopted. At a later period, the 
character of these celebrations degene- 
rated so much, that they were finally pro- 
hibited by the pope and the emperor, as 
the Roman luai nad been several times 
prohibited by the emperors. With the 
superiority which, in the course of time, 
inrantiy Mgan to acquire over cavalry, as 
it always does vnxh tne advance of civil- 
ization and scientific tactics (see Marhia- 
velli's Treatise on Ike Art qf Ifctr), and the 
invention of gunpowder, the institutions 
of chivaliy declined. The heavy steel 
coats were done away, and the art of skil- 
ful fencing began to be introduced. The 
first treatises upon this subject appeared 
in the 16th century. The Italians were 
the first teachers, and three different 
schools, the Italian, French and German, 
were soon formed. We speak here of 
fencing with the small-sword; but the 
Germans also practised the art of fencing 
with a straight broad-sword, perhaps ow- 
ing to their neighborhood to the Slavo- 
nian nations, who all prefer the cut to the 
thrust The weapon of the Slavonians, 
however, is the crooked sabre. At the 
same tune, vaulting began to be much 
practised. The Roman desuUores (Livy, 
xxui, 29, and Vegetius), indeed, lead us to 
suppose that the Romans knew some- 
thmg of this art ; and it was no doubt also 
practised by the knights of the middle ases ; 
but the present art of vaulting is mo£sm 
in its character, and canied to the great- 
est perfection in France. Fiffhting with 
a dagger, and even with a knife, was 
taught as useful in this turbulent afe, and 
much skill was attained in Holland, in de- 
fence by the weapon last mentioned, per- 
haps owmg to the fondness of the Dutch fer 
Eublic houses (estandnds\ as this art may 
e called, by way of excellence, theybictiig' 
qf the totem. We even recollect having 
seen, in an appendix to old works on fenc- 
ing, the art of^defendinff one's self ajnimic 
attacks, with a pewter oeer-pot. Wrest- 



fin;, as an ait, abo WM remed, and man jr 
treadBBS were written on it in the 16m 
and 17th centuries^ from which we learn 
that it was often pracdaed in connexion 
with bozinff, foimingthe aame compound 
aa the ancient jNBimrfnim. The ramoua 
painter Albert D6rer wrote .^nnarum 
traeUmdorum MedHaHo (in 1412). It still 
exisiB in manuacript at Brealau. Modem 
horBemanahip had its origin in Italy. The 
iifBt riding-achool was cntablished at Na^ 
plea. In the reign of Henry VIII, it waa 
introdiiced into England. Running, 
shooting, huriing, leaping, were not taught 
syatematically ; vet much importance waa 
attached to proficiency in them, in many 
paita of Europe, on account of the nu- 
meroos popular meetinga, like thoee which 
still exiat in Switzeriand. Even at the 
present day, young women, with kilted 
cMUa, nm races at a certain festival in 
Mecklenburg. Swimming, at this period, 
was not taught as an art Where there 
were convenient places for bathing, chil- 
dren naturaUy learned it Elsewhere lit- 
tle padns were taken to instruct them in 
diis oeeftil branch of gymnastics ; though 
in many pans of Europe there were races 
on and in the water. In the a^ of wigs, 
gymnastics declined, and eflfemmate pleas- 
ures took their place. Riding, fencing, 
vaulting and dancing alone remained, and 
e^'en Aesewere gradually neglectecl by 
the people, and confined to the nobility, on 
which account these exercises were some- 
times called the exercises qf the noUes ; at 
loMt, dus was the case on the European 
continent. In England, where noble 
ftmilies never formed so distinct a caste 
as in other countries of Europe, those 
branches of gjrmnastics which still sur- 
vived, vrere more generally practised. 
The Greeks had, besides the combats 
with tlM cttstet, a contest of boxing, term- 
ed spharomaMa, because the combatants 
had bails in their hands, fioxing, taught 
with caution, is an invigorating exercise, 
and the sluUbl boxer is always furnished 
with natural arms. Theartofcudgel-play- 
nig IB a useful exercise, as practised in 
France, where it is different drom that 
which is practised in England. In the last 
century, when men broke loose fivm the 
yoke of authority,and thinking and thouffht- 
leas heads began to speculate deeply or niv- 
oloudy on the exisdng order of things, ed- 
ucation began to receive its share of at- 
tention, and the better sort of tearhera aaw 
that gymnastics must soon be introduced 
among the other branches of instruction. 
Salzmann, a German clergyman, was the 
fiiat instructer of youth, at whose institu- 

TOI- VI, 11 

tion in Thuringia bodily exereiseB were 
taun^ in the latter part of the last centu- 
ry. These were prindpaUy running, leap- 
ing, swimmmg, chmbmg, balancing. Guts- 
Muths virrote a very respectable treatise 
upon modem gymnastics, which, as the 
first, deserves much praise. He afterwards 
wrote a more enlaived work on tiie same 
subject {See Quts-Mdhs.) The results of 
this system of exercise, aided by the 
healthy situation of Salzmannli school, 
are deserving of notice. In thirty-two 
yeare, 334 scholani, Beam various nations, 
were educated at this establishment; and 
not one acholar died there. Seven or 
eight families also were connected with tiia 
institution ; and fiom theae only three chil- 
dren died during the same period, and two 
of these were under a year old. In some 
fow existing establishments, this example 
was imitatM ; but the age was still too 
efifeminate, formal mannera too prevalent, 
to allow rvmnastics a proper place in edu- 
cation. The French revolution broke out, 
and Europe received a warlike character. 
Germany was conquered by the French, 
and the desire to repulse them became gen- 
eral, but no hope of immediate resistance 
existed. All eyes were naturally turned 
tovrards the youth ; and while there was a 
general desire of reviving in the nation a 
patriotic spirit, Jahn (q. v.) conceived the 
idea of establishing gyiimasia for two rea- 
BoncH-to prepare the young for a fiiture 
vrar against the French, and to brinff to- 
gether in the gymnasia youths of all cIbbb- 
es, who mightbe inspired with a love for 
tiieir common oountnr. Doctor Jahn estab- 
lished his first TVtn^wrfz, the German name 
for gymnasium, near Berlin, in 1811. But 
the disastera uliich the French armies ex- 
perienced in Russia, led the Germans to a 
war against France much sooner than the 
roost sanguine had hoped. When the 
peace of Paris was concluded, the gym- 
nana, which had been ckised during 
the time of vrar, were reopened ; ana, 
when the Germans found themselves dis- 
appointed in their expectations of liberal 
institutions, when the princes broke their 
solemn promises, the gymnasia were made 
use of to inspire the youths with an ardor 
for liberty. Many imprudent steps were 
token by the German people, and Jahn 
himself was not always wise in his con- 
duct. Much had crept into the gymnasia 
with which the public vras dissatisfied, 
and when Sand (q. v.) assassinated Kot 
zebue, and the government, which had 
already become sus^ncious of the gymna- 
sia, ordered them to be closed, no oppo- 
sition was made. We muat not omit to 



mention here, that, some yean before, the 
PniBBian goTemment bad ordered an in- 
vestigation into the gymnasia by the gov- 
ernment's jphyncian^ whoee report was 
decidedly mvorable. When the persecu- 
tions acainst liberals were renewed, in 
1824, with creater violence, Mr. V61ker, be- 
ing compelled to seek an asylum in £nj^- 
land, established the firat gynmasium m 
I London. At the some time, captain Clias^ 
a Swisi^ established a gymnasium at Chel- 
sea, in the royal miUtaiv asylum. He soon 
after published his woik on gynmaMics, the 
only merit of which is its brevitv and 
clearness. Jahn and his pupil ^iselen 
had published, soon after the peace of 
Pans, a woik on modem gymnastics, 
which is excellent in many respects^ 
tbou|^h it is sometimes too minute and pe- 
dantic When the gymnasia were founaed 
in London, caHtthtmeSf or exereises fix 
females, were fint taucfat; but thou^ we 
think that they should never be omitted, 
yet we consider those exereises which 
were taught as founded on eironeous 
principles. A system of healthy and 
gracenil exercises fer females may be ea- 
tablished ; but those which are now cen- 
erally practised in English boardmc- 
schools are wrong in principle. Gymnasia 
have since been reopened m some places 
of Germany, but they are now strictly 
confined to bodily exercises. In 183Ss 
doctor Beck, a German, and pupil of 
doctor Jahn, eetaUiBhed the first mnna- 
slum in America, m Northampton, Massa- 
chusettB. Others have been subsequently 
established in dififerent parts of the coun- 
tiy. Respecting the various exercises 
themselves, we must refer the reader to 
a Treatise on Gymnastics taken cliiefiy 
fit^mthe German of F. L. Jahn (1 vol., 
8vo., Northampton, Massadiusetts, 1828). 
The writer of this article has always ob- 
served, that the pupils of a gjrmnasium 
after a while lose their interest in the ex- 
ercises. This was observable even in 
Germany, where patriotic feelings were 
mingled vrith the exercises. The reason of 
this appears to be, that litde or no differ- 
ence IS made in the exereises of difierent 
ages, and it is natural that an exercise re- 
peated for years should become weari- 
some. Gynmastics therefore, when they 
- are taught as a regular branch of educa- 
tion, oufffat to be divided into two courses. 
In the fist course we would include walk- 
ing and pedestrian excursions ; elementa- 
ry exereises of various sorts ; running, 1. 
quick, 2. long continued ; leaping in 
height, length and depth ; leaping with a 
pole, in length and height ; vaulting; bal- 

ancing ; exereises on the single and par 
allel bars ; climbing ; throwing ; dragging ; 
pushing ; Uftina ; carrying ; wreoding ; 
jumping, 1. with the hoop, 3. with the 
rope ; exercises with the dumb-bells ; 
various gymnastic games ; skating; dau- 
oin|^ ; some military exereises ; swimming, 
which we include in the first course, be- 
cause it can be easily taught to childreu. 
Some of these exercises, of course, are 
not suitable ibr very young children, and 
they should be distnbufeed in a re^lar 
gradation, which caution and expenence 
will teach. Gymnastics, propeiiy so called, 
may be begun by a boy mm six toeigfat 
yean old. The second course consists of 
repetitions of some of the former exer- 
cises of vaulting, both on the wooden and 
the living horse, either standing or run- 
ninff in a circle; boxmg, driving, riding 
on nMseback, and fencing with the broad- 
sword and the small-sword. Fencing 
with the small-sword appean to ua the 
noblest of gymnastic exercises. No other 
is so well entitled to the name of an art ; 
no other calls the powere into such active 
exercise ; no other requires such quick- 
ness of limb^ of mind and of eye, together 
with so much self-possession ; no other 
developes so completely the whole fi«me. 
It is a noble art Riding, indeed, deserves 
likewise the name of an art, in which a 
man may make continual improvement. It 
cannot, nowever, be called so pure a gym- 
nastic exercise as fencing, and, in its na- 
ture, it is more mechani<»l. Many excel- 
lent horsemen are men of very inactive 
or limited minds; but all good fencers 
whom we have known, were men of 
quick apprehension and lively intellect. 
This accounts for the cireumstance that 
the artists of the middle ages valued 
fencing so hi|^hly. Almost aS the great 
mastera and distinguished poets of Uiose 
times, were skilfiil swordsmen, and some 
of them wrote treatises on the use of tlieir 
fevorite weapon; for mstance, Leonardo 
da Vinci.* mxin^, riding, and the varioua 
exercises on the hving horse, should not 
be commenced much liefore the sixteenth 
year. For the views of the vmter, respect- 
ing the manner in which gymnasia should 
be established and carried oii,to afibrd the 
greatest advantaj^e, we refer the reader to 
an article by him m No. V of the American 
Quarteriy Review, where they are given 

* Of Tasso tt was commonly said, af\er he bad 
manfully repelled three assailanu— 

CoUa pemta e colla gpadOf 
NUtuno vale quanta Tomo. 

Kw father was a distingnished fencer, as was Al 




•t aome length. As to cah'ittctwci, or 
txenmm for the female sex, thej ahould 
be founded ohiefiy on bahneipg, which 
may exereiae the name in a great Tariety 
of wajBi afibidhig the means of giaceml 
motion, and betiur siifficiaitly strengthen- 
uigforfenia]e& Those exercises wh^h en* 
luge the hand, and make the muscles of the 
ami rigid, are not suitaUe for them. The 
cheit may he derek^ied in many ways 
witboot ezerdHitf the aims too much ; 
sa objection to nHuch the exercises with 
the dumb-bells are liable. 

Gtmnosophists, or Bbachhaics ; the 
mme f^ren by the Greeks to the Indian 
pfailosc^rfierB, because, according to tradi- 
tioo, they went naked. They were di- 
vided into two sects — ^Biahmans (Brach- 
muM, fikaminsi and Samans (Sarmans^ 
Gannansi Or their philosophical sys- 
tems we Know only that they made philos- 
ophy to eoosiat in constant meoitation 
and die serereet asoedc habits, by which 
they sooght to overcome sensuality, and to 
mule tinmselves with the Deity. They 
often burned themselves ahve, to become 
pure the sooner, as Cakmus did in the 
presBneeof Alexander, and Xarimarus at 
AthoH^ when Augustus was there. The 
little acquaintance of the ancieoti with the 
Indies save rise to man^ wonderful stories 
w ipe ctm g tfaam. Hus name is some- 
times given to the sagss of .fithiqna. 

GntMCEJTM {yvwaiKthVf yvvaimivlwA The 

Greeks ifid not hve on a footing of fiiendhr 
iniimaey with their wives, like the mod- 
ems, but preserved a certain distance, 
fasndsd down from the eariiest aces, when 
women were rmrded as the staves and 
the ji w ip c rt y of thehr husbands. Hence 
the ftimer mhdbiled a different pait of the 
houM, tenned gyiMBeeum, or the females' 
^wtiiient, the most remote interior room 
ia the building, situated behind the court. 
Under the ILoman empenm, there was a 
pntieakur esldUishment of ^^lusceo, bemg 
akhid of manufoctorieB, ohiefly under the 
miBagement of women, for the making 
of docfaes and fonuture fer the empensni 
househokL In imitatkm of these, many 
modem manufectoriea, particulariy those 
of silk, where a nundmr of females are 
asBocMSed, are called mMBceo. 

GnrjBcocKACT; a form of government 
in whkh females are ehgiUe to the su- 
preme command. 

GmiBS (from EgwaikmBy the name bv 
viiieh they were called in the Enghah 
ttatutes); a wandering nation, whose Asiat- 
ic foim, language aiKl customs differ en- 
tirely from those of European nations. 
The German nsme Zigtuner has been 

conridered, by some, of Genaui oricin, 
and derived from Zieh-Ck nme r (wander- 
ing roguea] ; yet this seems eironeous, for 
even when they fint appeared in Hunga- 
iv, in the beginning or the 15th centui^, 
they were called Zifttmi and Ztngom. 
The Italians, Walaehjans, and even the 
Turks, called them Zmgms 2Vdbtr^faiit 
and Zigani This name is notdenved 
from the iS%yfititf, who^ according to He- 
rodotus, inhabited the countiy extending 
from the Pontus to the Adriatic sea ; but 
it appeals most probable that it is origioal- 
Iv Indian ; fer at the mouth of the In* 
dua, there is still a sunikur people, the 
Tchingani, whom lieutenant Pottinger 
lately met with in Beluohlstan, on the Per- 
sian frontieis, snd describes as resembhng 
the gypsies in theur peculiar customs. 
The Dutch call the gypsies JEfetden (hea- 
then). The Swedea and Danea call them 
Taaitsn; the French, BsAesiMsis. The 
Spaniards call them Gdonot, which des- 
ignates their crafty character. They cidl 
themselves PharoAn or SmUe (which cor- 
responds to Smdiy the Hindoo name of 
the inhabitants of Hindostan). This peo- 
ple is spread over all Eurc^M, and it is prob- 
sble there sre 700,000 scattered throuah 
the diflbrent European countries. The 
greater part, however, appear to lead theur 
strolling life in the south of Spain. In 
England, there are above 18,000. Sir Wal- 
ter Scott has given an esCoellent descrip- 
tion of them in Guv Mannering. It 
is believed in Ei^sno, that they are of 
Lidian origin, and that they belonged to 
the WD% m die Sindes, an Indian caste, 
which was dispersed, in 1400, by the ex- 
peditions of Tunour. Their language is 
the same throughout Europe, with but 
little variation, and even now corresponds 
with the dialect of Hindostan. It has 
been proposed, in Eitgland, to establish 
schools far them, and to convert them by 
means of missionsrieeL In Germany and 
France, there are but few ; but they are 
numerous in Hungszy, Transyhama and 
Moldavia, where dieir number amounts to 
about 900,000. They are still more nu- 
merous in Bessarabia, the CrimeiL near 
Constantinople, snd in the whole of Tur- 
key. They are remariuMe for the yeUow 
brown, or rather olive color, of then* skin ; 
the jet black of their hair and eyes ; the 
extreme whiteness of their teeth, on ac- 
cotmt of which many of the gypsy ^iris^ 
particulariy those of Spain, are consider- 
ed beauties; and for the svmmetry of 
their limbs, which distinguishes even the 
men, whose general appearance, how 
ever, is repulsive and shy. The gypsiei; 



have mttcli elaideitv and quickneflB ; they 
are seldom of a tail or powerful fiame ; 
their phyaaoimomy denotes caielesBness 
and levity. Thev rarely settle permanent- 
ly any where. Wherever the climate is 
mild enough, they are found in forests 
and deserts, in companies. They sel- 
dom have tents, but seek shelter from the 
cold of winter in grottoes end caves, or 
they build huts sunk some feet in the 
eaith, and covered with sods laid on poles. 
In Spain, and even in Hungary and Trsn- 
enrlvania, there are, however, some who 
follow a trade. They are inn-keepen^ 
horse-doctors, and dealers in horses ; they 
are smiths, mend old pans and ketdes, 
and make iron utensils, nails snd the like. 
Some work in wood, mskinf spoona, 
sfundles, troughs, or they sasist the tarmer 
in the fielda. Their talent for music has 
been remarked, but it is confined to in- 
strumental music, which they chiefly 
practise by the ear. They puy on the 
violin, Jews-harp, the bude, flute and 
hautboy. Their music ror dancing is 
lively and expressive ; there are no b^ter 
musicians for the Hun|fBrian and Polish 
national dances. Then* lively motions 
are remarkable in their own peculiar 
dances^ and they have great talent for 
mimicry. The gypsies who formerly 
traversed Germany supported themselves 
by tricks, the women telling fortunes 
with cards ; the men dandng on the rope, 
and performing similar feats. The gypsy 
women, in their younger years, particu- 
laity in Spain, are dancers. As soon as 
they grow older, they invariably mctiae 
fortune^telUng and chiromancy. This is 
their chief occupation in all parts of Eu- 
rope. The children go pertecdy naked 
until their tenth year. The men wear a 
shirt and trowsers ; the women, petti- 
coats and aprons, red or light blue. In 
Enffland, thev have red doalu with hoods, 
and, genendk, a handkerchief tied over 
the head, liiey are fond of rings and 
ornaments. Those gypsies who live a 
setded life are very fond of dress. Their 
house utensils consist of a pan, dish, ket- 
tle and a silver muff ; their domestic ani- 
mals are horses and pigs. In EIngland, 
they have always donkeys in their cara- 
vans ; their food is disgusting. They are 
fond of (mions and ^uiio, according to 
the Oriental custom. They eat all kmds 
of flesh, even that of animals which have 
died a natural death ; on which account, 
a murrain is the most welcome event for 
them. Some 90 or 40 years ago, they 
were accused, in Hungary, of having 
slau^tered human beings and devoured 

them, and, in ocMMoquenoe of this ebaijge, 
were treated with the oreatest severity. 
Their guik, however, nas never been 
proved. Brandy is their fovorito bever- 
age; tobacco their greatest luxury ; both 
men and women chew and smoke it with 
avidity, and are ready to make great sac- 
rifices for the sake of satisfying this in- 
clinadon. They have no peculiar reli- 
ffion. Amongst the Turks, tney are Mo- 
hanunedans; and in Spain, at least, as 
well as in TraiMylvania, they follow the 
forms of the Chiistian religion, without, 
however, caring for instruction, or having 
any interest in the S|Nrit of religion. In 
Transylvania^ they ofbn have meir chil- 
dren baptized repe«tedly at different pkoes, 
for the sake of the money which it is 
customary in that country for the cod^ 
fother to give to the poor parents of hia 
god-child. Marriam are formed in the 
rudest manner. The young gypsy mar- 
ries a girl, without earing if she is his sis- 
ter or a stranger, often when he is not 
more than 14 or 15 yean old. In Hun- 
cary, another gypsy officiates as priest at 
die wedding. No gypsy will many any 
but one of ms race, if ne becomes tired 
of her, he will turn her off without cere- 
mony. There is no idea of edncatioD 
amongst this people. A blind, almost an- 
imal love for their children, prevents them 
fipom punishing them, so that they grow up 
in idleness, ana are accustomed to steal and 
cheat The dqmvity of thispeople is ao 
great, that they have a real enjoyment in 
cruelty ; so that they were formerly em- 
ployed, in preference, aa executioneis. At 
the saiiie tuiie, thev are great cowards, and 
only steal where tney can do so with safe- 
ty, '^^ never break into houses at 
night llie plague having oocumd in a 
certain town of Spain, the gypaes flock- 
ed into the houses m hordes^ simI plunder- 
ed the unprotected inhabitantBi In Tran- 
sylvania, they are very expert at washing 
{{old. On account of th«r coward- 
ice, they have never, in Spain, been uasd 
for solcuers. In Hungary and Transylva- 
nia, diey have been occasionally taken in- 
to the armies, but they have never distin- 
ffuished themselves by bravery. It has 
been repeatedly proposed to banish this 
people nom Europe. " In France and 
Spam, in Itaiy and Germany, laws were 
passed against them in the 16th century, 
but even persecutions were of little avail 
towards rooting them out They always 
appeared again in the southern countries^ 
As they are very numerous in the Austri- 
an states, and have a kind of constitution 
there amongst themselves, being in a 



manner govonMd l^ chief gypaiea or 
iM^iMNfef, the mat Maria Theraaa form- 
ed the plan or converting them into or- 
derly men and citiaenBi In 1766, ahe la- 
flued an ordinance, that, in future, gypaiea 
ahould dwell in aettled habitationB, practiae 
some trade, dreas their children, and aend 
them to achooL Many of their dieguating 
cuatoma were prohibited, and it waa or» 
deredt that they ahould forthwith be call* 
ed JV^utaiem (new peaaantB), inatead of 
their fonner name of gmmts, Thia or- 
dinance remaining inenectual, reeouae 
waa had, in 1773, to aerere meaaurea; the 
children were taken from their parenta, 
and brought up in Chriatian prineiplea. 
But aa lilue waa eflfected in this way as 
by the Yeiy mild meaaurea ad«qited by the 
BiwwMm covemment However, the ordi- 
nancea o? Joaeph II (1762 et aeq.), to for- 
ward the improvement of the gypaiea, in 
Hungaiy, Iranaylvania and the jBannat, 
have not been without eflfect With re- 
gard to thdr lanffuage, moat of the wonla 
are of Indian ongiu. They are found, in 
part, with litde variation, in the Sanacrit, 
in the Malabar and Bengal languaj^ea, and 
many worda have been adopted m>m the 
diflferent nations amongst whom tliev re- 
aide. Heber, biahop of Calcutta, relates, 
in his Narrative of a Journey through the 
Upper Provinces of India, &c. (London, 
1838,2 vo]8.|, that he met ¥rith a camp of 
gypnes on tne banks of the Gan||ea, who 
spoke the Hindoo language as their moth- 
er tongue. Heber found the same people 
in Penia and Ruaeda. Their arammar ia 
also Oriental, and corresponcu with the 
Indian dialects. This similarity cannot 
be considered the wori^ of chance, partic- 
ulariv as their persons and customs show 
much of the Hindoo character. It has 
even been attempted to derive their ori- 
gin from a particular caate of the Hin- 
dooa. But this cannot be the respectable 
caste of the mechanics and agriculturists. 
They are more probably a branch of the 
Pariaa, who are considered contemptible 
by an the other Hindoos, because they 
five in the greatest uncleanlineaa, and eat 
the flesh of beasts, which have died of 
seknesB. It cannot, however, be easily 
esqilained, why this particular caste should 
have left their country and spread 
throughout Europe. The Tschinganes, 
a nation at the mouth of the Indus, ap- 
pear, at least, judging from their name, 
move likely to be connected with the gyp- 
siea. The gypaiea also call theraselvea 
Suufe, a name which doubtless has some 
coneapondeuce with Smd or indua, Mr. 
Richardson, some time since, described 
n * 

an Indian nation whom he caUed Aiitr or 
PentoeApcrt Knd Batigen, (See a diacua- 
abn (» the similari^ of the gypsy lan-» 
guage with the Hindoo, in the TVwimc* 
thfu ofthtlALSodOjf of Bombav, 182a) 
Although they acknowledge the Moham- 
medan religion, they are much like the 
gypaiea in cuatoma and manners, in their 
propenaity to thieving, fortune-telling and 
uncleanlineas. In 1417, the fiist mention 
is made of the gypsies in Germany. They 
mpear to have come from Moldavia into 
Germany and Italy. At that time, they 
aheady wandered about in hordes with a 
commander at their head. In 1418, the 
number which entered Italy alone, was 
estimated at 14,000 men. There were 
many in Paris in 1429. They were first 
believed to be jnlgrima, coming from the 
Holy Land ; they were, consequently, not 
only unmolested, but they received letters 
of protection; for instance, from Sigis- 
mund, in 1423. It ia known, however,uuit 
in later timeB,they were veiy expert in coun- 
terfeiting similar documents. What may 
have been the cause of their leaving their 
country, is not known ; but very probably 
they were induced to fly from the cruel- 
ties exercised bvTamerlane, on his march 
into India, in 1998, when this savage con- 

3ueror filled the countiy with bl<M>d and 
evBStation. — 8ee GreUmann's Histor, 
Fernuh aber die Zigeunar (Historical 
In<i}uiiy concerning the Gypaiea), 2d edit 
Gottinf^en, 1787; and Job. v. MfiUer'a 
Schcenergesckiehte (History of Switzer- 
land), voL a Samma. JFerke, voL 21, p. 

Gtpsum, sulphate of lime, or common 
plaster of Paris, is found in a great variety 
of forma. It ia either in regular crystals, 
in which form it ia sometimes called uU- 
mte, or in large ciystalline platea and 
masses, which are perfectly transparent, 
and aa pure as the finest plate-glass ; or it 
occurs in fascicular or radiated masses, 
which are also crystallized ; it is some- 
times found in snow-white, scaly flakes, 
like foam or snow ; it is aometimee semi- 
tranqiorent, like horn ; and, lastly, it is 
met ^vith most commonly in huge, fine or 
coarse-grained compact masses, forming 
rocks, and constimtiug laige and extensive 
strata. In this form, it exhibits a great 
variety of colors — wlute,red, brown, blue- 
ish white, &c The variety of gypsum 
hist described, constitutes all the hilband 
beds of this mineral, which are so fi«- 
quent among secondary rocks, and in 
what are cafied theaoft and coa2 /onno- 
tuma. It occun rarely, if ever, among 
the primitive rocks, and not oflen among 



thorn of the tmuHtion claflBL It Ls almoit 
ul>vay8 found associated with the rock 
salt, whereon sak-spiings are found. It 
contains but few vegetable or aninial 
remains ; those that occur, are chiefly 
bones of quadrupeds, amphibia, fresh-wa- 
ter shells, and vegetable remains. Caves 
are of frequent occurrence in gypsum. 
The purer semi-transparent specimens of 
gypsum are used for ornamental works, 
as vases, urns, &c^ and for statuary ; for 
which purposes its softness makes it very 
ufleful» and easy to wmk ; but this also 
renders it difficult to polish. In this 'last 
form, it is the alabaster of the arts. It 
constitutes the material used in maldng 
the fine plastering for the internal finish- 
ing of coedy edinces, and gives the walls 
a most beautiful whiteness. It is also 
used, oiler being bunied, for the composi- 
tion of stucco-woik of all sorts. But the 
great and important use of gjrpsum, or 
j^tuUer, as it is usually called, is for ma- 

nuring grass and grain lands; in which 
cases It 18 tnily invaluable. And it is in- 
conceivable how sreat an additional quan- 
tity of grass wm be obtained, by the 
sprinkling a peck of ground plaster upon 
the acre or land. It is certainly the 
cheapest and best manure for grass or 
min. It is found in all the countries of 
Europe, and occurs in veiy extensive de- 
posits in New Yoik, and m the Western 
States, in aU which great quantities are 
du^ and sold for the uses above de- 

GTRTALCOif, or j£&FALCOif. (See Fd- 

Gtromanct (from the Greek words 
yvpos, a circle, and luvrtia, prophecy) ; the 
art of prophesving by means of a circle, 
described by the soodisayer with various 
ceremonies, and around which he walks, 
saying inagic words, and makinff mysteri-^ 
ous motions, the more effectually to de- 
ceive the uninitiated. 


H ; the eighth letter and sixth consonant 
in the En^Ush alphabet H was not al- 
ways considered a consonant. The other 
consonants are pronounced with a less 
opening of the mouth than the vowels, but 
h with a ffreater opening than even the 
vowel 0. In Latin and ancient Greek, it 
was, therefore, not considered as a conso- 
nant, but merely as a breathing. The latter 
language, as is well known, had no literal 
sign for it, but merely what is called the 
rovgh hmdhing (M ; and in Latin proso- 
dy, it is not considered as a letter. In 
languages in which h is conndered a con- 
sonant, it is classed with the gutturals. In 
connexion with other consonants, it some- 
times renders them softer; as^for instance, 
after p ; in Italian, however, it serves to 
give to c and g, followed by e or i, the 
hard sound (that of ^ in gwe, and c in 
color) ; hence che is pronounced ifce, and 
gkSbfUmo like gibeUne in English. It is 
a very delicate Tetter, and is frequently not 
sounded at all ; as, in French, in all words 
beginning with h derived from Latin. It 
also takes die place of other letters, as of 
^(q. v.), in Spanisli, or of c ; as the people 
m the environs of Saint-Malo say htef 
and hloche for def and cloche. In the ar- 

ticle O, it is shown how intimately h is 
connected with the two guttural sounds 
of the German ach ana ich; and, as 
tliese are only stronger aniirations than ft, 

fis intimately connected with ft, as we 
nd to be the case in the Sclavonic lan- 
guages. In the Bohemian, Wendii^ and 
Sclavonic languages, ft, at the beginning 
of a word, particularly before I and r, is 
frequendypronouncedlike g orgh ; as, for 
instance, Hlubos is pronounced OZu6o»ft ; 
Huapodar, Gospodar. The name of the 
German town GlaucKa comes from the 
Wendish Hhuhowe ; and in the Rusnan 
alphabet, g and h have onljr one charac- 
ter. In ttie ancient Prankish dialect, h 
often stood before /, r and t ; and, at a later 
period, it was sometimes suppressed, 
sometimes changed into ch or k; as Hlo- 
ihar^ HrudM Hlodomg, have become 
Lothcdre and Cla&airt^ Rudoff^ Ludung. 
But we must not suppose that h was not 
pronounced, wherever it would be diffi- 
cult for us at present to sound it ; because 
we find die aspirates ft, r, w, before /, »i, 
&C., in die dialects of the North Ameri- 
can Indians. An erroneous aspiration 
early cropt into the Latin, of which Cice- 
ro complains (Orcrf.48), and on which Ca- 



tuIiuB made an epigram (c. 63). The or- 
thography of pykktr^ irwmfihym^ cohara^ 
&c.,waB then subatitutBd for mi2Ger,<rn«»- 
pitf, ooorr, which, as well as toat of Grae- 
duu and Bacdnu^ although quite foreign 
fiom the Latin, was gradually adopted as 
the ooirect one. The Italians have almost 
entirely banished ^ as an independent 
letter ; they leaTe it out at the beginning 
of words, with few exceptions, because it 
is not pronounced ; and instead of phy 
they write/. In the Faiglish language, h 
'» used, in connenon wiui t, to designate 
the lisping sound which the Spamanls 
denote by z, and the Greeks \xy 9. The 
French and Gennan Ih are pronounced 
like simpk t The H of the Greeks was 
the long e, but was sometimes used as an 
aspirate, as in words in which it precedes c, 
asHEKATON. It was formed by the un- 
ion of the two breathings, the rough |- aud 
the floiooth -|. On Roman coins, inscrip- 
tionsi, and in manuscripts, H has a diversi- 
ty of meanings, as honestasy hicj harta^ 
humoy hdbdy Aoro, honoSy HadrianuB, 
&c. On modem French coins, it means 
die mint of Rochelle. H, among the 
Greeks, as a numeral, signified 8 ; in the 
Latin of the middle ages, 200, and H with 
a dash over it, 900,000. In music, h is 
the seventh degree in the diatonic scale, 
and the twelfth in the chromatic ; iu the 
solmization called b tm, being the seventh 
nu^ of c, the pure fifth of €, and of g 
the thurd major. 

Haaelxm, or Uaerleh ; a city of the 
Netheriands, in North Holhmd,on the riv- 
er Spearen, about three miles finom the 
sea. It communicates with Amsterdam, 
Leyden and the lake of Haariem, by seve- 
nii navurable canals. It was formerly a 
place of snength, but the ramparts are 
now converted into public promenades. 
A number of canals traverse the town in 
diffsrent directions, some of them bor- 
dered with trees. Among the public edi- 
fices are the skuWunutj an elesant buiki- 
ing, containing a valuable collection of 
pictures, a mansion or palace of the royal 
fiunily, and several chiuritable institutions. 
The number of churehes, great and small, 
is 15; the principal one is said to be the 
laigeet in Holland, and contains a collec- 
tion of antiquities of the time of the cru- 
sades, and a remariuble organ. The oth- 
er objects of interest are, the town libra- 
ly, the anatomical theatre, and the botan- 
ical garden. The scientific institutions are, 
the academy of sciences, founded in 1753, 
and the horticulmral society ; to the for- 
mer belongs a valuable museum. Here 
are several manu&ctures on a small scale. 

viz., jewehy, cotton, linen and silk stuA^ 
thrcMul and ribbons. Haariein has long 
been celebrated for its bleaching grounds. 
It carries on an extensive trafiic in 
flowers, particulariy tulips. Population, 
22,000 ; 1 1 miles west of Amsterdam ; Ion. 
4° 38' 19" E. ; lat. 52^ 22^ SfV' N. 

Habakkuk; a Jewish prophet, who 
flouriahed about 600 R C. His prophe- 
cy is in an elevated religious, lyrical 
style. Lamentations for the feairful de- 
vastations of the Chaldeans in JudsBa, and 
the approaching downfidlof the kingdom, 
consolations and cheering hopes fiar me fu- 
ture, the humiliation of the conquerors, 
and a new period of happiness for die 
Jews, foim the contents of his writingSb 
His sentiments and language are greatly 
admired. With all the boMneas and fer- 
vor of his imagination, his language is 
pure, and his verse melodious. His ex- 
pressions are characteristic and lively. 
llisdenunciationsareteiriUe; his derision 
bitter; his consolation cheering. Habak" 
kuk seema to mgDsfy HruggUr. He is one 
of the 12 minor prophets. 

Habeas Corpus. It is one of the first 
objects of all civil institutions, to secure to 
every member the rights of personal lib- 
erty, or, in other words, the control and 
duspoflition of his own person, at his own 
will and pleasure, in such manner, how- 
ever, as not to violate the laws or infiiuge 
upon the rights of others. It may seein, 
upon the first consideration of the sub- 
ject, that this is not an object of the insti- 
tutions and lavirs of an anntraiv govern- 
ment, since the sovereign, and those rep* 
resenting him in an executive or military 
capacity, may seize and inq>rison any 
one, with or without cause, or upon 
grounds more or less important and excu- 
sable, according as the government is, in 
its principles and in its administntiou, 
more or leas arbitrary. But a riight re- 
flection will show, diat, even in the most 
arbitrary governments, the first object is, 
to secure one subject from the seizure of 
Ins person, or the violation of his rights, 
whether of person or property, by anoth- 
er; for in a community of men, where 
every member should m left at liberty to 
seize upon and imprison any other, if he 
had the physical power to do so, there 
would be, substantially, and to practical 
purposes, no government at all. There 
might be an association of men acting un- 
der the orders of the prince, and in con- 
cert with each other, who should have 
more power than anv other association in 
the community, ondi who might, accord- 
ingly, by the nght of the strongest, seize 



penoD0 and propei^ at their own will 
and pleasure; mjt such an aaMxsiation 
woula hardly deeerve the name of ci?il 
polity or government, which aignifies not 
m^^ physical power and superiority of 
force, which exists among bnites as well 
as men, but a body of laws more or less 
extensive, whereby the liberty and ricfats 
of the subiectB are secured more or less 
effectually, according to the degree of im- 
|>rovement and peiiection in the constitu- 
tion and kvra or the state. In every gov- 
ernment, therefore, whether arbitrary or 
free, or occupying any one of the various 
degrees in the scale of freedom, one of 
the first and most important objects, is the 
security of the perran from violence or 
detention, not authorized hy law. There 
is, then, this essential dimrence, in this 
respect, between difierent governments ; — 
in those which are aibitrary, the present 
wiU of the sovereign, and, accordinciy, of 
those representing him in civil andf mili- 
tary capacities, is the law: whereas, m 
others, the law is a fixed rule, which eve- 
ry citizen or subject mav know and con- 
form to, if he chooses ; the sovereign and 
the magistrates b«ng bound by tlus law 
no len than the other members of the so- 

n, This fixed law settles, beforehand, 
e cases in which any person may be 
detained or imprisoned ; and the term 
imprimmment, in this application, does 
not fligniiy merely shutting up in a gaol, 
since me voluotaiy detention of a person 
in a private house or in the streete, says 
sfar William Blackatone, is an wiprifoii- 
metU. The cases, in whjch imprisomnent 
is lavirful, being thus ascertained by the 
law, the great iMt>vi8ion of magna ckarta 
intervenes, namely, <*That no freeman 
shall be seized or imprisoned, but by the 
judgment of his equals or the law of the 
land." The tenn tqwd$ or purs^ here, 
has reference to an indictment or trial by 
jurv, or other body, of which the office 
and functions are equivalent to those of 
jurors, as is the case in regard to the house 
of lords, in respect to certain parties and 
ofiences. This particular mooe of accu- 
sation or trial might as well be omitted, 
and the rule would then stand, that no 
man should be imprisoned but by the law 
of the land. It is the law alone that can 
imprison, and not the sovereign, or any 
representative of the sovereign, whether 
the sovereignty resides in one individual, 
or a body, or more than one body of men. 
This principle constitutes the leading fea- 
ture of mofma chariOy and lies at the 
foundation of every ftee flovenunent In 
order to secure personal liberty, and, at 

the same time, to maintain 
which requires, in the case of crimes and 
some others, the restnint of the person, it 
is absolutely essential that the law should 
not Mily specify, explicitty, the cases in 
which the citizmi may be seized or im- 
prisoned, but also provide that he ahaU 
not be arrested, or restrained of his liberty, 
in any other case vrhatever ; and such is 
the law in Enj^and and in all of the U. 
States. Nor is this principle confined to 
the person, it being no leas the law that a 
man's goods, than that his person shall not 
be sei^ and detained, otnerwise than by 
order of the law. Such bein^ the rules 
that lie at the foundation of civil society, 
the very important question occurs, How 
these rules are to be enforeed ; how is the 
law, most efTectually, to guaranty to eve- 
ry one of its subjects, the inviolability of 
his person and property? The first and 
most obvious security is that derived di- 
recdy fitrni the law of nature, and notsur- 
rendered among the other sacrifices made 
by the members of a community to each 
other, as a condition precedent to the 
formmg of civil society. The law per? 
mits every man to defend his person and 
proper^, and to repel, by force, any iin- 
iawilQ mvasion of either. It will not jus- 
ti^ him in using extreme force, and com- 
mitting anjy outrageous, disproportionate 
or wanton mjurv, in resislinff ana repelling 
even an unlawfid injury of his person or 
property ; but it will justify him in using 
a reasomJi>le degree of force, proportioned 
to the injuriousnesB or atrocity of the vio- 
lence attempted by the assailing partv. 
But the law of nature affords but a feeble 
protection, and men unite in communi- 
ties, for Ae purpose of obtaining more ef- 
fectual dcdfences against wrong, and rqw- 
rations for injuries when committed ; and 
the very first provirion of the law is to in- 
flict punishment for any virrongs and vio- 
lence, whereby the public is disturbed, 
and also to make reparation to a party in- 
jured. If one man unlavirfrilly seizes tlie 
property, or imprisons the person of an- 
other, be is, by the laws of every commu* 
nity, liaUe to make amends in damages. 
As for, therefore, as an injury is such that 
it can be repaired by a pecuntaiy compen- 
sation, and as ftr as the trespasser is able 
to make such reparation, the remedy is 
complete. But smce trespassers are not 
always able to make reparation for inju- 
ries, and some injuries are such that pe- 
cuniary damages are not an adequate rep- 
aratioii, and, also, because the law in- 
tends to prevent vmongs, as well as to pro- 
vide for punishmenti and compensatioua 



where they have been committed, it pro* 
videe certain prooeasee ibr immediate pre- 
Tention, in case of ayiolent and unautnor- 
ized invasion of property or person. Of 
this character are the processes on com- 
plaint for forcible entry on real estate, the 
action of replevin in req>ect to goods and 
chattels, and the writ de homine repiUgiaav- 
do, or writ of haheas corpug, in respect to 
the peraon. 'Die writ de hamine rtpkgi' 
muh is similar to that of replevin, and is, 
in ftct, as its name imports, tAe rqfUvying 
of a man. When a man*s person has 
been carried out of the country, so that 
he cannot be found, then a process takes 
place somewhat similar to that adopted 
when goods are carried ofi^ so as not to be 
replevuible. In the case of the goods, a 
process trt wUhemam issues, by which 
other goods are taken. So in the case of 
the man ; the person ifiiio thus convey- 
ed him away, is himself taken in a pro- 
cess in wUhtrnam, as a pledge for the res- 
toratiou of the person sought to be re- 
plevied. This process of replevying a 
man is very ancient in the English law ; 
forms of the writ beinj^ given by Fitzher- 
bert, and also found m the Register of 
Writs. But it was not until more than 
409 years after the date of nusgna thartOy 
that an adequate remedy was adopted, 
whereby the great {Mivilege, provided for 
in that charter, was efiectually secured. 
This security was effected by the kahtat 
eorpnt act, passed in the thirty-fiist vear 
<^ Charles U, c 2, which has been adopt- 
ed, in substance, in all die U. States ; and 
many of the state constitutions expressljr 
guaranty to the citizens the right to this 
writ, as one of the fundamental principles 
of thegovemmem; and by the constitu- 
tion of the U. Static, the privilege of this 
writ is secured, at all times, except in 
eases of rebellion or invasion, when the 
puMic safety may require its suspension. 
The ri(riit is liable to be suspended in 
Enj^and in the same cases, it being some- 
times necessary to clothe the executive 
with an extraordinarv power, as the Ro- 
mans were in the habit of choosing a dic- 
tator in emeraencies, when the public was 
in danger. This, as sir William Black- 
atone sajrs, is the sacrifice of the security 
of personal liberty for a time, the more 
effectually to secure it in fbture. At all 
times, when the privilege is not suspend- 
ed by law, every citizen has a right to this 
writ. It is, however, to no purpose that 
the party should be brought before a judge, 
on luAeoM eonui, to be immediately re- 
manded to prison. The laws, according- 
ly, except certain cases ; thus the lawsof 

New Y<»k provide, that if a peraon is not 
a omivict, or in execution by legal pit)- 
cess, or committed for treason or felony, 
plamly exp resse d in the warrant, and h&s 
not neglected to apply to be released for 
two whole terms, he is entitied to tliis writ. 
An application may be made to a jud^, 
either m court or out of court, for this wnt ; 
and if it does not appear that the person 
is imprisoned under some of the circum- 
stances above-named, or, if it be in some 
other state than New York, if it does not 
appear to the Judge, that his case comes 
under some of the exceptions provided by 
the law of the state (and the laws except 
only the plainest cases), then it is the ab- 
solute duty of the judge to grant the writ, 
directed to the gaoler, officer or person 
who detains the complainant, oidering 
him to brine the prisoner bc^ne him. 
The laws of England provide, that, if the 
chancellor or any of the 13 jud^ refuses 
the writ when the party is entitled to it, 
he incurs a very h^vy forfeiture to the 
complainant, it is universalhr, in the U. 
States, the imperative duty of the judre 
to order the complainant to be immedi- 
ately brought before him, unless his case 
plamly comes within one of the excep- 
tions pointed out by the law. The party 
being thus brought up, the judge deter- 
mines whether he is entitled to be dis- 
charipd, absolutely, or to be discharged 
on giving a certain hail, or must be re- 
manded to prison. If the imprisonment 
is wholly unauthorized, the complamant 
is discharged; if it be not uiuuithorized, 
but is yet for a cause in which the partv 
is entiued to be discharged on givinv bail, 
the judge orden accordingly. This is 
the writ which is justiy denominated the 
great bulwark and second magna duaia of 
British liberty. And it is no leas the bul- 
wark of American than of British liberty ; 
for it not only protects the citizen from 
unlawful imprisonment, at the suggestion 
of the civil officers of the government in 
behalf of the public, but also against 
groundless arrests at the suit or insti^on 
of individuals. There are other writs of 
hahea» corpus, but the one we have de- 
scribed is always intended when the terms 
are used without explanation. 

HABrTATiON. (See Domieilj ,^ppendix 
to vol. iv, page 613 ; also DweOhg.) 

Hachb d' Abmxs (FVendi) ; the battie- 
axe, or mace, of the knights. 

Hacienda (Spanuh) ; a ferm, singly sit- 
uated ; also public revenue. 

Hackberrt, or Hoop Ash {cdHs era§^ 
sifoUa), is a western tree, abundant in the 
basin of the Obio and beyond the Missis 



flippi, and oocuirioff flometiineB on the 
eastern slope of the AllMhaniea» eqiecial- 
ly in the basins of the Susquehanna and 
Potomac It grows to a great height, but 
the thickness A the trunk b not propor- 
tional. The leaves^ which are not unlike 
those of the mulbeny, are larger than in 
the other species of nettle-tree, ovate and 
acuminate ; the small white flowers are 
succeeded by one-seeded berries, of a 
black color, and resembling peas in size and 
diape. The wood, cm account of its i^- 
ituae to decay, is Httle used, but is said to 
make ireiy fine charooaL 

Hackxrt, Philip; a distinguished Ger- 
man landscape-uunter, bom at Prentzlow, 
in the Ukermait, in 1737, died at Flor- 
ence, 1806. His four younger brothers were 
also distinguished in the arts, three ofthem 
in painting, and (me (George) in engray- 
ing. In 1766^ Philip Hackert went to 
Italy. On his return fimn Naples (in 
1770) to Rome, Catharine, empress of 
Russia, employed htm to paint six ^ctures 
r^resenting the two battles of Tschesme. 
These bid the foundation of his fome. 
In order to enable the artist to form aoor- 
rect notion of the ez{rfoaion of a vessel, 
C4)unt Orioff caused a Russian fiigate to 
be blown up in his presence. The singu- 
larity of tnis model, many mondn be- 
fore spoken of in aH the European pa- 
pers, cmtributed not a litde to increase 
the fame of the picture. In 1783, he 
was presented to Ferdinand, king of Na- 
ples, whose foyor be soon gained. In 1786, 
he received an iq^pointment in N^les. 
When the revolutionaiy wars broke out, 
beni^ considered by the royalists as a re- 
pubhcan, and by the French as a royal- 
ist, he was obliged to retire to Florence, 
yrhen he died m 1806. His forte lay in 
painting scenes. To originality of com- 
position his pictures have no claim. He 
was also skiUlil in restoring pictures, 
as wpears by lus letter to lord Hamilton, 
SuWfuoddlavemieendla pittura (1788). 
He communicated fifagments to Gothe, on 
landscape painting, who published PK 

de$im eignm Ail^»6izm. This work con- 
tains anecdotes of king Ferdinand^ such 
as bis foimal distribution of pieces of wild 
boar's flesh among hisfitvorites, according 
to their rank, and other stories of the same 
sort, illustratinff the imbecility of the Nea- 
politan court, depicted, likewise, in Col- 
lingwood's Letters. 

Hackmatack; a termapi^ed, in many 
parts of the United States, to the Ameri- 
can laroh. (See Lardi,) 

Hackhkt ; a large and populous village 

and parish of England, in Hiddfeflex, two 
miles finom Londcm, to which it is ioined 
by several new rows and streets* It has 
a receptacle for lunatics. St John^s pal- 
ace, an ancient house in WelTs street, now 
let out in tenements to poor fomilies, is be- 
lieved to have been the residence of the 
prior of the order of St. John of Jerusa- 
lem. In this liarish, south of Seabridge, 
are the Temple millsi once belonging to 
the knights TemplaiB. Population 23,494. 

HACKifET ; a horse kept to let Tfaia 
term in Enflaiid is often shortened into 
haclt — JhaciuM coach; a coach kept to 
let In the Imited Stales, such coaches 
are commonly called hadti. Hackney 
coaches began first to ply, under this 
name, in Ix>ndon, in loS», when they 
were twenty in number. (See Coaehts.) 

HAnnoGK {raduB d^gis/biut). This fish 
appears in su^ shoals ss to cover a tract 
of many miles, keeping near the shore. 
In stormy weather, they will not take the 
bait The fishermen aaseit, that they then 
bury themselves in the mud, and thus 
shelter themselves till the agitation of 
the water has ceased. In proof of this, 
they allege that those which are taken 
immediately after a stonn are cover- 
ed with mud upon the back. The com- 
mon size of the haddock is 12 inches. It 
has a brown back, a silveiy belly, and a 
black lateral line. On each side, about 
the middle, is a large Mack spot, tlie prints, 
as is superstitiously believed, of the finger 
and thumb of St Peter, when be took Uie 
tribute money fixMn its mouth ; but, unfor- 
tunately, the haddock is not the only fish 
thus distinguished. It derives its specific 
name fiom eagt^m^ which was anciendy 
its common appellation. 

HAnEs. iSeePhdo.) 

Hamt ; tne title of a Mohanunedan 
who peifinms a pilgrimage to Mecca — a 
religious act, which every true believer is 
directed to perform, at least, once. Hat^ 
is the name of the celebration which takM 
place on the arrival of the caxavana of 
pilgrims at Mecca. (For an account of it, 
see the article ^^ntfat.) A venr interesting 
description of the Aoqf, and the nuniher- 
less pilgrims, together with Mecca an4 the 
Caaba, is to be found in Burekbanlt's 
Travels (2 vols. 4to., London). 

HAni^ET, John, vice-prerident of the royal 
society of London, who (in 1731) is said 
to have invented the reflecting quadrant 
The invention is also attributed to Thomas 
Godfivy, of Philadelphia. (See Gm^rey.) 

Hadkiatic. (See Adriatic,) 

H JCMA (from the Greek ^V? blood) ; a 
word which appe^v in a great number of 



Beieiitific compoundfl, pttticiilariy in bota* 
ay, minenlogy and medicine. 

Hj:matic8 (from aifuy Greek, tAe blood) ; 
the branch of physiology which treats of 
the blood. 

HjiMATiTE, Red, and Brown. (SeeJhm, 
Ores of.) 

Hjbmus, in ancient geography ; a chain 
of mountains ninning eastwardly from 
the ancient Orbelus to the Pontus Eiud- 
nue, and separating MoBsia from Thrace. 
It temnnated in a cape on the Blacic sea, 
called Hami ExtnrnOj at present Emmt- 
ia^ The modem name of the Hiemus 
isBtikan» (q. t.) Fable derives this name 
fiom Htemus, king of Thrace, who, con- 
adering himself equal to Jupiter, was 
changed, with his wife, who compared 
bersdf to Juno, into this mountain. 

HjtifKS, Thaddeus, a Bohemian natu- 
ral philosopher and tmvellbr, was invited 
by me Spanish government to accompany 
Maiaipina on his voyage round the world, 
in 17a^. He arrived at Cadiz 34 hours 
after the expedition bad set sail He fol- 
k>wed it in the next vessel that sailed to 
the river Plata, but was wrecked on the 
coast of Montevideo. H»nke swam safe 
ashore, with his Linneeus and his papers 
in his cap ; and, finding that the expedi- 
tion had afa^eady set sail, he determined to 
seek captain Malaspina in St Jago, by 
crossing the Andes. Without any knowl- 
edge of the language of the country, and 
without any assistance, this courageous 
predeoessor of Humboldt surmounted all 
obstacles, and succeeded in joining Mala- 
spina. Haenke never returned to Europe ; 
he died in America, peihape purposely de- 
tained. The royal Bohemian nanonal 
museum possesses his collections of natu- 
ral history. It published at Pnunie, in 
1825, Rdiquut Hanktana^ seu Ueserip' 
Hona ei Jkones Plantarum fUB in Amervca 
MeridL et Boretii^ in huvha Pkilippima el 
MarumiB ccUegU Thaddtus H(tnht (with 
12 engravings^ 

Hapf, an antiquated German word, 
ngnif^ingthe sea, and also a large bay, 
wmch appears in geographical names, as 
Curist^-f^. &dtTre,m French, as Hdvre 
de Gractj is derived from it ; and kctm, in 
tlie Danish, Kxttbenkam (Copenhajgen), 
port of merchants, is connected with it ; as 
are also the Swedish Aom or Aamn,aignifying 
pwi^nB in IWerfncfc^Aom (Frederic's port), 
the English havm, and the German hqfen. 

Hatiz, or Hafez, Mohammed Schems- 
eddin, one of the most celebrated and most 
charming poets of Perria, was bom at the 
beginning of the 14th century ; studied 
theology and law, sciences which, m Mo- 

hammedan countriei^ are intinuttely con- 
nected with each odier. The surname 
Hafiz was given him because he knew the 
Koran by heart He preferred independ- 
ent poverty, as a dervise, to a life at court, 
whither he was often invited by sultan Ah- 
med, who earnestly pressed him to visit 
Bagdad. He became a sheik, or chief of 
a mitemity of dervises, and died, probably 
at Shiraz, in 1389, where a sepulchral 
monument was erected to him, which 
has been often described by travellers; 
but, in October, 1895, an earthquake at 
Shiraz destroyed, among many other 
buildinga^ the monument of Hafiz, to- 
gether with that of the celebrated Sadi. 
Some idea of his style and sentiments 
may be obtained through the medium of 
translationB. Sur William Jones publish- 
ed translations of two of his odes, which 
are extremely beautifbl; besides which, 
may be noticed Nott*s Select Odes of Ha- 
fiz, translated into English Verse, with the 
Original Text (1787, 4to.), and Hindlev's 
Persian Lyrics, from the Divan-I-Hanz, 
with Paraphrases in Verse and Prose ( 1800, 
4to.) The songs of Hafiz were collected 
intoadiMm, after his death, which was 
published complete (CalcutUi, 1791 J, and 
translated into (German bv the celebrated 
Orientalist von Hammer (2 vols., Stuttgard, 
1812—1815). The poems of Hafiz are 
distinguished fer sprightliness and Anoc- 
reontic festivity. He is not unfi^qucnt- 
ly loud in praise of wine, love and pleas- 
ure. Some writers have sought a mystic 
meaninff in these verses. Feriaoun,Sururi, 
Sadi and others, have attempted to explain 
what they supposed to be the hidden sense. 

Haoar (u e., the Hranger) ; an Egyptian 
slave in Aorahara's house. She was pre- 
sented, by her mistress Sarah, to Abraham, 
in order that Abraham might not die 
without descendants, Sarah herself being 
barren. Hagar bore Ishmael ; but Sarah 
soon became jealous of her, and treat- 
ed her severely. Hagar fled, but after- 
wards returned, and, when Sarah bore 
Isaac, was sent away by Abraham, whO; 
the Bible informs us, had received a di- 
vine order to dismiss her. She sufierod 
much distress in the desert, but was re- 
lieved by an angel, and married her son 
to an Egyptian woman. (Getk i, 16, 21.) 
Saint Paul makes her the allegorical rep- 
resentation of the Israelites, who were de- 
prived of any participation in the gospel, 
as she with her son did not inherit any 
thing from Abraham. ( Gtd, iv. 21^ 

HAOEDoarr, Frederic von, a Gferman 

S>et, native of Hamburg, was bom in 1706. 
e received a good Mucadon, and dis- 



Syed taleiilB for poeoy wheo young; 
, becomiDg an orphan at the ase of 14, 
he found himBelf dependent on hia own 
exertiona for sufqport He, however, con- 
tinued fltudying in the aymnaaum at 
Hambuig, till 17^ when he removed to 
the university at Jena, aa a law student 
In 1729, he publiahed a amall collection of 
poems; and the same year he went to 
London, in the suite of the Danisli ambas- 
sador, baron von SoBlenthal, with whom 
he resided till 1731. He obtained, in 1733, 
the appointment of secretary to the Eng- 
lish mctoiy at Hamburg, which placed 
him in easy circumstances. It was not 
till 1738 that he again appeared before the 
public as an author, when he printed the 
tirst book of his Fables, which were much 
admired. In 1740, he published the Man 
of Letters, and, ui 1743, his celebrated 
poem On Happiness, which established his 
reputation as a moral writer. The second 
b<x>k of hia Fables appeared in 1750 ; and 
he afterwards produced many lyric pieces 
in the style of Prior. He died of dropsy 
in 1754. Wieland, in the prefoce to his po- 
etical worics, terms him the Gtrman Horace, 
HAOXN,Frederic Heniy von der,profe8Bor 
in the university of Berlin, was bom Feb. 
19, 1780, at Schmiedeberg, in the Uker- 
maik. In his 18th year, he went to Halle 
to study law, but Woirs lectures won him 
over to the belles-lettres, in the study of 
which he was still more confirmed by the 
turn which German literature received 
from Schiller, Gothe, Novalis, Tieck. In 
1807, Hacen published, in Berlin, a collec- 
tion of old popular soup. On his travels, 
he became acquainted with many of the 
most eminent literati, and particularly 
Eschenburg, who liberaUy permitted him 
to make use of his important collections. 
In 1808, he published, vnth Biisching, 
Gennan Poems of the Middle Ages (1 voK, 
4to.); in 1809, Das Buck dor L&hty a col- 
lection of old German tales, in prose; 
1809^1812, the Mimmmfur alideuMie 
Liieratur wnd Kunatj in connexion with 
several other literati In 1810, he was 
appointed professor of the German lau- 
guaffe and literature, at the new university 
of Berlin. In 1812, he published, with 
B<i8chinff,the Gnmdriss ziur GtschkhU der 
aUdeuUdcn Dichtkunst^ and lectured on the 
J^tbdungmUcd, In 1811, he was appoint- 
ed professor in Breslau. At a later period, 
he lectured on the old German and north- 
em mythology; but liis most important 
work was a new edition of the Hddenlmck. 
(q. V.) In 1812, he published a collection 
of the songs of the Edda ; and, afterwards, 
a body of old northern Sagas ; and, in 1814 

—1815^ tratuiatioiis of the ff^BBma and 
JViflunga Sam (originally taken from the 
Geraoan), and of the Wblkmga Saga. He 
then travelled in Italy and the south of 
Germany, partlv hi company with pro- 
fessor Raumer, the historian. In 1820, he 
publislied his 3d edition of the Atbe/im- 
gtnUcdL In 1823) he went to Paris, to make 
use of the manuscripts of the Manessean 
coUdGtion of 140 old German poets. In 
1824, he was a«;ain appointed pitifossor at 
Berlm. He has published numeiouB 
other woriss illustrative of okl Geranan 

HAOEayJoseph; bom about 1750,at Milan, 
of a German &inil^ ; a distinguished Orien- 
talist, professor of the Oriental languages 
in the univenit^ of Pavia. He first dlaSn- 
ffuished himself in the hteraiy worid by the 
discoverv of the finud of a Sicilian monk, 
named VeUa, who had attempted to im- 
pose on the court of Paleraao by some 
forged documents relative to the histoiy 
of Sicily. Hager left Palermo for Eng- 
land, where he in vain endeavored to 
excite the attention of the public in fiivor 
of his researches concerning Chinese lite- 
rature. His jMetensions as an OrieiUal 
scholar were questioned by doctor Anto- 
nio Montucd, an Italian resident in that 
country, who was enmred in similar pur- 
suits. Hager published an Explanation 
of the elementaiy Characters of the Chi- 
nese, with an Analysis of their ^mbols 
and Hieroglyphics (London, 1801, folio)| 
and a Dissertation on the newly-discov- 
ered Babylonian Inscriptions (1^1, 4to.). 
He then went to Pans, where he pro- 
duced the following works: ibe Monu- 
ment of Yu, the most ancient Inscription 
in China (1802, folio) ; a Description of the 
Chinese Medals in the imperial Cabinet 
of France (1805» 4to.); the Chinese Pan- 
theon, or a Comparison of the religious 
Rites of the Greeks widi those of the Chi- 
nese (1806) 4to.). From Paris Hager re- 
moved to Milan, where he publi^ed, in 
Italian, lUustradons of an Onental Zodiac, 
preserved in the Cabinet of Medals at 
Paris, and which was discovered near the 
Site of ancient Babylon (1812, folio). In 
his ^Imtere, he intended to show that the 
Turks were formerly coimected with tlie 
Chinese. His Observations on the Re- 
semblance between the Language of die 
Russians and that of the Romans (Milan, 
18171 is full of hypodieses. Julius Klap- 
roth has shown that HagePs works, though 
they have great merit, c^nuUn gross mis- 
takes. He died at Milan, June 27, 1820. 

Hagerstown; a post-town of Main- 
land, and capital of the county of Wash- 



iogtoD, OD Antietam cr^^ 69 milee N. W. 
of WadiingUMi, 71 W. by N. of Baltimore ; 
populatioii, in 1890, 2690. (For the jpopu- 
iatioD in 1890, see Omied SUOa.) It is a 
pleasant and flourishiDg town, regulaily 
laid out and well built, a great part of the 
houses being of brick or stone. It is situ- 
ated in a ferale and well cultivated tract 
of country, which is one of the best dis- 
tricts in the U. States for raising wheat 
The town contains a court-house, a iail, a 
/ town-house, a masonic hall, an academy, 
and five houses of pubUc worship, for 
German Lutheians, German Calvinists, 
Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, and 
Methodists, one each. 

Haoaai ; one of the minor prophets, 
who, immediately after the return of the 
Jews from exile, urged the rebuilding of 
the temple, as a condition of the divine 
Uessiug for the new state. (Exra v. 12 ; 
vi 4.) He therefore lived in the time of 
Darius Hystaspes, Ezra and Zacharias. 
Some critics have thought that the writ- 
higs now bearing his name are only sum- 
maries of his works, because, they say, 
they allow a poverty of ideas and imagina- 
tion. Hie best modem edition of Haggai 
is in Rosenmuller's Sehd. in Vet. TuLj 
p. 7, voL iv, where the fonncr commenta- 
ries are also to be found. 

HAOioeaAPHA (<ix<o(, holy). The Jews 
divide the Old Testament into three parts : 
1. the law, which comprehends the five 
books of Moses; 2. the prophets; and, 
3. the writings termed by them Cetubmj 
and by the Greeks Hagiographic^ whence 
the word has been intrwluced mto the 
English language. The CetMm comfM^ 
hended the bw>ks of Psalms^ Proverbs, 
Job, Daniel, Ezra, Neheraiah, Chronicles, 
Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and 
Esther. The Hagiogreqiha were distin- 
guished from the propAiecies, because the 
matter contained in them was not re- 
ceived by the way of ptrophecy, but simply 
by direction of the Spirit. 

Hague, the (Gennan, Haag; Dutch, 
Grtttfenhage]\ a beautiful town in South 
HoUand, 10 mile0 S. S. W. Leyden, and 
30 S. W. Amsterdam, and nearly 3 from 
the sei^coast It yields to few cities in 
Europe in the beauor of its streets, the 
atatelmefls of its buildingB, and the pleas- 
antness of its situation. The principal 
streets of the Hague are wide, straight and 
handsome. There are here six squares 
and a fine park, all of which form pleas- 
ant promenades. Of the pubhc buildings, 
the old palace is an enormous pile, pre- 
sentine specimens of almost eveir species 
of architecture. The mansioD of the fiun- 
vou TI. 12 

ily of Bentinck, that of prince Maurice, 
and the new palace begun by William III, 
are all deserving of attention. The num- 
ber of churches is 14$ and there are 
also several charitable institutions. The 
ffreatest defect in this pleasant town arises 
mm the neglect of the canals, several of 
which are stagnant, and emit a disagree- 
able smell, which forms a strange contrast 
to the general cloanlinesB of the place. 
On the south-east of the Hague, at a dis- 
tance of about a mile and a hali^ is the 
castle of Ryswick, which eaye its name to 
the well known treaty of 16^. The Hague 
became, in 1250, the residence of the gov- 
ernors or counts of Holland. It sufiSred 
greatly in its importance after the erection 
of Holland into a kingdom by Bonaparte. 
Before the late revolution^ it was, altei^ 
nately with Brussels, the residence of the 
king and place of meeting of the states. 
(See Miherkmda.) Population, 44,000. 

Hahn, Philip Matthew, a celebrated 
mechanical genius, bom in 1739, at 
Schunhausen, was fond, when a veiv 
younff boy, of making experiments with 
sun-iSals. In his 13th year, finding m his 
fiither's library an accoimt of the mode of 
constructing them, he immediately set 
about making one. At the afpe of 17, he 
went to the university of Tfibingen, where 
he spent his leisure hours in making 
sun-oials and speaking-trumpets, grinding 
glasses, &c. To leam the construction 
of vratchesjhe lived upon bread and water 
till he had saved money enough to enable 
him to purchase one. He continued his 
labon with unremitting assiduity, and 
eventually produced works of great in- 
genuity ; as, a clock showing the course 
of the earth and the other ptenets, as well 
as that of the moon and the other satellites, 
and their eccentricities ; a calculating ma- 
chine ; and many others. He died in 1790. 

Hahnemani^ Samuel Christian Frede- 
ric, doctor of inediciuo, and counsellor of 
the duke of Anhalt-Cothen, was bora 
April 10, 1755, at Meissen, in Saxony. 
His &ther educated him with much care. 
While at the university of Leipsic, Hahne- 
mann was obliged to support himself by 
translating English medical books, and 
thus even provided himself witli means to 
continue his medical studies at Vienna. 
After a year's residence in this city, he 
was appointed physician, librarian and 
superintendent of a museum of coins, by 
baron von Brflckenthal, governor of Tran- 
sylvania. After some years, he returned 
to Germany, studied another year in £r- 
jangen, and took his degree of doctor of 
physic in 1779, on which occasion he de- 



ibiided a diflBalatkm, Omipeclia 4^cfmim 
MoamodkonmL HetfaeDmctnedatMans- 
reUy Dessau and Magdebuig. He afier- 
waids relinouiabed the practice, and de- 
Toted himaelf to chenustiy, and to writing 
on medical subjecta. At this time, he con* 
eeived the first idea of the mtem which he 
afterwards developed. While engaged in 
translating Cullen's Materia Medica, he 
was dJBHatiHfied with the explanation of 
the antipyretic principles in the Peruvian 
bariE, given by that celebrated physician, 
and he determined to discover, by experi- 
ments, on what the power of Uie ban, in 
intermittent fevers, depended. He took it, 
in considerable quantity, while in perfect 
health, and found tliat it produced an 
ague omilar to the intermittent marsh 
fever. He seized upon this hint of nature 
in his practice, which he had again com- 
menced in the insane hospital in Geor- 
genthal, at Brunswick and Konigslutter, 
where, by manjr experiments of the effiscts 
of simple medicines on himself and his 
femily, he acquired so much knowledge 
of their nature, that he effected many 
remariuible cures by homoBopathic ap- 
plic^ions. The physicians and apotheca- 
ries immediate^ began to persecute him, 
and, at last, e^ted his removal by au- 
thority, on the ground of his having vio- 
lated die law fert)idding phvsicians to 
furnish themselves the medicines that 
they prescribed, which, in his way of pro- 
ceeding, was necessaiy. He then prac- 
tised in di^rem places in the north of 
Germany; and, at Torgau, he wrote his 
Orgmum tkr rationdkn Haikunde (Dres- 
den, 1810). A dispute was carried on, fer 
13 yean, on the merits of his homceo- 
pathic system. In Leipac, where he 
affam defended a theos, De HdUborUmo 
Vderwn (1812), in order to obtain the jviv- 
ileses of a doctor in Leipeic, and taught 
and practised medicine, with success, fer 
11 yean, the excitement respecting his 
system became, at length, so great, that 
government, yielding to the petition of 
tne apothecaries, remmded Hahnemann of 
the above-mentioned law, fori>idding phy- 
sicians to administer medicines prepared 
by themselves — a law quite common in 
Germany. He could, therefore, no longer 
practise medicine, in that city, acoordrng 
to his mtem; and duke Ferdinand of 
Anhalt-Cothen offered him an asylum. 
In 1821, Hahnemann went to Cothen, 
where he now residea He has endeav- 
ored to cure the most inveterate and pro- 
tracted diseases, during the last^six years, 
by a new application of the homoeopathic 
remedies; but, for want of a clinical hos- 

pital, has not been aUe, properiy, tc 
exhibit his system. Hahnemann^ auto- 
biographv to 1791 is contained in El- 
wert'a ^adtrieMm von danLAen und den 
SdurOten Detdickar AfrzU (Hildesheim, 
1799). Among his woriu are, DU fetui- 
zeidien dar Gate tend VerfUsckimg der ArZ" 
nebmttd (Dresden, 1787); Der Coffee m 
eemenffirkungeniheip^lQCSy OfhisOr- 
^ponon, a 2d and improved edition appeared 
m 1819(Dresden), under the title Oiganon 
do- HeSOnmst, and, in 1824, the Sd edition 
(translated into French, English and Ital- 
ian)— IMu ArxneimUuaekre (6 vols., 1811 
to 1821, 2d edition, enlaned, Dresden, 1822 
etseq. {&w Homaapaihf.f 

Hai {sea) ; a Chinese word, ap 
in many geographical words ; as, j 

Hail appean to be a species of snow, 
or snowy rain, which has undergone sev- 
eral congelations and superficial meltings, 
in its passa^ through different zones of 
the atmosphere, some temperate and oth- 
en fit>zeii. It is generally formed in sud- 
den alternations of the fine season. Hail- 
stones are often of considerable dimen- 
sions, exceeding sometimes the length of 
an inch. They sometimes fiill with a ve- 
locity of 70 feet a second, or about 50 
miles an hour. Their peat momentum, 
arising finom this velocity, rendere them 
veiy destructive, particulariy in hot cli- 
matea. They not onhr beat down the 
crops, and strip trees of^ their leave^ finats 
ana branches, but sometimes kill even 
laige beasts and men.- The phenomena 
att^idingthe fermation and fall of hail are 
not well understood. But it is certain 
that they are connected with electricity. 
This feet we find noticed by Moses, who 
relates that **the Lord sent thunder and 
hail, and the fire ran along upon the 
ground" ( Gen, ix, 23). This has been sup- 
posed to account fer the great variations 
of temperature to which tne hail has evi- 
dently been subjected, in its passage 
through the different strata of the atmos- 
phere. Artificial hail can be produced by 
an electrical apparatus, and volcanic erup> 
tions are ofien followed by a fell of hail- 
stones of great size. Hail-rods have been 
erected, at the suggestion of Volts, in 
countries much exposed to the ravages of 
hail-storms, on the same principle asligfat- 

* in Gennany, there is a mixture beuinff his 
name, which is liaed particularly to discover wheth- 
er wine cootains lead, as spurious Wines oAen do. 
Its composition is as follows : 1 dram of sulphate of 
lime, and the same quantity of tartaric acid, are 
dissolved in 16 ounces of cold distilled water, well 
shaken and corked. AAerpourin^ofrthepure liquid, 
1 dram of pore concentrated munatic acid IB added. 



Ding-iodB. Thejr conriBt of Mty poles, 
tipped with metaUic poiiitai and having me- 
tallic wixea c<Mnmunieatingwith the earth. 
By thus subtracting the superabundant 
electricity from clouds, he imagined diat 
the fixmaticm of hail might be prevented. 
These rods are used in Germany and 
Switzerland, but their success is not pro- 
portionate to the expectations enterlamed 
of them. The violence with which hail 
is discharged upon the earth, imder an ob- 
lique an^e, and independently of the 
wmd, would be explained by Volta's sup- 
position, that two electrical clouds are 
drawn towards each other in a vertical di- 
recti<Mi, and by their shock produce haSL 
which, by the law of the compoaidon of 
forces, would be projected in the diagonal 
of its gravity, and of the result of the di- 
rection of the clouds. In Germany, there 
are companies which insure against dam- 
age by haiL 

Hajuluto ; the salutation or accosting of 
a ship at a distance, which is usually per- 
formed with a speakinff-trumpet ; the first 
expression is Hoa, the inip ahomfy to which 
she answers Holloa ; then follow the requi- 
site questions and replies, &c 

Hainaut, or Hjluiault (Htntrgowen 
in Dutch, Htnuegau in Gennan); a prov- 
ince of the Netherlands, bounded north by 
East Flanders and South Brabant, east by 
Namur, south and south-west by France, 
and north-west hy Vfeefi Flanders ; popu- 
lation, 4^,819. It sends eight memb^ns 
1o the second chamber of the states gene- 
ral; the provincial estates consist of 90 
memberB^ Square miles, 1683. It is di^ 
vided into three districts, — ^Mons, the cap- 
ital, Toumay and Charleroy. It is gen- 
erally level, with beautiful undulating 
plaii^ and a fruitful soiL Grain is abun- 
dant, pastures excellent ; minerals, — iron, 
lead, marble, but especiallv coal ; in the 
eastern part are considerable forests. The 
principal lifers are the Scheldt, the Selle, 
the Haine, the Sambre and the Dender. 
In the time of the French repubtic and 
empire, it belonged to the department of 
Jemappes. Part of it was formerly under 
the Austrian government, and was called 
AuAnaa HaSimiU. 

Haiu ; the fine, threadlike, more or less 
elastic substance, of various form and 
color, which constitutes the covering of 
die skin, particularly of the class of mam- 
malia. It is of a vegetative nature, and 
appears also in animals of the lower or- 
ders, andf indeed in all animals which 
have a distinct epidermis ; therefore in in- 
sects. In the crustaceous animals, it some- 
times appears in particular places, as the 

foet, on the maigiDB ci the sheD, on the 
outakleof the jaws, and grows in tuAs. 
Hair is most distinctly developed in those 
insects— as caterpillarB, spiders, bees,&c — 
which have asottskin : in this case, it even 
appeara of a featheiy form ; and butteffiies 
are covered all over with a coat of woolly 
hair, of the most variegated and beautiful 
colore. The same variety and brillianGy 
are displayed in the feathen of birda^ 
which may be considerod as analogous to 
hair, whilst the two other classes of ani- 
mals — ^fishes and reptiles-^ave no hair 
whatever. No species of mammalia is 
without hair in an adult state, not even the 
UtacecL, In quadrupeds, it is of the most 
various conformatioo, fifom the finest wool 
to the quills of a poreupine or the bristles 
of the nog. The haur, which is spread 
over almost the whole of the skin, is com- 
paratively short and soft. On particular 
parts, a longer, thicker and stronger kind 
IS found ; as, for instance, the mane, fot- 
locks and tail of the horse, the hon^ mane, 
the covering of man*s occiput, bis beard, 
the b«trd of goats. Thecolorof the hair 
generally afibrds an external characteristic 
of the species or variety ; but climate, food 
and age produce great changes in it The 
human body is naturaUy covered with long 
hair only on a few parts; yet the parts 
which we should generally describe as 
destitute of it, produce a fine, short, color- 
less, sometimes hardly perceptible hair. 
The only places entirely finee uom it are 
the palms of the hands and the soles of 
the foet; but the body of the msle often 
produeee habr like that of the head, on the 
breast, diouhlen, arms, &c Each hair 
originates in the cellidar membrane of the 
skin, from a small cylindrical root, which 
is surrounded by a covering, or capsule, 
fiunished with vessels and nerves, called 
the hvXb. The root is tubular, and con- 
tains a clear gelatinous fluid. The pulp 
on which the hair is formed, passes 
through the bottom of the bulb, in order 
to enter the tube of the hair, into which it 
penetrates for a short distance, never, in 
common haiiS, reaching as far as the ex- 
ternal surfiice of the skin. Acconting to 
Yauquelin, black hair oonststs o^ I. an 
animal matter, which constitutes the 
greaterpart; 2. a white concrete oil, m 
small quantity; 3. another oil, of a gray- 
ish-green color, more abundant than the 
former; 4. iron, the state of which in the 
hair is uncertain ; 5. a few particles of ox- 
ide of manganese ; 6. phoq)liate of Ume ; 
7. carbonate of lime, in very small <}uanti- 
ty ; 8. silex, in a conspicuous quantity ; 9. 
laedy, a considerable quantity of sulphur. 



The iame experiments show that red hair 
differs from black only in containinff a red 
(Ml inatead of a blackish-green ou; and 
that white hair difR)iB from both these on- 
ly in t^ oil beinff nearly colorleas, and in 
containing phospnate of magnesia, which 
10 not found in them. The human hair 
varies according to age, sex, country and 
ether circumstances. The fcBtus has, in 
the fifth month, a fine haiiy covering, 
which is shed soon afterbirth, and appears 
again at the age of puberty. With the 
seventh month, the first traces of hair on 
the head are visible in the embryo. At 
iMrth, an in&nt generally has Ught hair. 
It alwavs grows darker and sticer with 
age. The same is the case with the eye- 
lashes and eyebrows. At the age of pu- 
berty, the luur grows in the armpits, &c., 
of both sexes, and on the chin of the 
male. At a later period, it begins gradu- 
ally to lose its moisttire and pliability, and 
finaUy turns gray, or falls out. These ef- 
fects are produced by the scan^ supply 
of the moisture above mentioned, and a 
mortification of the root. But age -is not 
the only cause of this change ; dissipa- 
tion, grie^ anxiety, sometimes turn the hair 
my m a veiy short time. It becins to 
fidl out on the top of the head. The hair 
of men is stronger and stifier ; that of fe- 
males longer (even in a state of natwreL 
thicker, and not so liable to be shea. 
Blumenbach adopts the following nation- 
al differences of nair: — 1. brown or chest- 
nut, sometimes approaching yellow, some- 
times black, sofl, full, waving ; this is the 
hahr of most nations of central Europe ; 
3. black, stiff, straight and thin, the hair 
of the Mongolian and native American 
races; 3. black, soft, curly, thick and full 
hair; most of the inhabitants of the South 
Sea ifllandB have it ; 4. black, curly wool, 
belonging to the negro race. The hair, 
with the nails, hoofs, noms, &c., is one of 
the lower productions of aumal life. 
Hence, in a healthy state, it is insensible, 
and the pain whicli we feel when hairs 
are puUed out arises fiiom the nerves 
which Bunround the root It grows again 
after bein^ cut, and, like plants, grows the 
more rapidly if the nutritive matter is 
drawn to the skin by cutting ; yet, in a 
diseased state, and particularly in the dis- 
ease called the plica poUmicOj it becomes 
sensitive and innamed to a certain degree, 
bleeds, and is clotted by a secretion of 
lymph, which coagulates into large lumps. 
Hair not only serves as a cover or orna- 
ment to the body, but exercises an impor- 
tant influence on absorption and per- 
iq>iration ; where the hair is thick, the per- 

spiration is freer. If the root is destroy- 
ed, there is no means of reproducing the 
hair ; but if it fidls out, without the root 
being destroyed, as is often the caae after 
nervous feyenf the hair grows out again 
of itself If the skin o£ the head is veiy 
dry and scurvy, mollifying means will t» 
of service ; strengthening ointments 
should be applied, m case the skin is 
weak. This shows how littie reason 
there is in recommending oils in all cases, 
while Uie fiilliue out of the hair may be 
owin^ to veiy jlifierent causes. Though 
hair, m a healthy state, grows only on the 
external parts of the bc^y, caaes are not 
unfiiequent in which it is fonned inside of 
the body in diseased parts. How much 
the hair differs in its character from the 
other parts of the body (being, as we have 
said, of a vegetable nature), n strikingly 
shown from the circumstance that it con- 
tinues to grow after death. As the hair 
is a very conspicuous object, and capal>le 
of much alteration, the arrangement of it 
has always been one of the moat impor- 
tant duties of the toilet The comb is one 
of those ample and yet useful inventions, 
which must have naturally suggested 
th«nselves In the eaify periods of our race. 
(See Comb.) For some rules respecting the 
dressing of the hair, and an account of 
some curious customs connected with it, 
we refer the reader to the Young Ladies* 
Book (London, 1890; Boston and Phila- 
delphia, 1831). The ancient Helnews es- 
teemed fine hair a great beauty, as several 
passages of Scripture ^ow ; and baldness 
18 even threatened as a sien of God's an- 
ger. (Jbawifc in, 17, 24|. The Mosaic law 
gives rules respecting tne hair (third book 
of Moses, xix, 27). The Hebrew women 
paid very great attention to their hair ; 
plaited it, confined it with gold and silver 
pins, and adorned it with precious stones. 
{baiah iii, 22). The misfortune of Absa- 
lom shows that men also vahied lonff fine 
hair highly. (2 Sanwdj xiv, 26.) Strong 
hair, as many passages show, was consid- 
ered a proof^of Eftrength, and means were 
used to strengthen it ; it was anointed 
with perfumed oiL According to Jose- 
phus, tlie body-guard of Solomon had 
their hair powdered with gold dust, which 
j^littered in the sunshine. Artificial hair 
18 a very early invention. It was used by 
the Greeks and Carthaginians, and par- 
ticulariy by the Romans, among whom 
artificial tresises were sold. In the time of 
Ovid, the Romans imported much blond 
hair, wliicli was then fashionable, from 
Germany ; and those Roman ladies who 
did not wear wigs, and yet wished to con- 



ftnn to the feahkn, powdered their hair 
withakind of gold dust The artof dye- 
ing hair has been ascribed to Medea, and 
waa, of oourae, much pmctised by the 
Ronuma (For more inrormadon respect- 
ing this point, see fidttiser's Sabma, or 
Morning Scenes at the Toilette of a Ro- 
man Lady (written in German, and trens- 
lated into Ftench)— a woifc of great inter- 

Amon^ the FnnkiBb kinga, it was at fint 
a priinaeire of the princes of the blood 
to wear Uie hair lonff; and, on the de- 
thronement of a Prankish prince, his hav 
was cut, and he was sort mto a convent 
Long hair soon became a privilege of the 
noUlit^. Women, in the b^rinning of die 
Prankish monarchy, wore thehair loose, 
but soon aAer began to wear eras. Prom 

) A hair-dresser was called, in Greek, the time of Clovis, the French noUhty 

go» Tp»jg» Wot, Tpfyffp^pgyy ; in Latin, cwijfo, wore short hah*; but, as they became le» 

• u^ /. ,. .^_._ :. martial, they allowed the hav to grow 

k>nger. In the tune of Francis I, kii^ of 
France, long hair was worn at court; but 
the kinjp^, proud of his wound on the head, 
himself wore short hair, in the Italian and 
Swiss ftshion, which soon became gene- 
ral. In the reign of Louv Xllf, the 
ftshion of wearing long hair was revived, 
and, as it became destrable to have the 
hair curl, the wigs were also restored. 
We hasten to close this histonr of ftshion 
and folly, lest our article should become as 
long as one of the peruques of the begin- 
ninff of the last century, or that of the 
k>rd gipnoelior of England. It was re- 
servedTTor the French revolution, which 
overturned so many institutions of the 
^good old time," to bring back Europe 
to natural and unpowdered ban*. The 
French, the leaders in almost all fashions, 
are preeminent in hair-dressing. We 
may remark that, in the north of Amer- 
ica, haur does not grow so full as in 
Eiurope, and hence much more artificial 
hair is worn. In southern Asia, the men 
turn their whole attention to the beard, 
and shave the head. But the women cul- 
tivate their hair with great care, and dye 
and ornament it in eveiy possible way. 
The African tribes ffeneruly grease jthehr 
hair. (See the tmvefc of Cai]16 and others.) 

Hair's Brkadtr ; a measure of length, 
being the 48th part of an inch. 

Hake {gadus maiueciiul This fish be- 
longs to tnat division of the genus which 
has two dorsal fin& In shape, it is not 
very uidike a pike, and has hence been 
termed the na-pikt by the French and 
luliana The mouth is larse, and is fur- 
nished with double rows of sharp teet)j. 
The back part of the tongue, the palate, 
and the throat, are also armed with sharp 
spines or teeth. Hakes are very abundant 
in particular situations on the Lish coast ; 
but, after appearing for a number of years, 
they seem to take a dislike to their accus- 
tomed haunts, and seek others. This is 
not peculiar to the hake, as the herring 
and various other fish are in the habit of 
relinquishing their stations for a conoder- 
able time, and then reiqppearing. Natu- 

the fomaje havr-dreaser, oma- 
frtx. Cireular pins of sUver have been 
found in Hereulaneum, which served to 
keep together the dififerent rows of cuiis 
ananged all round the head; dus being, 
amonff the Roman ladies, the most gene- 
ral ftsiuon ; and the higher the hair could 
be towered up, the better ; though they ako 
w«e the S^partan knot behind (for a well- 
formed head, a veiy ^pncefid and beoominff 
dreas). They likewise wore hancing curu 
on the nde. Fashion also regulated the 
dress of the hair of the men, in the later 
times of Rome. It was cut, for the first 
time, when a boy had attained his seventh 
year, and the second time when he was 
fourteen years old. On the introduction 
of Chrisdanily, the aposdes and fothers 
of the church preachei against the pre- 
vailing foshion of dressing the hair. It 
became more common for men to cut the 
hair short, at least it was considered more 
proper; hence the clergy soon wore the 
nair quite short, and afterwards even 
shaved their heads in part (See TVn- 
l) But even the excommunications 

fulminated in the middle ages against long 
hair and the extravagant ornamenting of 
ii, could not put a stop to the custom. It 
must be remembered that, among the an- 
cient Greeks and Romans, cutting the hair 
was a great dishonor. Hence prisoners 
of war, and daves who had committed 
any offence, had their heads shaved or 
hmr cut. With the Lombards, it was a 
punishment for theft under a certain small 
sum ; and, according to the old law of the 
Saxons (SachseMpitf^ for stealing three 
shillings in the day time. Hence 3ie for- 
mer expression in Gepnan^, jurisdiction 
of Ae Mn and hmr, ihat is, jurisdiction 
over minor ofifences, the highest pun- 
ishment of which was flogging and 
cutting the hair; and jwisduhon qftiie 
nedt and handy ibst is, jurisdiction over 
aggravated offences, with the right to 
punish by death. The ancient Gauls 
wore their hair short, but the Franks k)ng, 
and combed back, or in a knot behind : the 
magistrates wore it on the top in a tuft, as 
North American Indmns still do. 
12 • 



FflJjsts have not given any flatiaftctoiy ex- 
planation of thiB singularity in the migra- 
tion of fiflh. It may, in some instances, 
be occasioned by the close pursuit of an 
unufloal number of predatoiy fish, to 
avoid the voiaci^ of which, they may be 
driven upon shores that they were formerty 
unaccustomed to frequent ; or a deficiency 
of their usual food mav force them to 
abandon a residence where they could 
no longer be supported. 

Hakim ; a Turkish word, originaUy sig- 
nifyinff sage^ phSosophar^ and then, v«ry 
naturally, a pkysicianj as medicine and 
natural ptiiloeophy, among all nations in a 
low degree of civilization, ane the same. 
Hakim hoM is the physician of the sul- 
tan, diat is to say, the chief of the physi- 
cians, always a Turit; whilst the true phy- 
sicians in the seragho under him are west- 
em Europeans, (Seeks and Jews. Under 
Achmet I, there were 21 physicians in the 
seraglio, besides 40 Jews. How well a 
Chiutian physician is received in the 
Tujkish empire, in comparison with other 
infidels, may be seen from the llp^els in 
that country ; for instance, in Madden's. 

HAKI.UTT, Richard, one of the earliest 
English coUectors of v<y^ages and mari- 
time journals, was bom m 1553. He en- 
tered Christ-church colle^ Oxford, and 
became so eminent for bis acquaintance 
with cosmography, that he was appointed' 
public lecturer on that science. In 1582, 
be published a small Ck>Uection of Voy- 
ages and Discoveries, which formed the 
basb of a subsequent work, on a larger 
scale. About 15o4, he went to Paris, and 
staid there five years. After his return 
home, he vras chosen, by air Walter Ra- 
leigh, a member of the corporation of 
counsellois, assistants and adventurers, to 
whom he asenj^ned his patent for the pros- 
ecution of discoveries in America. In 
consequence of this appointment, he pre- 
pared for the press his collection of The 
prindpal Navications, Vcmijges and Dis- 
coveries of the Engiisb mtion, made by 
8ea, or over Land, vrithin the Compass of 
these 1500 Years. The first volume, in 
folio, was published in 1589, and the third 
and last in 1600. Besides narratives of 
nearfy 290 vovages, these volumes com- 
prise patents, lettezs, instractions and oth- 
er documents, not readily to be found else- 
where. He died in 1616, and was inter- 
red in Westminster abbey. He published 
several other geographical works ; among 
them is Virffinia richly valued, by the De- 
scription of Florida (London 1609, 4to.]. 
An edition of his works was published 
in London, 180^-1812, 5 vols. 4to. The 

manuscript papen of Hakluyt were used 
by Purchas. (q. v.) 

Halbaro. or Halbert, in the art of 
war, a well known wefl4K>n carried by the 
secgeants of foot, is a sort of spear, the 
ahm of which is about ax feet long. Its 
head is amied with a steel point, edged on 
both sides ; but, besides this sharp point, 
which is in a line with the shaft, there is a 
cross piece of steel, flat, and pointed at 
both ends, but generally with a cutting- 
edge at one extremity, and a bent shaqi 
point at the other, so that it serves equally 
to cut down or .push with. 

Halbe&stadt, a Prussian city, in the 

S evince of Saxony and government of 
agdeburg, has 14700 mhabitants, and 
manufactures cloth, linen and leather. It 
was the camtal of the ei-^ievani principal- 
ity of Hatberstadt It has 10 churches, 
besides the cathedral of St Stephen. It 
is a place of great antiquity, and is sup- 
posed to have been built by the Chemsci. 
The buildings are in the Gothic style, and 
of antioue appearance. A remarkable 
diet of the German empue v?as held here 
in 1134. It is a walled city. Lat. SPSS' 
Sy' N. ; Ion. IP 4f E. 

Halde, John Baptiste du, a learned 
Jesuit, was bom at Paris in 1674. He 
was intrusted by his order with the care 
of collecting and arrang^ig the letters sent 
by the society's missionaries from the va- 
rious parts of the world. He was also 
secretarv to father Le Telfier, confessor to 
Louis XIV. He died in 1743; much es- 
teemed for his mildness, piety and patient 
industry. He is chiefly known as the ed- 
itor of the Ldtrea Mfantea d curieusts, 
fiom the 9th to the S6th collection, to 
which he vnt>te useful prefaces ; and also 
for his compilation entitled Description 
Jnatoriaue, giognmhique, et physique, de 
VEmptre de laCkmeydde la TarUarU Cfti- 
noise (4 vols, folio, Paris, 1735). The lat- 
ter work, which, with some retrenchments, 
has been translated into English, is deemed 
the most complete general account of that 
vast empire wnich has appeared in Europe. 

Haudenwah o. Christian ; bom May 14, 
1770 ; one of the most distinguished livins 
engravers of Crerman^. He was obliged, 
when a boy, to labor m the vineyarjs and 
on the fields of fais father, a surgeon at 
Durlacli. After he vras admitted to the 
drawing school of his native place, he 
madegreat exertions to improve himself. 
In 1796, he received an invitation to 
Dessau, from the chalcognphic society, 
where he remained eight years, devoting 
himself to aquatinta) but, at a later peri- 
od, he was recalled, by his sovereign^ to 



Gariflnihe. Since that tune, be has ra- 
nged aauatintft, and now woiks only 
with the buiin and the etehmg-needle. 
In the Mugie M^^oUim are two land- 
acapes of Ruisdael and Poufliin, one after 
Chuide Lonaine, and one after EbheLoner, 
eiupraved by him. 

Halb, in the sea lanfpiace, aignifiea putt. 

Haij^ air Matthew, an emmeot Engiiah 
judce, waa bom at Alderle^, in Gloucee- 
tenhiie, in 1609. He receiyed hie early 
education under a Puritanical cleigyman, 
and afterwards became a student at Hag- 
dalen Hal), Oxford, whence he remov^ 
in his 21st year, to Lincoln's Inn. He is 
aaidtobave studied 16 hours daily, ex- 
tending his researches to natural pniloso- 
pliT, DDMthematics, history and divmity, as 
wdl as the sciences more immediately 
connected with his profession. He was 
called to the bar preyiously to the com- 
mencement of the civil war ; and, in the 
conflict of parties which took place, his 
moderation, accompanied, as it waS| by 
penonal integrity, and akill in his profes- 
sion, secured him the esteem of both roy- 
alists and parliamentarians in his own 
time. Imitating Atticus rather than Cato, 
he adhered to me triumphant party, and 
scrapled not to take the covenant, aiid be- 
come a lay-member of the femous eccle- 
fliastical assembly at Westminster; yet he 
acted as counsel for the aoccbed on the 
trials of the earl of Straftbrd, archbishop 
Laud, and even of the king himself. In 
165S^ he was placed on the committee ap- 
pointed to consider of the proprieQr of re- 
nmning the law. In 1654, he became a 
iudge of the common bench (the former 
kimr's bench), in which station he display- 
ed firmness of principle sufficient to give 
ofkoce to the protector; and, finding he 
could not retain his office with honor, he 
reftised to preside again on criminal triala 
After the deatii of Oliver Cromwell, he 
refused a new comnussion from his son 
and sucoesBor. He was a member of the 
parliament which restored Charles II, and 
he was one of the members most active 
in peasinff the act of indenmi^. In No- 
vember, 1660, ho was knighted, and made 
chief baron of the court of exchequer. 
He presided at the condemnation of aome 
persons arraigned for witchcraft, at Buiy 
St Edmund's, in 1664, and was tiie last 
Engiiah judge who sanctioned the convic- 
tion of culprits for that imaginary crime. 
He was raised to the chief-iusticeship of 
the king's bench in 1671, where he sat till 
1676, towards the end of which year he 
died. After his death appeared his His- 
toiy of the Pleas of the Crown, The Ju- 

risdiction of the Lords^ Uouse^ and Hie 
History of the Common Law of Eng- 
land ; of vduch there have been repeated 
editicMis, with comments. 0is valuabie 
collection of manuacripts relating to his- 
toiy and jurisprudence, is preserved in the 
lihruy of Lincoln's Inn. Sir Matthew 
Hale also wrote several works on seten- 
tific and religioua subjects. 

Hale, Nathan, an officer in the revohi- 
tionary army, was bom in Coventry, Con- 
necticut, and was graduated at Yale col- 
lege, in 1773; As me contest between the 
mother counUj and the colonies was then 
waging, he offered his services to the lat- 
ter, and obtained a captain's commisaon 
in colonel Knowlton's regnment of light 
infentiy, which formed Uie van of the 
American army. After the retreat of gen- 
ial Washington fiom Long Island, by 
which it was left in the poosession of the 
British, that commander applied to colonel 
Knowlton to adopt some means of gain- 
ing information concerning the strength, 
situation and fiiture movements of theen- 
emyi|^Tbe colonel communicated tMs re- 
quQBtto captain Hale, who immediately 
volunteered bis services ; and, conqnering 
his repugnance to assume a character for- 
eign to his nafUre, in the hope of being 
useful to his count^, passed in disguise to 
Long Island, examined every part of the 
Brituh army, and obtained all the re- 
quisite information. In attempting to re- 
turn, however, he was apprehendM, and 
brouffht before sir WiUiam Howe, who or- 
dered him to be executed, the next mom- 
uig, on his acknowledging who he was, 
and what was his object, when he found 
the proof egjuost him too strong to be 
jpainsayed. This sentence (conformable. 
It is true, to the laws of war) was carried 
into efiect in the most unfeeling manner. 
He was refiisod the attendance of a cler- 
gyman ; and the letters which he wrote, a 
short time before his death, to his mother 
and others, were destroyed, in order, as 
vrss said by the provost manbal, ** that the 
rebels should not know they had a man 
in their am^ who could die with so much 
firmness." The untimely end of this proni- 
isiiw but unfortunate youiig man resem- 
bled that of major Andr^ in the ciremn- 
stances vriiich led to it; out the celebrity 
of the two has been widely diflferent. 
The memoiy of the Enf^iahman has re- 
ceived eveiy honor, not only in his own 
country, but likewise in this; while that of 
the marm' to the cause of American lib- 
erty hardly survives even here. The mon- 
ument of the former stands in Westmin- 
ster abbey, amongst those of sages and he- 



roes, whilflt the gmveof the patriot is not 
even marked by a stone or an inacriptioD. 
Halen, don Juan van, a Spaniard of 
Dutch extraction, was bom in the Isle of 
Leon^^eb. 16^ 1790. As some interest is 
attached to the name of this man from 
his havinff been for a time at the head 
of the military forces of the insurgents in 
the late revolution in Bnissels (1^), we 
give the following account of him, extract- 
ed fitnn the Narrative of Don Juan van 
Helen's Imprisonment in the Dungeons 
of the Inquisition at Bladrid, and his Escape 
in 1817 and 1818 ; to which are added his 
Journey to Russia, his Campaign with the 
Army of the Caucasus, and his Return to 
Spain in 1821, edited fit>m the orinnal 
Spanish Manuscript, by the Author of Don 
Esteban and Sandoval (London,1828.) For 
the entire authenticity of the account we 
do not vouch, as the book has in numy parts 
the air of a fiction. His fiither was em- 
ployed in the Spanish navy ; and before 
the subject of the present article had at- 
tained ms 16th year, he had served in two 
naval expeditions, the Inntnf TrhirhJymi 
nated in the batde of Tre&lgar. Tlalen 
was made lieutenant, and wounded on 
board the flotilla of Malaca. May 2, 1807, 
he was wounded again, having taken part 
with the people of Madrid against the 
French. He then served aninst the 
French, was made prisoner n^en Souh 
captured Ferrol, and took the oath of sub- 
mianon to king Joseph, with whom he 
went to France, but was, after some time, 
dismissed. In 181S^ when all tlie t/fneMt- 
9adoM (q. V.) were invited back to Spain, 
he returned ; but, anxious to perform 
some service for his country, he dressed 
himself as a French officer, and, having 
fraudulently obtained a copy of the seal of 
marshal Suchet, presented himself succes- 
sively before the fortresses of Lerida, Me- 
quinenza and Monzon, as an aid-deH»mp 
of the marshal, with forged orders to 
their commandants to evacuate their posts 
immediately. The artifice, strange to say, 
succeeded completelv, and Spain recover- 
ed three important places without losing a 
drop of blcK>d. The French troops were 
afterwards taken prisoners on their march. 
The Spanish recency appointed van He- 
len captain, for navirig ** reconquered the 
strong places," &c. van Helen served, in 
his new rank, in the Catalonian army, until 
the return of Ferdinand VII. When this 
periured king violated his solemn promises 
to the nation, secret societies were formed, 
in order to induce or compel the king to 
keep his word. Van Helen became a 
member of one of them, but not until he 

had been caiuekssly suspeeted and im- 
prisoned. In September, 1817, he was 
imprisoned a second time, in Murcia, in 
the dungeons of the inquiflition» to the 
prisons of which society, in Madrid, he 
was removed in October. After having 
had an audience of the king, he was put 
to the torture (which he describes in nis 
Narrative, mentioned above), escaped fix>m 
the dungeons of the holy office throu^ 
the kindness and ingenuity of the daugh- 
ter of the turnkey, went to France and 
Eni^d, and, in 1818, entered the Rus- 
sian service as major, in a regiment of 
dragoons, which formed part of general 
Yermelow^ army, in Georgia, and was 
employed to repress the turbulent moun- 
taineers on the northern side of the Cau- 
casus. But the new revolution having 
bn^en out in Spain, the emperor ^ve 
orders for Haleni immediate dismission ; 
he returned to Spain, and, on the entrance 
of the French army, fled to the U. States. In 
the late revolution of Belgium, he received 
a command in the independent troope; 
but, for reasons unknown to us, he was 
afterwards airested. 

Hales, Alexander de; sumamed the 
imfragahU doctor ; an English ecclesiafltic, 
celebrSied among the controversialistB of 
the 13th century. He studied at the uni- 
versities of Oxford and Paris, in which 
ktter city he died in 1345. 

Half Mark ; a noble, or six shillings 
and eight pence. 

Half Moon, in fortification; an out- 
work composed of two frees, fiMming a 
salient angle, whose gorge is in form of a 

Half Pikx; a defensive weapon, com- 
posed of an iron spike, fixed on an ashen 
staff. Its use is to repel the assault of 
boarders in a maimer similar to the de- 
fence of the charged bayonet among in- 
fontiy; hence it is fiequentl^ termed a 
boardi$tg pike. It takes tne epithet of half 
from its having a much shorter staff than 
the whole pike. 

Halibut. (QeeHoUbuL) 

Halicaritassus ; the capital of Caria, 
in Asia Minor, and the residence of the 
Carian kiuAs. It was once an important 
oommerciaT city. The present name is 
Bodrun or Budron. It lies opposite the 
island of Stanchio. Queen Artemisia 
erected here the celebrated mausoleum 
in honor of her husband, king MausoluB; 
HalicamasBus was the native place of 
Herodotus, Dionysius the historian, and 
Dionysius the musician (who wrote on 
music in the time of Adrian); also of the 
poets HecatBus and Callimaehua For a 



on of its chamung situation, see 
the TraoeU t^ffte Younger Anackams, 

Halifax ; a ci^,and the capital of No- 
va Scotia, on Chebucto bay. The harbor 
of Hali&x is one of the best in America; 
a thoosand ships may ride in it in safety. 
It is in lat 44'' 4(y N., and Ion. 63» 4(K W. 
from Greenwich. It is easy of access at 
all seasons of the year. Its len^ from 
N. to S. is about 16 miles, and it termi- 
nates in a beautiful sheet of water, called 
Bedford Basiu, within which are ten 
square miles of good anchorage. The 
haibor is well forafied, and has an ex- 
tensive dock-yard. The city of HaMuc is 
situated on the western side of the hartM>r, 
on the declivity of a commanding hill, 
whose summit is 256 feet above the level 
of the sea. There are eiffht streets run- 
ning through the body of the town, and 
these are mtersected by fifteen odhen. 
The town and suburtisare upwards of two 
miles long, and the aenend breadth is 
about half a mile. Halifax was first set- 
tled by a colony under the command of 
the honorable Edward Comwallis. in 
1749. In 1790, it contained 4000 inhab- 
itants ; in 1828, the number of houses was 
1580, and the population 14,439. At the 
same period, there were two Episcopal 
churches, a large and splendid Catholic 
chi^l, two meeting-houses for Presbyte- 
rians, one for Meth^Usts, two for Baptists, 
and one for Sandemanians. The most 
important of the government establish- 
ments is the dock-yard. It has a high 
wall on the side towards the town, and 
contains very commodious buildinj^ for 
the residence of the officers and their ser- 
vants, besides stores, ware-houses and 
woik-ahopa. The province-building is an 
elegant eoifioe, and contains the various 
provincial offices, and apartments fer the 
council, house of assembly, and superior 
court There are several other public 
buUdings of good construction; but, in 
general, the luge buildings of the ci^ are 
of fireestone, and are not designed for 
splendor. Dalhousie college was estab- 
lished in 1820, but has not gone into ope- 
ration. There are several good schools, 
but education is less attended to than in 
most of the cities of the U. States. There 
are no periodicals published, nor are any 
European or Amenean books reprinted at 
Halifax. The only publications in Nova 
Scotia are the newspapers, of which 
there were, in 1828, six at Halifax and 
one at Picton. (See Haliburton's Accomd 
of Xam ScoUoj Hatifax, 1829.) 
Halifax, lord. (See MontagueJ 
Hau*, Lyman, whose name is affixed to 

the declaration of independence, was bom 
in Connecticut, aboot the year 1731, and, 
after receiving a classical education, eom- 
menced the soidy of medicine. In 1752; 
he removed to South Carolina, and, in the 
same year, to Sudbuiy, in the district of 
Medwav, in Georgia, where he practised 
his prorassion until the commencement of 
the revolutionaiy troubles. In July, 1774, 
he was sent, as representative of the pari^ 
of St John, to a geneinl meetinj^ of the 
republican party in Georgia, which was 
held at Savannah. The proceedings of 
the meeting were of too temporizing a 
nature to ^ease the ardor of the inhab- 
itants of that parish, and they, in conse- 
quence, separated themselves from the 
other parishes of the colony, and, March 21, 
1775, elected doctor HaU their delegate to 
the ffeneral congress, asMmUed at Phila- 
delfmia. Mav 13, he was admitted to a 
seat in the house, though he was not 
allowed a vote when the sentiments of the 
body were taken by colonies, as he could 
only be ccmsidered the representative of a 
emaU^rtion of a provinee. But in June 
of the same year, tne convention of Geor- 
gia having, at length, acceded to the gen- 
eral confederacy, its representation was 
rendered complete by the election of four 
other delegates. The names of but two 
of his colleagues, however, appear in con- 
junction with doctor Hall's on the decla- 
ration, the remaining two being absent. 
The last time doctor HaU apMared in 
congress was in 1780. In 178^ he was 
chosen governor of the stale of Georgia, 
and, afto' his retirement from pubfic fife, 
settied in Burked county, where he died 
in the 60th ^ear of his age. He posKSsed 
a strong mmd and a placid di^MMrition. 
He made great sacrifices, both of comfort 
and property, in his countryV service. 
When die British took poeseesion of Geor- 
gia, his estate was connscated. 

Hall, Robert, was bom at Amsby, Lei- 
cestershire, in August, 1764. He is the 
son of the reverend Robert Hall, a Bap- 
tist nunister of Amsby. His father eany 
remarked his precocity of talent, and ol^ 
served to a fnend, that, at ^ nine years, he 
fully comprehended the reasoning in the 
profoundly argumentative treatises of J<xi- 
athan Edwards on the will and afiectionB.'' 
In 1773, he was placed under the instruc- 
tion of tiie eccentric, yet learned and pious 
JohnRyland of Northampton. At about 
15 years of age, he became a student in 
the B(4>tist coUege at Bristol. On reach- 
ing his 18th year, Mr. Hall entered king's 
coUege, Aberdeen, having obtained an ex- 
hibitian. Here he commenced his ac« 



qiMimtmice with air JameB MaiekiBtosb, 
who was his feUow student After leeeW** 
ing his second degree, he was chosen ss 
coUeBgue with doctor Evans, in the min- 
istiy at Bristol, and adjunct professor in 
the institution. Mr, Hall soon became 
followed and admired by a class of hear- 
ers whose approbation misht well be val- 
ued by sny man. His public services were 
crowded to excess. But, in the midst of 
his popularity, a daik cloud arose, which 
threatened to defrnve the Christian world 
of a bright ornament ; his friends trembled 
as they witnessed the most unequivocal 
symptoms of a disordered mind. After 
connnement from public Ufe, and a long 
course of judicious treatment, his lofty 
mind regamed its liberty and power. In 
1791, Mr. Hall removed to Cambridge, and 
became successor to the extraordinaiy 
Robert Robinson. He soon became cele- 
brated as a writer, by his publication of a 
pamphlet entitled Christianity not incon- 
sistent with the Love of Freedom. This 
was shortly after followed by his Apology 
for the Freedom of the Press, wMbh re- 
mains, to the present day, a standard work. 
Dugald Stewart deemed it the finest speci- 
men of English compomtion extant at the 
time when it appeared. But his Sermon 
upon Modem InfideU^ established his 
ftune as a divine. In 18(B, Mr. Hall^ mind 
again received a shock, which required his 
f£endonment of puli»t labors. On recov- 
ering fiK>m his malady, he became psstor 
of the church at Leicester. His mmistry 
in that populous town was equally suc- 
cessful Here Mr. Hall, for 20 years, 
exercised his talents for the good of an af- 
fectionate people ; but, in 1^5, the church 
at Broadmead, Bristol, which had enjoyed 
his earliest labors, liavinc lost their pastor, 
the learned and venerable doctor Ryland, 
president of the college, invited him to la- 
Dor amongst them ; and, in 1896, Mr. Hall 
removed to Bristol, where his popularity 
IS as great as it has been in other places. 
Benevolence and humility are the promi- 
nent features of his moral character. The 
late doctor Parr was his intimate fiiend, 
and left him a valuable and flattering lega- 
cy. He says of him, in his last will and 
testament, **Mr. Hall has, Uke Jeremy 
Taylor, the eloquence of an orator, the fan- 
cy of a poet, the subtletjr of a schoolman, 
me protoundnesB of a philosopher, and the 
piety of a saint** Mr. Hall*s voice is fee- 
ole, but verv distinct; as he proceeds, it 
trembles under bis energy. The plainest 
and least labored of his discourses are not 
without delicate imagenr and the most fe- 
licitous turns of expression. He expatiates 

on the prophecies with a kindfed sfnift ; 
he often conducts his audience to the top 
of the <* delectable mountains,'' to quote 
John Bunyan, where thev can see fix>m 
aftr the gates of the eternal city- He seems 
at home among the marvellous revelations 
of St John, and, while he dwells upon 
them, he leads his hearer breathless through 
ever-varying scenes of mystery, far more 
dorious and surprising than the wildest of 
Oriental febles. He stops where they 
most deare he shoukl proceed, — ^when he 
has just disclosed the dawnings of the in- 
most gloiy to their enraptured minds ; and 
leaves them full of imaginations of things 
not made with hands, — of joys too ravim- 
inff for similes. 

Halle; a Prussian city, province of 
Saxony, on the right bank of the Saak, 
with 2152 houses, and 23^ inhabitants ; 
lat 5P 2y 5" N.; Ion. 11° 58^ 10" E. 
Halle is first mentioned in 806, viiien 
Charlemagne erected a castle here against 
the Vandals. The name is derived fitim 
the salt-woiks of this city, among the most 
ancient of Germany, and producmff at 
present fixnn 14,000 to 16,000 tons of salt 
annually. These works are still called, 
by way of eminence, die HaUe.* The 
counttT around Halle is very fertile, and 
agriculture is flourishing; there are also 
many coal mines. But this city is partic- 
ulariv famous for her university, founded 
by Frederic I, king of Prussia, and open- 
ed in 1094 ; hence called the FVedaie unt- 
venitf. The great elector of Brandenburg 
had founded an academ;^ in 1668, which, 
in 1694, was changed into a university, 
when Thomasius came hither from Leip- 
sic, followed by a number of students. 
A series of distinguished professors, and 
the liberal provisions of government, have 
raised this univereir^ to the rank of one 
of the fint in Europe, in almost all branch- 
es ; for instance, Meckel, Reil, J. A. Wolfi^ 
Vater, Gesenius, Tholuck, Wesscheider, 
Pfefl^ &c. Napoleon suppressed the uni- 
venity, after the battle of Jena, in 1806. 
Af%OT the peace of Ulsit, it was reestab- 
liriied under the kingdom of Westphalia, 
and received also professors from the uni- 
versities of Rintehi and Helrost&dt, then 
abolished ; but the number of students nev- 
er exceeded 900 or 400. In 1813, many 
students having left Halle to join the Prus- 
sian troops. Napoleon again abolished the 
university, and measures were already 
taken for canying the order into effect 
which were interrupted bjr the battle of 
Leipsie. A Prussian ordinance of April 

* There are also places in Suabia, the T^toI, 
BrabaBt, called HaiUf from salt-works. 



ISy 1815^ ndted |be untveni^ of Wk- 
tembecg (quite near to HaUe) with that of 
HaDe. Tm institiitioii thus formed now 
beers the name of the UnUed Dredaie uni- 
vem^i^eUU'fftUemberg. The univer- 
oty Imub aiDce that tune advanced rapidhr. 
In 1628, there were 1385 students. In 
1824, there were 760 students of theology. 
Hie theological fiusuhy has six ordinwy 
and four eztraordmary professon. The 
litouy of the university contains 50,000 
volumes, with a collection of coins, engrav- 
ings, &c. HaUe was, for a kHig time, the 
seat of a theolory wUch adher^ strictly to 
title views and dogmas of the first reform- 
ers, or, if it deviated from them at all, in- 
clined rather to mysticism, but has lately 
become the chief seat of rationalism in 
Geimany ,{nincipa]ly through Gesenius and 
Wegscheider. The Prussian government 
has ordered an inquiry into the tenets of 
these professors, which will most probably 
lead to nothin|; decisive. (See the articles 
Ihmki^i hutUutian, and CVwufem.) 

HAiiLE, or Hall, Edward; an Endish 
chronicler, whose woifcs rank with those 
of Holingdied and Stow. He was a na- 
tive of London, and was a lawyer by (mo- 
fesrion, having attained the rank of a ser- 
ieant, and the office of a judge in the sher- 
iflHs court He had a seat in the house of 
commons, and was a zealous Catholic, 
tliou^ he lived at the period of the reforma- 
tion. His death took place in 1547. Halle's 
Chronicle was publislied in 1548, by Rich- 
ard Chfufton, who is reported to have writ- 
ten the latter part of it The woric is cu- 
rious, as affi>raing delineations of the man- 
ners, dress and customs of the age. 

Hallein, a town of the Austrian em- 
pire, in Salzburg, containing 600 houses 
and 6000 inhabitants, on the Salza, at tlie 
foot of the Dfiirenberg, has important salt 
works. The sak is here, as in the neigh- 
boring Berchtesgaden (q. v.), obtained 
fiom brine. About 90,00u tons are made 
annually. Pins are made here in great 
quantity, and the cotton manufiictures in 
the vicmity employ 12,000 people. 

Hallklcja, or Hallelujah, or Alle- 
LUJA (Hebrew) ; praise the Lord ; an ex- 
presnon which occun often in die Psalms, 
and which was retained when the Bible was 
translated into the various languages, prob- 
ably on account of its fiill and mte sound, 
winch, together with its simple and solemn 
meaning, so proper for pubhc religbus ser- 
vices, has rendered it a fitvorite of musi- 
cal composers. The vowels in it are veiy 
favorabfe for a singer. The Roman 
Catholic church does not aUow it to be 
sung on the Sundays during Lent, on ac- 

count of the mournful solemnity of the 
season ; and in that church it is not sung 
again before Blaster. It is no longer sung 
in masses for the dead, asfonneny. The 
Greeks made an eariier or more com- 
mon use of the Halleluja than the Latin 
church. The Jews call the Psahns 113— 
117, the Chreat HaOd^ because they cel- 
ebrate the particular mercies of Ck>d to- 
wards the Jews, and they are sung on the 
feast of the Passover, and on the feast of 

Hallbr, Albert van ; a celebrated Swiss 
physician, distinguished not only for his 
acquaintance witti the physical sciences, 
but also for his general knowledge of lite- 
rature, and his taientB as a poet i&s&ther, 
Nicholas von Hdler, was an advocate 
and citizen of Berne, where the son was 
bom in October, 1706. The eariy display 
of his abilities was most extraordinary ; 
and it is related, that, when but ten yeare 
old, he could translate from the Greek; 
that he compiled a Chaldee grammar, and 
a Greek and Hebrew dictionarv, for his own 
use; extracted 2000 biographical articles 
fiom Bfwle and Moreri, and gave other 
proofi of his devotion to literary studies. 
He was sent to a public school after his 
fiither's death, in 1721 ; and, in 1723, he 
was removed to the house of a physician 
at Bienne, for the study of plulosophy 
Here he pursued a somewhat desultoi^' 
course of reading, and exercised himself in 
poetical composition. However, at the 
close of the year last mentioned, having 
chosen the medical mofession, he went to 
the university of T&bingen, where he 
studied comparative anatomy; and, in 
1725, he removed to Leyden, then the first 
medical school in Europe, Boerhaave and 
Albinus beiog amonff tne professors. He 
took his degree at T%bingen, whither he 
went for that purpose, and sustained a 
thesis, De Dudu SalwaU Ckuchunxumo 
which topic he ftrther pursued, in anothw 
thesis, at Leyden, in 1727. That year, he 
visited Enghud, and formed an acquaint- 
ance with sir Hans Sloane, Cheselden, doc- 
tor James Douglas, and other eminent 
men. Thence he went to Paris, and dis- 
sected under Ledran ; but he was obliged 
to leave that metropolis, in consequence 
of having caused suojects for dissection to 
be brou^t to his lodgings— a piece of in- 
discretion which attracted the notice of the 
police. He then went to Basil, to study 
mathematics under John Bernoulli, con- 
tinuing at the same time his anatomical 
investigations. Here he first imbibed a 
taste for bottmy, and laid the plan of a 
work, which he long afler published, on 



the plants of Switzeriand. Here, too, he 
indulged his predilection for poetiy, and 
in his twenty-fint year composed his poem 
On the Alps, followed by various ethical 
epistles and other pieces, which gave him a 
reputation in Gemiany. In 17^, HaUer 
returned to his native city, and entered on 
his professional career as a public lecturer 
on anatomy. He did not, however, obtain 
among his countiymen that encourage- 
ment which his talents deserved, owing, 
in some measure, to a satirical spirit, which 
occasionally displayed itself in his poetical 
compositions. In the summers, he made 
botanical excursions in Switzeriand, in the 
course of which he also applied himself 
to the study of minendogy and zoology. 
In 1786, he was invited, 1^ George H, to 
accept the professorship of anatomy, sur* 
gery and botany, in the newly founded 
university of Gdttingen. He accepted this 
offer; but his removal to Hanover was 
attended with a domestic misfortune, the 
death of his wife, whom he had manied 
in 1731, and to whom he was much at- 
tached. He endeavored to alleviate his 
sorrow by dose application to scientific 
pursuits. Through his influence, the uni- 
versity was enriched with a botanical gar- 
den, an anatomical theatre, a school for 
midwifery, and a college of sursery. His 
TAvn researches in physiology alone, were 
enoueh to inunortalize his name. AAer 
the death of his master, Boeihaave, in 
1738, Haller published his Prelections, with 
much original matter, in six volumes, 
which appeared successively from 1739 
to 1745. But his own discoveries and im- 
provements tended to render this woric 
obsolete ; and in 1747, appeued the first 
edition of his Prima LinMR PhfsidoguB, a 
synopsis of his own system of that unpor- 
tant branch of medical science, as subse- 
quently developed in a lai^^r work. This 
is a truly valuable production, which, long 
after tiie death of the author, was used as 
a text-book in schools of medicine, and 
has only been superseded smce the extra- 
ordiuaiT scientiflc discoveries of our philo- 
sophical contemporaries. In 1752, be first 
advanced his ofnnions on the properties of 
sensibility and irritability, as existing in die 
nervoiw and muscular fibres of animal 
bodies ; doctrines which attracted much at- 
tention, and excited great controversies in 
the medical worid. He was, in 1748, 
elected a member of the royal society of 
Stockholm, and of that of London in the 
following year. He likewise received 
the title of physician and counsellor to 
king George II, at whose request Francis I 
gave him a patent of nobihty, as a baron 

of the German empire. After seventeen 
years' residence at Gottingen, his disagree- 
ments with his colleagues induced bun to 
retum, in 1753, to Bme, where his coun- 
trymen received him witii the respect due 
to his great ftune and talents. He setded 
again among them ; and haying been electa 
ed a member of the sovereign council of 
the state, he soon obtained by lot one of 
its magistracies, and entered with zeal on 
the duties of a citizen. He did not neglect 
his scientific pursuits. He continued to 
contribute to the G^ttingen GtUhrU Jhauu 
gen (for which he wrote more than 12,000 
articles), to hold the presidency of the roy- 
al societv of science, and to receive his ac- 
ademical pensions. In 1754, he published 
at Lausanne, in French ^which he wrote 
with fiicili^j, some memons on irritability 
and sensibility, and on the motion of the 
blood. He was elected, in 1754, one of 
the foreign associates of the Paris acad- 
emy of sciences. In 1758, he accepted the 
appointment of director of the public salt- 
works at Bex and Aigle, with a small sala- 
ry. He resided six vears at La Roche; 
and, in the course of his superintendence, 
he introduced many improvements in the 
manufiicture of salt. While thus engaged, 
he began the publication of his Ekmenta 
PlyswIoguB Corvms humani (Lausanne, 
1757—1766). His next important literary 
labors were the BibUothee<B^ containing 
chronological catalogues of works of every 
age, country and language, relative to sab- 
jects connected with medi<^ science, with 
concise analyses, and notices of peculiar 
and important facts and opinions. These 
libraries of professional knowledge were 
published in the following order : SOdioOu- 
ca hotamea (1771, 2 vols. 4to.) ; BthUotheea 
anaUmdca (1774, 2 vols. 4to.) ; BibUotheca 
dnrutgica (1774, 2 vols. 4to.) ; Biblwiheea 
MediaruB pracHca (1776—1788, 4 vols. 
4to«, the last two volumes having appear- 
ed posthumously). On his retum firom La 
Roche, he was chosen member of the 
chamber of appeal for the German district, 
of the councii of finance, and of other 
bodies ; and also perpetual assessor of the 
council of health. His various duties 
as a statesman, a physician and a med- 
ical teacher, occupied his attention till hts 
death, which happened December 12, 
1777. He had previously suftered much 
froih illness ; but his last moments were 
peculiariy tranquil. Placing his finffer on 
his wrist, to observe the motion of the ar- 
tery, he suddenly exclaimed to his physi- 
cian, ** My friend, I am dying ; my puke 
slops f* and he immediately expired. He 
is considered one of the greatest German 



poets of the ISdieentiify. HlB]rfiflo0opli- 
icaland deecriptiye poems display depth 
of thought ana richness of imagioalion. 
He had to contend with a language which 
was then imperfect, and to ttie polishing 
of which bis writings contributed. Hia 
8iy ie is not, however, wholly fituhiesB ; for, 
in aiming at concisenesB and ctNnpression, 
he Bomeomes becomes obscure. He wrote, 
in prose, three philosophico-political ro- 
mances, — ^Usong, Aified the Great, and 
Fabius and Cato,— designed to exhibit the 
respectiye advantam of difierent forms 
ofgovenunent; and corresponded, in Ger- 
man, Latin, Italian, English and French, 
with all parts of Europe. His Letters to 
hw Daughter, on the Tmth of the Chris- 
lion Reluion, were tnmslated into Enfftish ; 
and he also wrote Letters on Free-l%ink- 
iog, designed to confhte the reasonings of 
French sceptical philosophers, who had 
borrowed arguments in ftvor of their spec- 
ulations trom his physiological theories. 

HixuBR, Chanes L/ms von, a modem 
writer, noted for his support of the doc- 
trine of divine right, and for liis secret con- 
version to the Cathoijc religion, was bom 
at Berne, Aug. 7, 1768, and is the son of a 
literary man, who died in 1766. In his 
prntr ltd tUdarer #on Retour h V^liat 
CoAoUquiej Jhfodolique d Romaine (rais, 
1821), he caUs himself peu tfufrutf, doni 
r^dueationfitt as9a nigligie. When Berae 
was changed from an aristocracy into a 
democratic republic, he emigrated, and 
conceived, ^as it were, a fixed idea," that a 
spirinial fraternity was necessary to op- 
pose democratic principles. At the same 
time, he conceived the idea, ** almost, as he 
believed, mspbed by God," tiiat *<Uie lord 
was before the vassal, the prince before 
die subject" Certainly a divine idea ! This 
save origin to his work, ** destined by God 
for the restoration of Europe," Rutaura- 
tun dor SUMoUunsunsck^ odor Tkeorit dei 
nBdibrUd^en-rudUren SSustanduy dor Chi- 
m&rt da tSnMSirMivtHichen erdgtgm' 
mezi (Restoration of Political Science, or 
l!1beory of the natural-social State, opposed 
to tlw Clumera of the artificial-civil State ; 
W'mlerthur, 1816—1830, 4 vohu). Like 
Salmaaus and Mackenzie of old, he de- 
icnds the divine right of rulers and of no- 
Ucas, and endeavon to overthrow the the- 
oiy of the social contract His vfotk has 
been, and still is conadered, by the aristo- 
crats of Gennany, almost as a code. Yet 
we confess, if choose we must, we should 
much prefer sir Robert Filmer's theoiy of 
divine right to Heller's. Haller's system 
I on £e fiction that poweriUl and frr- 

VOL. VI. 13 

Slighted men appropriated ceHain tracts to 
themsdves^ when ttie earth was yet undi- 
vided ; and, when lees poweifiil orsagacious 
penons came afierwaids to dwell on the 
same land, they were obliged to subject 
themselves to the rules which the first oc- 
cupant prescribed. A divine idea, indeed! 
His dii^Kiflition to run a tilt against the 
principles which have spmng up out of 
the French revolution, led him to Catbol* 
icism, in which, as he thinks^ the best se« 
curity against democratic pmiciples is to 
be found. Von Haller has been a profes- 
sor at Berae, a member of the sovereign 
council, and has held some other impor* 
tant offices. As a member of the council, 
he vras obii^ to take an oath of belief 
in the doconnes of Protestantism. Since 
1806, he says, he has been a Catholic in his 
heart In 1818, a French abb^ strenp^th- 
ened him in his belief; and, in 1819, pnnce 
Adolphus of Mecklenburg-Schwerin ren- 
dered him happv, by assuring him that he 
might be secretly a Catholic, and receive 
dis[jensation finm all the outward observ- 
ances of the Catholic system ; nay, that 
many ostensible Protestants were in fiict 
Catholics. The Catholic bishop of Fri- 
burg confirmed this. In 1830, he publish- 
ed, under the character of a Protestant, 
his work on the Spanish constitution, in 
which he praises the inquisition and the 
torture* In the same year, the fourth vol- 
ume of his Restoration was published, in 
which be reconmiends Cathoficism veiy 
strongly. October 17, 1820, the bishop 
received him at the country seat of a fiiend 
into the bosom of the Catholic chureh. 
Some rumor of this got abroad, and when 
his relations questioned bun concerning it, 
he replied by askinff them vdiether the^ 
had ever seen him observe Catholic ordi- 
nances. After Mr. von Haller had taken 
the oath prescribed, by Pius IV, to con- 
verts, which binds them to use all their 
eSbrtB for the propagation of Catholicism, 
he renewed (December, 1830) his official 
oath as a Protestant This oath also 
binds him to act fiuthfiilly towards the 
state, and to maintain the Protestant reli- 
gion. June 11, 1821, he was expelled from 
3ie council as guilty of perjury. There 
are, it is true, 15 Catholic members in this 
council ; but they, of course, do not take 
the oath. Haller then went to France, 
where he first wrote fcr the Journal dta 
DihaAs. Charies X allowed him to enjoy 
the privileges of a citizen. In 1825, the 
6th volume of his Restoration appeared. 
When the revolution of 1890 broke out, 
Haller was an officer under PoUgnac, and 
was, of course^ immediately disnuased. 



Hallet, Edmund, a disdnguished math- 
ematician and astronomer, was bom in 
London, in 1656, and was sent first to St 
Paul's school, and then to Queen's college, 
Oxford, of which he became a conmioner 
in his 17th year. Before he was 19, he 
published A direct and geometrical Meth- 
od of finding the Aphelia and Eccentricity 
of Planets, which supplied a defect in 
the Keplerian theoiy of planetaiy mo- 
tion. By some observations on a spot 
which appeared on the sun's diisk in July 
and Auffust, 1676, he established the cer- 
tainty of the motion of the sun round its 
own axis. August 21st, the same year, 
he fixed the lonsitude of the cape of Good 
Hope, by his observation of the occulta- 
tion of Mars by the moon. Immediately 
after, he went to St Helena, where he 
staid till 1678, making observations on the 
fixed stars of the southern hemisphere, 
which he fbrmed into constellations. In 
1679, he published CaUdogut Siellarvm 
Austrtdiumj give SuppUmentum Catalogi 
T)fckonicty &C., which procured him the 
appellation of the southern l)fcho. He 
then went to Dautzic to setde a dispute 
between the English philosopher Hooke, 
and the fiunous Reveuus, relative to the 
use of optical insUnments in astronomical 
researches, deciding in &vor of the latter. 
In 1680, he set off on a continental tour, 
and at Paris made acquaintance with Cas- 
sini. After visiting Italy, in 1681 he re- 
turned to England, and settled at Islington, 
where he fitted up an observatory for his 
astronomical researches. In 1683, he pub- 
lished his Theory of the Variation of the 
magnetical Comuoss, in which he endeav- 
ors to account lor that phenomenon, by 
the supposition of the whole elobeofthe 
earth being one great magnet, having four 
circulating magnetical poles, or points of 
attraction. His theoiy, though unsatisfiic- 
toiy, is in^nious. The doctrines of 
Kepler relauve to the motions of the plan- 
ets next engaged his attention ; and finding 
liimself di6ai)pointed in his endeavors to 
obtain infonnation on the subject firom 
Hooke and sir Christopher Wren, he went 
to Cambridge, where Newton, then math- 
ematical professor, satisfied all his inqui- 
ries. In 1691, he was a candidate for the 
Savilian professorsliip of astronomy at Ox- 
ford, which was obtained bv doctor David 
Gregoiy.. According to Whiston, he lost 
tliis ofhce in consequence of his character 
as an infidel in religion. For tlie purpose 
of niakinj^ further observations relative to 
the variation of the compass, he set sail on 
a voyage in 1699, and, having traversed 
both hemispheres, arrived in England in 

September, 1700. The spot at St Helena, 
where he erected a tent ror making astro- 
nomical observations, is distinguished by 
the appellation of HaUey'i Mount. As 
the result of his researches^ he published 
a general chart, showing at one view the 
variation of the compass in all those seas 
where the English navigators were ac- 
quainted. He was next employed to ob- 
serve the course of the tides in the Eng- 
lish channel, vrith the longitudes and lat- 
itudes of the principal heaidlands ; in con- 
sequence of which, he published a large 
map of the channel. In 1703, he was 
engaged by the emperor of Germany to 
survey the coast of Dalmatia ; and| re- 
turning to Enriand in November of that 
year, he was elected SaviUan professor of 
geometry on the death of doctor Wallis ; 
and he was also honored with the diploma 
of LL. D. He subsequently published a 
Latin translation fix>m tlie Arabic of a 
treatise of ApoUonius Perseus, a Greek 
geometer, to whicli he made additions, to 
supply the place of what was lost He 
next assisted his colleague, doctor Gre^ 

g', in preparing for the press Apollomus 
n Conic Sections. In 1719, he received 
the appointment of astronomer royal at 
Greenwich, where he afterwards chiefly 
resided, devoting his time to completing 
the theory of the motion of the moon, 
which, notwithstanding liis age, he pur- 
sued with enthusiastic ardor. In 1721, he 
began his observations, and, for the space 
of 18 years, he scarcely ever misBed tak- 
ing a meridian view of the moon, when 
the weather was not unfavorable. In 
1729, he was chosen a foreign member of 
the academy of sciences at Paris. He 
died Jan. 14, 1742, at Greenvrich ; and he 
W71S interred at the church of Lee, in 
Kent. In 1752 appeared his Astronom- 
ical Tables, with Precepts, in English 
and Latin, for computing the places or the 
Sun, Moon, Planets and Comets (4to.] 
and he was the author of a va«t multitude 
of papers in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions. Lalande styles him ''the greatest 
astronomer of England." 

Hat^/Owell; a post-town in Kenne* 
bee county, Maine, on the Kennebec, near 
the mouth of the river ; 54 miles N. N. E 
of Pcrdand, 168 N. N. E. of Boston ; lat 
44<' 14' N.: population in 1820, 2919; 
the population in 1890 was over 
S90^^. Hallo well is a thriving town, and 
has a flourishing commerce. It is situat- 
ed in a tract of countiy which has a 
str jnff and fertile soil, particularly excel- 
leut lor grazing. The exports consist of 
bee^ pork, pot and pearl ashes, Indian 



cmn, wheat, lye, oati» butter, hay, lumber, 
fish, &c. Loaded vesseb of 150 toiia 
may come up the river as far aa the 

Halo is an extensive himinoua ring, in- 
cluding a circular area, in the centre of 
which the sun or moon appears ; whose 
liffht, passing through an intervening 
ctoud, dves rise to the phenomenon. 
Those about the moon are most common. 
When the sun or moon is seen through a 
thin cloud, a p(»don of the cloud round 
die sun or moon appeare lighter than the 
rest, and this luminous disc is called a 
eoarmuu Coronas are of various sizes, but 
they seldom exceed 10^ in diameter ; they 
are generally fiundy colored at their edges. 
Frequently, when a halo encircles the 
moon, a corona surrounds it ParkdiOy or 
mock suns, vary considerably in general 
appearance : sometimes the sun is encii^ 
cled by a large halo, in the circumference 
of which the mock suns usually appear, 
which have often small halos round 

Hamabeyads, in mythology ; eight 
daughters of Hamadiyaa, by her brother. 
They received their names from trees, 
and are the same as the Dryads, (q. v.) 
They were conceived to inhabit each a 
particular tree, vnth which they were 
i»m, and widi which thejr perished. 
Whoever qwred a tree to their entreaties^ 
they rewarded, while the destroyer of 
groves was sonowtimes severely punished. 
(See IHnet&on.) 

Hakah ; a place in Syria, fiunous as 
Ahulfeda's birthplace. It has, according 
to Burekhardt, fiom 60 to 100,000 inhab- 
ilants, who live chiefly by manuflicturing 
silk and cotton. 

Haman ; a name meaning JvU of grace. 
(See EMer.) 

Hamann, John George, who called him- 
self the J^Tmihtm Magian^ was bora at 
Konigsbeiig, in 1730, travelled about in 
difierent parts of his native country, was 
private tutor in several places, received an 
office in the customs at K6nis8berg, in 
1777, and died at M&nster, m 1788. Be- 
tween 1759 and 1784, he published seve- 
ral humorous works, whose value the 
public did not then appreciate ; but suice 
Herder, Jacobi, 05the and Jean Paul 
Richter have spoken of them with appro- 
bation, they have been republished (L^p- 
ac, 1821^1825). 

Hamsuro, the most constderable of the 
dee cities of Germany, is situated about 
80 miks from the mouth of the Elbe, 
upon the northern bank of the river, 
which is navigable for large vessels as far 

as this port The circuit of the city is 
about 2^000 feet In the northern part 
is a lake, formed by the smaU river Alster, 
which runs through the city into the 
Elbe, and turns several mills. An arm of 
the Elbe enten the city from the east, and 
is there divided into a number of canals, 
which take various directions, till they 
unite, and join the Alster in the southeru 
part of the city, where they form a deep 
harbor for ships, which communicates with 
the main branch of the river. Here is a 
lai^ space enclosed by strong piles, where 
ships may lie in safety ; it is called itiim- 
mahavetu Canals intersect the lower part 
of the city in all direcdons,and almost all 
the stores are built upon their banks. In 
this part' of the ci^, and also in thai 
which lies on the east of the Alster, the 
streets are, for the most part, narrow and 
crooked. Many of those in the western 
or New Town, are Inoader and straighter. 
The city contains 19 churches, of which 
16 are Lutheran, one Catholic, and two 
Calvinistic, with some synagogues for 
8000 Jews. In the suburb of St George, 
there are 1200 houses and a Lutheran 
church. The chureh of St Michael, with 
its tower, 456 feet in height, built by Son- 
nin (q. v.), and intended for astronomical 
observations and for experiments in nat- 
ural philosophy, was finished in 1786. 
This building, and some of the private 
houses, are remarkable for their archi- 
tecture. The exterion of the exchange 
and the council-house are also handsome- 
ly ornamented. Amonc the most re- 
markable buildings are me bank, the ad- 
miralty buildings, the orphan asylum, the 
new general hospital, the theatres, the ex- 
change, the city and commercial libraries, 
Roding's museum, &c. The gymnasium 
and the Johanneum are excellent insdtu- 
tions for educadon. The building for the 
school of navigation, opened in 1826, is 
provided with an observatory, and a bo- 
tanic garden is also annexed to it In in- 
stitutions for the relief of the destitute, 
for the sick, and for the education of poor 
children, Hamburg is inferior to no city in 
Germany. Most of these are under the 
duection of private individuals, and they 
are principally supported by voluntary 
contributions. The constitution of Ham- 
burg is aristocratic. The government 
consists of four burgomasters arid 24 
counsellors, and fills its own vacancies by 
an artful combination of chance and of 
choice. Three of the burgomasters and 
11 of the counsellora are lawyers ; the rest 
are merchants. To the senate are attach- 
ed four syndics and four secretaries. Cal- 



TBUBiB are 6xchid6d fiom th6 gOTenunent 
of Hamburg, as Luthenma are fioin that 
of Bremen. The ordinary public buai- 
nen, both internal and external, ia trana- 
acted by the senate alone; matters of 
more impottanee are regulated in con- 
nexion with the citizens poflsessed of a 
certain property. These are divided into 
five parishes^ each of which sends 36 
membera to the assembly or coUege of the 
180. From these are chosen the mem- 
bers of the council of 60, and again from 
theae 15 elders. Each of these colleges 
has peculiar privileges. The senate and 
the elders alone receive salaries. Justice 
is administered by several courts. The 
court of appeal of the free cities of the- 
Germanic confederacy, is the supreme 
tribunal. The puUic revenues were fbr- 
meriy consideniole, vrithout the taxes be- 
ing omnessive ; but the heavy debts in- 
curred by the city, of late years, have 
greatly increased me taxes. The citizens 
are provided with arms, and accustomed 
to military exercises, so aa to form a body 
of infant^, cavaliy and artillery, in regu- 
lar uniform, amountinff to about 10,000 
men. The removal ol" the old fortifica- 
tions was conmienced, in 1604, and the 
great French works have also been since 
demolished. The wall has been turned 
into a park. The territoiy of Hambunr 
(116 square miles) is bounded by that of 
Holstem on the north and west ; the cl^ 
of Altona, in the tenitoiy of Holstein, la 
not two miles distant from the gates of 
Hambuig. Towards the east, the Ham- 
buiv territfny borden on Lauenburg, and 
on the south it is separated by the Eflbe 
fiom the territories of Hanover. Some 
of the idands in the Elbe belong also, ei- 
ther whollv or in part, to Hamburg, to- 
gether wiUi the village of Moorbui^ on 
die lefl bank. Besides tliis, it has juris- 
diction over the bailiwic of Ritzebfittel, 
which contains the important town of 
Cuxhaven (a. v.), at the mouth of the 
Elbe. Hamburg, in common widi Lfl- 
beck, also has juriadicdon over the baili- 
vric of Berged(»i; with the small town of 
the same name, over the Vierlands, and 
a few places in Lauenburg. The popu- 
lation belonffinff to tlie city of Hambuxig 
is about ISS^OOO, and that of the lands 
over which it has separate orconcunent 
Jurisdiction, about aSwOOO. The city owea 
ita foundation to the empennr Cfaarie- 
magne, who, in the beginning of the 
ninth centuiy, bulk a citadel and a church 
on the heights between the Elbe and the 
eastern bank of the Abter, as a bulwark 
agahist the neighboring pagans. The 

ad^rtatioo of the place Ibr commeine and 
fiahmr, attracted many aattlen. Although 
its barbarous neighbors frequently destroy- 
ed this settlement, it vnm aa often reestab- 
lished, and the city waa enlarged by new 
buildinaa. It became important aa a com- 
mercial city in the 12th century, and in 
the 13th it waa one of the founders <^the 
Hanaeadc league, (q. v.) Even after the 
decline of the confederacy, it maintained 
its freedom and flourishing conunerce. 
The Hanaeatic league with Lfibeck . and 
Bremen subsisted till 1810, and haa been 
renewed since 1813 and 1814. Until 
1500, the city waa confined to the atrip 
of land between the Elbe and the eaatem 
bank of the Alater. The western bank 
was gradually built upon, principally by 
exilea from the Nethenanda. Thua arose 
the New Town, which waa ao iomortant, 
even in the eariy part of the 30 years' 
war, that it waa encfoeed within die forti- 
fications, and thua gave to the city its 
In 161^ " ' 

preaent extent In 1618, Hambuiip 
formally acknowledged a fi-ee city of the 
empire, ahfaougfa the archbiahope of Bre- 
men continued to maintain poaseasion of 
the cathedral, which foil to Sweden at the 
peace of Weatphalia, and waa afterwards 
ceded, with the duchy of Bremen, to Han- 
over. The 30 years' war, amidst the dev- 
astations of which Hamburg waa i^pare^, 
increaaed the number of its inhabitants, 
aa late wars in Europe have also done, 
during which many penona emigrated 
there from the Rhine, fi»m the Nether- 
lands, and from France. Ita oonunerce 
increaaed in the aame fwoponion, and 
compensated, in a great decree, fbr the 
kxB m ita manufiumire8,occaaioiied by the 
awakened spirit of industry, and by die 
non-importation acta of foreign powers. 
Its Bunuvrefineries, manufoctoriea of 
whale-oil, ship-yards, and eatabliahments 
for printing cotton, are atill important. 
The commerce of Hamburg waa mcreae- 
ed, particularly, by its direct intercourse 
with the U. Statea of America, and bv the 
war in the Netheriands and on the Rhine, 
by which it obtained a conaiderable ahare 
of die commerce of thoae countriea. 
Thus, at die beginning of the preaent cen- 
tunr, Hamburg waa one of the richest 
and most proeperoua of the free cities. 
Ita reverses began, in 1803, with the en- 
trance of the French into Hanover. They 
took possession of RitzebQttel, and cloaed 
the Elbe to the English, n^o, in tum, 
closely blockaded the mouth of the river. 
Hamburg waa now obliged to cany on ita 
maritime commerce through T6nningen 
and HuBum ; and whatever waa exported 



thfou^ Hanover aad the Elbe, had to be 
accompanied with ceitificatea that it did 
not come from British hands, for which 
certificates the French authorities asked 
a high price. The city was obliged to 
advance 2,125,000 marcs banco to the 
states of Hanover. After the battle of 
LCibeck, Mortier entered Hambuiv(ldth 
Nov. 1806), and, although the French 
troops evacuated it again after the peace 
of Tlisit, and it yet retained, for a few 
yeaiB, the shadow of its former indepen- 
dence, it was still, during this period, op- 
pressed in a thousand ways bv French 
commanders. Then came the decrees of 
Napoleon, which gave, as ftir as was pos- 
sible, a final blow to the commerce and 
industiT of Hamburg. At last, Hamburs* 
with the whole north-western part of 
Germany, was formallv incorporated in 
the French empire (I3th Dec, 1810), and 
became the capital of the newly created 
department of the Mouths of the Elbe. 
But at tbe beginning of the year 1813, 
the approach of Tettenbom obliged the 
French to fly (13th March}. Thisencour- 
a^ Hamburg to reestablish its fiee con- 
stitution, which had been overthrown, and 
to prepare to take a part in the great sttrug- 
f^ More than 2000 men enlisted for 
military service ; and they were to form a 
Hanseatic legion with the bands already 
FBdsed by Lfibeck, and those expected 
fiom Bremen. In addition to this, a guard 
of citizens was formed, at first of volun- 
teers, and afterwards by a formal decree 
of the coimcil and citizens. About 7000 
men were enlisted for this purpose. In 
April, a part of the Hanseatic troops was 
aMe to take the field, and their cavahy 
distinguished itself at Ottersber^ on the 
2ad. But the French, being reinforced, 
drove back the troops of the allies. Thev 
made themselves masters of the left bank 
of the Lower Elbe, and. May 12, took 
Wilhehnsburg (the castle of Harburg had 
voluntarily surrendered to them), and on 
the nisht of the 20th, they began to bom- 
bard the town. The hope of deliverance, 
awakened on the 21st, by tbe entrance of 
two Swedish battalions, vanished on the 
2Scli, when the Swedes retreated. Mis- 
understandings arose between the milita- 
ry commanders and the senate, which 
sought for the mediation of the Danes. 
On the 29th, Tettenbom evacuated the 
city ; and Von Hess, the commander of 
tbe guard of citizens, dismissed them. 
Before a capitulation had been signed, the 
Danes ente^ the city as allies of the 
French, and, on the evening of the 31 st, 
EckmQhl and Vandamme appeared with 

a large number of French troopu. Partly 
to secure possession of the city, and part- 
ly to punish its resistance, the severest 
measures were taken. A contribution of 
48,000,000 finance was levied upon the cit- 
izens, and a part of it was exacted imme- 
diately. At the end of the year, 40,000 
persona, of every age and sex, had lieen 
driven fix)m the city, and exposed to all 
the ri^rs of winter. At the same time, the 
dwellmpof about 8000 perBons,in the near- 
est environs of the ci^, were consumed 
by fire with such rapidity, that these poor 
people could only escape with their lives. 
As the troops which approached Ham- 
burg, fust under WaUmeden, and after- 
wards under Bennigsen, were too weak to 
undertake a siege, the city could not ob- 
tain deliverance firom its oppressors, until 
after the end of the war m France. In 
the latter part of May (1814), the French 
troops first left the city, carrying with 
them the fruits of their exactions. A rent 
of 500,000 firancs wis the trifling compen- 
sation which France made to Hamburg, 
for its disastrous ravages within and with- 
out the city. The Russians, under Ben- 
nigsen, entered in the place of the French, 
and remained till the end of the year. 
Then first was the quiet of Hamburg re- 
stored. * 

Hambuko Marc CouaANT and Banco. 
(See Coin,) 

Hamburg Bank. (See Bank^) 

HAifiLCAR. (See Hannibal.) 

Hamilton, Anthonv, count ; a poet, 
courtier and man of lettera in the 17th 
century. He was descended fix>m a 
younger branch of the fiunily of the dukes 
of Hamilton, in Scotland, but was bora in 
Ireland about 1646. Hia parents were 
Catholics and royalists, in consequence of 
which they removed to France, after the 
death of Charies I, and young Hamilton 
became domiciliated m that country. He, 
however, made fi^quent visits to England, 
in the reign of Charles II. His sister was 
married to count Grammont It is said 
that the count, after having paid his ad- 
dresses to the lady, and been accepted, 
changed his mind, and set off for the con- 
tinent Her brother followed him, and, 
overtaking him at Dover, asked him if he 
had not forgotten something to be done,pre- 
viously to his leaving England. " O, yes," 
replied Grammont, <* I forgot to marry your 
sister ;" and he immediately returned and 
fulfilled his engagement When James 
II was obliged to contend for his crown 
in Ireland, he gave count Hamilton a reg- 
iment of infimtiy, and made him gover- 
nor of Limerick ; but, on the ruin of the 



royal cause, lie accompanied James to 
Fiance, where he po^ssed the rest of his 
life, iiis wit and talents secured him ad* 
mission into the fijrst circles^ where he 
was generally esteemed for his agreeable 
manners and amiable disposition. He died 
at St Germain, in 17*^. Count Hamilton 
is chiefly known as an author by his Me- 
moirs- of Count Grammont, a uvely and 
spirited production, exhibiting a free, and, 
in the eeneral outline, a faimful delinea- 
tion of the voluptuous coiut of Charles 
11. The count's other worics are Poems 
and Faiiy Tales, which, as well as the 
Memoirs are in French, and display ele- 
gance of style and fettiMty of invention. 

Hamilton, Elizabeth, a lady of con- 
siderable literary attainments, was bom at 
Belfbft, in Ireland, 25th July, 1758. Hav- 
ing become an orphan at an early age, she 
was brought up under the care of her un- 
cle, who rended near Stirling, in Scot- 
land, and, durmgher residence in'liis &m- 
ily, made herself intimately acquainted 
with those national peculiarities which she 
afterwards delineated so admirably in her 
Cottagers of Gienbumie. Besides this 
little woik, which attracted much atten- 
tion, she wrote the Letters of a Hindoo 
Rajah (2 vols. 8vo.) ; the Life of Aerippi- 
na (3 vols, Bvo.) ; and Memoirs of JVlodeni 
Phuosophers ; works which, under the 
popular form of novels, are replete with 
sound sense and information. Her otiier 
writings are. Hints for Public Schools ; 
Popular Essays 12 vols. 8vo.) ; Rules of 
the Annuity Funa, &c. ; Exercises in Re- 
figious Knowledge (12mo.) ; Letters on the 
Formation of the Relijrious and Moral 
Principle (2 vols.) ; and On the Elementa- 
ry Pnnciples of Education. She was 
never married, but enjoyed an extensive 
acquaintance, especiafljf amon? the tal- 
ented of her own sex, one of whom. Miss 
Benger, afler her decease, printed a se- 
lection from her corresponaence, with a 
pre&torv account of her life and habita 
She died July 23, IBld 

Hamilton, sir William, K. B., was bom 
in Scotland, in 1730. His mother having 
been nurse to George HI, that prince, be- 
fore his accession to tiie throne, extended 
his patronai^ to young Hamilton, and 
made him his equeny. In 1764, he re- 
ceived the appointment of ambassador to 
the court of^ Naples, where lie resided 
36 years, returning to England m 1800. 
A considerable part of this term being a 
season of political repose, he devoted his 
leisure to science, making observations on 
Vesuvius, iEma, and other volcanic nioun- 
toins of the Mediterranean ; and tiie re- 

sult of his rssearches is detailed in the 
Philo60]^cal Transactions, and in his 
Campi PA/^<et, or Observations on the 
Volcanoes of the Two Sicifies (2 vols. fol.). 
His communications to the royal socie^ 
were also republished, with notes, in 1772 
(8vo.). He drew up an account of the dis- 
coveries made in Pompeii, printed in the 
fourth volume of the *mhadogi(Lf and 
collected a cabinet of antiquities, of 
which an account was published b}'' 
DHancarville. The French revolution 

Sive rise to a treaty of alliance between 
s Britannic majesty and the kins of the 
Two Sicilies, which was signed by air 
WUliam HamUton, July 12, 179a By 
this treaty, the Neapolitans engaged to 
furnish 6000 troops, four ships of the Ime, 
8cc^ for war against France in the Medi-^ 
terranean ; but Ferdinand FV made peace 
with the French republic in 1796, without 
having taken any active part in the con- 
test. On this occasion, and in the subse- 
quent events of 1798 and 1799, when the 
court emigrated to Sicily, sir l^liam ap- 
pears to have acted but*a secondary part 
as a political agent, and he was recalled 
not long afler. He died in London, April 
6, 1803. After his death, his collection of 
antique vases was purchased by parlia- 
ment for the British museum. 

Hashlton, lady (before her marriage, 
Emma Lyon or Harte). According to 
the memoirs which appeared under her 
name in 1815, her molner was a poor ser- 
vant woman, who, with her child in her 
arms, wandered back, in the year 1761, 
from the county of Chester, to her home 
in Wales. Her memoirs say, that she went 
into service as a children's maid at the age 
of 13. At 16, she went to London, and 
served a shop-keeper, and soon after be- 
came chambermaid to a lady of rank. 
The leisure which she here enjoyed, she 
devoted to novel reading. She soon ac- 
quired a taste jR>r the drama. She studied 
me attitudes and motions of the actors, 
and exercised herself in representing by 
attitudes and gestures the different pas- 
sions. She thus laid the foundation of 
her extraordinary skill in pantomimic rep- 
resentations. Her attention to these stud 
ies caused her to lose her place, and she 
became a maid servant in a tavern, fre- 
quented by actors, musicians, painters, 
&c According to her oi^ii memoirs, she 
retained her virtue in the midst of this scene 
of hcentiousness, and the subsequent sac- 
rifice of it she represents as an act of 
generosity. A countryman and relation 
of hei-s had lieen pressed upon the 
Thames. To obtain his release, she ba»- 



tened to the captain ; she pleased him, and 
her request was grmted. The captain 
loaded her with presents, and had her nat- 
ural capacity improved by instruction. 
She then found a new admirer, who, with 
the consent of her former lover, took her 
to his country seat But at the close of 
the summer, disgusted by her extrava- 
gance, and induced by domestic conaide- 
ntiona, he dismissed her. Again thrown 
helpless upon the world, she wandered 
through the streets of London, in the low- 
est stage of degradation. She then met 
with a quack doctor, who made her his 
goddcBB t^ff^tioy and exhibited her as 
such, wrapped in a light veil. Painters, 
sculptors and others paid their tribute of 
admiration at the shrine of tliis new god- 
dess, and among them the celebivtcd 
painter Romney, who fell in love with her. 
With him she practised all the reserve of 
modesty and virtue. But she ensnared 
Charles Greville, of the &mily of War- 
wick, who had three children by her, and 
was on the point of marrying her, when 
he was sudoenly disffraced, in 1789, and 
deprived of all lus offices. Unable to sup- 
port her any longer, he sent her to Napl^ 
where his uncle, sir William Hamilton, 
was ambassador. Sir William was so 
charmed with her. that he made an agree- 
ment with Greville, to pay his debte, on 
condition that he would give up his mistress. 
She now behaved with more oecorum ; she 
supplied, as far as possible, all the defi- 
ciencies in her education, and soon became 
remarkable for her social talents. Artists 
of aU kinds, who had access to sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton's house, be^n to pay their 
court to her, and she displayed before 
them her skill in attitudes. A piece of 
cloth was all she needed to appear as a 
daughter of Levi, as a Roman matron, or 
as a Helen or an Aspasia. It was she 
who invented the seducing shawl dance. 
Hamilton, who became each day more 
and more enamored of her beauty, at 
last determined to marnr her; and their 
nuptials were celebrated in London, in 
1791. Soon after his return to Naples, he 
presented her at court, and she soon took 
an active port in the festivals of the queen. 
She was the only witness of the secret 
suppers of the queen and Acton, and of- 
ten slept in the chamber of her royal 
fnend. This favor, and her haughtiness, 
dbpleased the ladies of the court, who 
e6uld not conceal their jealousy ; some of 
4iem were, on that account, treated as 
criminals of sute. At that time began 
Her acquaintance with Nelson, who soon 
oecame intimate with the ambassador and 

his wife. Througli them the English 
r Government receivwl information, tliat the 
King of Spain had determined to declare 
war. After the victonr of Aboukir, Nel- 
son was received in Naples with extrava- 
gant rejoiciuES. Lady Hamilton was the 
neroine of the crowd, to whom Nelson 
iqipeared as a liberating deity. Several 
montliB passed in festivities, until die ad- 
vance of the French obliged the royal 
fiimily, in December, 1798, to escape, witii 
Nelson's asfflstance, to Sicily. Some 
months after, Italv was delivered by the 
victories of the Austrians and the Rus- 
sians, and Nelson's fleet returned to the 
bay of Naples. Lady Hamilton accom- 
panied the slave of her charms ; and it is 
asserted, that the violent measures then 
used, contrary to the capitulation, were 
partly intended as acts of^ vengeance up- 
on her personal enemies. When the court 
returned to Naples, in 1800, things were 
replaced upon their former footing, and 
remained so till the English cabinet recal- 
led sir William Hamilton. Nelson resign- 
ed his command at the same time, and ap- 
peared in London with the lady and the 
ambassador. But the intimacy between 
Nelson and lady Hamilton here attracted 
general disapprobation. She was deliver- 
ed of a daugnter, which bore the name of 
Nelson. Soon after, sir William died, 
and his vridow retired to Merton place, a 
country seat which Nelson had bou^t for 
her. Abandoned to herself after his death, 
in 1805, she again gave herself up to her 
corrupt inclinations, and was soon reduc- 
ed to poverty. Limited to a small pension, 
she left England, took her daughter witli 
her, and hired a house in the countiy, near 
Calais, where she died, in 1815. Lady 
Hamilton was without education, but full 
of art To her beauty, and her skill in 
heightening its effect by the voluptuous at- 
titudes of 2ie dancing giri, she owed her 
feme and her good fortune. In violation 
of aU sensilMlity and decency, die sold or 
published the secret letters of Nelson to 
ner, and thus threw a merited stain upon 
the memory of this hero. 

Hamilton. William Gerard ; a states- 
man and parliamentary orator of the last 
cenmiy, who, on account of the extraor- 
dinary imprrasion produced by the first 
and almost the only speech he ever de- 
livered in the English house of commons, 
obtained the appellation of SmgU Speech 
Hamilton, He was bom in 1729. In 1754, , 
he obtained a seat in parliament, wlien he 
made his memorable speech ; and he was 
subsequently made one of the lords of 
tradf* and plantations. On the appoint- 



incot of lord Haliftx to the vice-royalty of 
Ireland, Hamilton went thither as his sec- 
retary, and was aoeompanied by the cele- 
brated Edmund Buike as his own secre- 
tary. In the Irish parliament, he sup- 
))orted the reputation he had preyiously 
cained as an orator, and for many yean 
Held the office of chancellor of the ex- 
chequer in that kingdom. He relinouish- 
ed that post in 17S4, and anient the latter 
part of his life in literary retirement His 
death took place in 1796. The letten of 
Junius have also been attributed to this 
gentleman. His woiks were published in 


Hamilton, Alexander, was borQ in 
1757, in the island of Nevis. His father 
was a native of England, and his mother 
of the island. At the age of 16, he be- 
came a student of Columbia college, his 
mother having emigrated to New York. 
He had not Men in that institution more 
than a year, before he gave a brilliant 
manifestation of the powers of his mind 
in the discussion conceminff the rights of 
the colonies. In support of these he pub- 
lished several essays, which were manced 
by such vigor and maturity of style, 
strength of argument, and wisdom and 
compass of views, that Mr. Jay, at that 
time in the meridian of hfe, was supposed, 
at first, to be the author. When it had 
become necessary to imsheath the sword, 
the ardent spirit of ^oung Hamilton would 
no longer allow him to remain in aca- 
demic retirement ; and before the age of 
19, he entered the American army, with 
the rank of captain of artillery. In this 
capacity, he soon attracted the attention of 
the commander-in-chief, who appointed 
him his aid-de-camp, with the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. This occurred in 
1777, when he was not more than 20 
years of age. From this time, he contin- 
ued the inseparable companion of Wash- 
ington during the war, and was always 
consulted by nim, and fre<}uently by other 
eminent public functionaries, on the most 
important occasions. He acted as his first 
aid-de-camp at the batdes of Brandywine, 
Germantown, and Monmouth, and, at the 
siege of Yoiktown, he led, at his own re- 
quest, the detachment that carried by assault 
one of the enemy's outworks, Oct 14, 1781. 
In this af&ir, he displayed the most bril- 
liant valor. Afier the war, colonel Ham- 
ilton, then about 24, commenced the study 
of the law, as he had at that time a wi& 
and family depending upon him for sup- 
port He was soon admitted to the bar. 
In 1782, be was chosen a member of con- 
gress fiiom the state of New York, where 

he quickly acquired the greatest influence 
and distinction, and was always a meml>er 
and sometimes chairman of those com- 
mittees to which were confided such sub- 
jects as were deemed of vital interest to 
the natioiL The reports which he pre- 
pared are remaikable for the correctness 
and power which characterize every ef- 
fort of his pen. At the end of the session, 
he rettunea to the practice of his profes- 
sion in the city of New York, and became 
eminent at the bar. In 1786, he was chos- 
en a member of the legislature of his 
state, and was mainly instrumental in pre- 
venting a serious collision between Ver- 
mont and New York, in conBe4]uence of a 
dispute concerning territorial Jurisdiction. 
He was elected a delegate of New York 
to the convention which was to meet nt 
Phihidelphia, in order to form a constitu- 
tion for the U. States. As the doore of 
the convention were closed dimng its sit- 
tings, and its records have never been giv- 
en to the world, it is not possible to state 
the precise part which he acted in that 
body. It is well ascertained, however, 
that the country is, at least, as much in- 
debted to him for the excellences of tlic 
constimtion, as to any other member of 
the illustrious assembly. Hamilton and 
Madison were the chief oracles and arti- 
ficers. After the adoption of the consd- 
tiition by the convention, he associated 
himself with Mr. Madison and Mr. Jay, 
for the purpose of disposing the public to 
receive it with fiivor. The essavs which 
they wrote with that design, adoressed to 
thepeople of New York, during the years 
1787 and 1788, are well known under the 
name of the Fideraligtj and contributed 
powerfiilly to produce the effect for 
which they were composed. The larger 
portion of them was written by Hamilton, 
in 1788, he was a member of the state 
convention of New Yoik, which met to 
deliberate on the adoption of the fUeral 
consdmdon, and it was chiefly in conse- 
quence of his efforts that it was accepted. 
On the organization of the federal gov- 
ernment, in 1789, he was appointed to the 
office of secretarv of the treasury. This 
was a situation which required the exer- 
cise of all the great powera of his mind ; 
for the pubUc credit was, at that time, in 
the lowest state of depression ; and, as no 
statistical accotmt of the country had ever 
been attempted, its fiscal resources were 
wholly imknown. But before Hamilton 
retired fix>m the post, which he did after* 
filling it during somewhat more than ^ve 
years, he had raised the public credit to 
a height altogether unprecedented in the 



history of tbe country, and, by the admira- 
ble syetem of finance which he establish- 
ed, liad acquired the reputation of one of 
the greatest financieis of the age. His 
official reports to congress are considered 
as masterpieces, and the principles which 
he advocated in them stiO continue to ex- 
ercise a great influence in the revenue de- 
partment of the American government. 
Whilst secretary of the treasury, he waS| 
ex <^faOy one of the cabinet counsellom 
of preadent Washington ; and such was 
the confidence reposed by tliat great man 
in his integrity and ability, that he rarely 
ventured upon any executive act of mo- 
ment without his concurrence. He was 
one of the principal adviseis of the proc- 
lamation of neutrality issued by Wasning- 
ton in 1793, in consequence of an attempt 
made fay the minister of France to cause 
the U. States to take p«ut with his country 
in the war then waging between it and 
England. This measure he defended in 
a series of essays, under the sifnature of 
Poei^eiw, which were successful in giving 
it popularity. In 1795^ Hamilton resigned 
bis ofiUce, and retired to private life, in or- 
do" to be better able to support a numer- 
ous fiimily by the practice of his profes- 
sion. In 17^ however, when an inva- 
sion was apprehended fit>m the French, 
and a provisional army had been callea 
into the field, his public services were again 
required. President Adams had ofiered 
the chief conmiand of the provisioDal ar- 
my to WashinfftoD, who consented to ac- 
cept it on conmtion that Hamilton should 
be chosen seccnid in command, with the 
tide of inspector-generaL TkoB was ac- 
cotd]D|Hly none ; and, in a short time, he 
succeraed in bringing the organization 
and discipline of tlM army to a high de- 
gree of excellence. On the denth of 
Washington, in 1799, he succeeded, of 
eoorae, to tiie chief command. The ti- 
tle of lieutenant-general, however, to 
wfaidi he was then entitled, was, fiom 
some unexplained cause, never conferred 
on 1^. When the army was diMiended, 
after the ceasatiim of hostilities between 
the U. States and France, general Hamil- 
ton returned again to the bu-, and contin- 
ued to practise, with increased reputation 
and success, tmtil 1801 In June of that 
year, he received a note ftom colonel 
Durr, — between whom and himself a po- 
litical had become a personal enmity, — in 
wfaJch he was required, in offensive lan- 
guage, to acknowledge or disavow certain 
expreaaons derogatory to the latter. Tbe 
tone of the note was such as to cause him 
to refuse to do either and a challenge was 

the consequence. liAy 1 1 , tbe parties met 
at Hoboken,and on tbe fint fire Hamilton 
fell, mortally wounded, on the same tspoft 
where, a short time pMviously, his eldest 
son had been killed in a duel. He linger- 
ed until the afternoon of the following 
day, when he expired. The sensation 
which this occmrence produced through- 
out the U. States, had never been exceed- 
ed on this continent Men of all political 
parties feh that the nation was deprived 
of its greatest ornament. His transcendent 
abilities were universally acknowledged; 
every citizen was readv to express confi- 
dence in his spirit of honor and liis ca- 
pacity for public service. Of all the co- 
adjutors and advisera of Washington, 
Hamilton was, doubde8B,theone in whose 
judgment and sagacity he reposed Uie 
greatest confidence, whether in the milita- 
ry or civil career; and, of all the Ameri- 
can statesmen, he dis^riayed the most 
comprehensive underatanding and the 
most varied aUlity, whether aipplied to 
safcgects practical or speculative. A col- 
lection of his worics was issued in New 
Yoric, in three octavo volumes, some yean 
after his death. His style is nervous, lu- 
cid and elevated ; he excels in reasoning, 
founded on general principles and histor- 
ical experience. (General Hamilton was 
regarded as the head of the federalists in 
the party divinons of the American re- 
public. He was accused of having pre- 
ferred, in the convention diat fhuned Uie 
federal constitutian, a govemmem more 
akin to the monarchic^ ; he weakened 
the federal party bv denouncing president 
Adams, whose administration he disap- 
proved, and whose fitness for office he 
questioned. But bis general couise, and 
his confidentia] corres^mdence, show that 
he earnestly desired to preserve the con- 
stitution, when it was adopted, and that his 
motives were patriotic in his proceedings 
towards Mr. Adams. Certain it is, tliat 
no man labored more fidtfifuUy, skilfully 
and efficiently, m oiganizing and putting 
into operation the fectoral government. 

Hamilton Collsoe. (See Ginion.\ 

Haicmsr; a well-known tool used by 
mechanics, of which there are various 
sorts ; but thejr all consist of an Iron head 
fixed crosswise to a handle of wood. 
Among blacksmiths, there are tbn hand- 
hammer, the uphand sledge, the about 
sledge (which is swung over head with 
both arms), &c. 

Hahmek, in German geographical 
names, means yom. 

Hammer, Joseph von, one of the first 
Orientalists of the present day, interpreter 



of Oriental langu^g^ ^ the coiiit of Vien- 
ua, was bom m 1774, at Gr&tz, in Stiria, 
where hia father waa a member of the 
provincial counciL In 1787, Hammer, 
already distinffuished for his talents, was 
placed in the Barbara institution, at Vien- 
na, and, in 1788, in the Oriental academy, 
founded by prince Kaunitz. He was 
afterwards employed as an assistant in 
publishing the Arabic, Persian and Turk- 
ish lexicon, known as Meninaky's. In 
1796, he was appointed secretory to the 
baron von Jenisch. About this time, he 
first translated a Tuiidah poem on the end 
<^ all thinffs, and wrote several poetical 

Sieces, which appeared in the German 
[ercury. The vear 1798 he spent in 
traveUuig and study. In 1799, Hanmier 
went to Constantinople, as an interpreter, 
in the suite of the learned internuncio, 
baron von Herbert, who was sent to open 
a communication, for Austria, with Persia 
and the East Indies. On the conclusion 
of the treaty of El Arish, stipulating the 
departure of the French army from Egypt, 
he sent Hammer to that country, on a 
miaeion coimected with the imperial 
consulate. Among the fruits of this jour- 
ney are, the Ibis mummies, the coUection 
of Arabian letters, the voluminous romance 
of chivalry, .^fitar, in the Arabic languaj^e, 
a curiosity even in the East, the stone m- 
scribed with hieroglyphics, from the cata- 
combs of Sakara, and several other valua- 
ble articles, preserved in the imperial hbra- 
ry. As the treaty was not ratified. Ham- 
mer accompanied Hutchinson, sir Sidney 
Smith and Jussuf Pacha, as secretary and 
interi»eter, in their campaign against Me- 
nou. In the fall of 1801, he went throu|^h 
Malta and Gibraltar to England ; in April, 
1802, he returned to Vienna ; and, in Au- 
gust, to Constantinople, as secretary of le- 
gation to the Austrian internuncio, baron 
von Stfirmer. In 1806, he went, as con- 
sular avent, to Moldavia, at the important 
crisis of the wax between Russia, Prussia 
and France ; remarkable, also, for the 
passage of admiral Duckworth through 
the Dardanelles. The French minister, 
Reinhardt, himself a learned man, at that 
time ambassador to the hospodar of Mol- 
davia and Walachia, treated the learned 
Hammer with great distinction. Since 
the sunmier of 1807, Hammer has been 
established in Vieima« In 1811, he was 
appointed acting imperial counsellor, and 
interpreter to the privy court and state 
chancery. In October^ 1815, he was ap- 
pointed first keeper of the imperial court 
library, which office he did not accept 
The emperor of Russia bestowed upon 

him the order of saint Anne of the second 
class, and the king of Denmark the order 
of the Danebrog. In 1816, he married the 
eldest daughter of Mr. von Hennickstein ; 
in 1817, he was made imperial court 
counsellor; and, in 1819, a knight of the 
order of Leopold. He has published 
Sketches of a Journey fix)m Vienna, 
through Trieste, to Venice, and through 
Tyrol back to Salzburg (1798) ; General 
View of the Learning of the East (1804), 
according to the great Bibliography of 
Hadschi IChalfa; Ancient Alphabeta and 
hieroglyphical Characters explained, with 
an Account of the Egvptian Priests, their 
Classes, Initiation and Sacrifices, in the 
Arabic Language, by Ahmed Bc^ Abu- 
bekr Ben Waahie, and, in English, by 
Joseph Haimner (London^ 1805); the 
Tnnnpet of the Holy War, edited by John 
MtiUer (1806) ; Resmi Ahmed Effendi's 
Reports on his Embasoes to Vienna (1757) 
and Berlin (1763, 1809); Topographical 
Remarks upon a Journey to the Levant 
(1811); Constitution of the Ottoman Em- 
pire (1816) ; History of Persian Belles-let- 
tres (1818); Remarks on a Journey (1804) 
from Constantinople to Brussaand Olym- 
pus, and back through Nicsa and Ni- 
comedia (1818); Histoiv of the Assassins, 
from Oriental Sources (1818). He trans- 
lated the three greatest lyric poems of the 
nations of Eastern Asia— the Divan of Ha- 
fiz, fi!om the Persian, in 1813; the Mote- 
nebbi, from the Arabic, in 1823 ; and the 
Baki, from the Turkish, in 1825. His 
poem, Menmon'e Trilogy (Vienna, 1823), 
contains an Indian pastoral, a Persian 
opera, and a Turkish comedy. He has 
vmtten, also, poems and other contribu- 
tions for several periodicals. With the 
assistance of count Wenzel Rzewuaky, he 
established the excellent journal tvnd- 
grubm dta Orients (Mines of the East) 
—a raUying point for the Orientalists 
of all Europe. His Essay on the In- 
fluence of Mohammedanism gained the 
prize of the national institute, in 1806. 
The 6th volume of his History of the 
Ottoman Empire was published in 

Hammock, in naval afi^rs ; a piece of 
hempen cloth, six feet long and three feet 
wide, gathered together at the two ends by 
means of a clew, and slung horizontally 
under the deck, forming a receptacle for a 
bed. There are about from 14 to 20 
inches in breadth allowed between the 
decks for every hammock m a ship of 
war. In preparing for battle, the ham- 
mocks, with their contents, are all finnly 
corded, taken upon deck, and fixed in var 



rious nettkifiB, so as to form a barricade 
against smaUshot 

Hammond, James, an English elegiac 
poet, bom in 171Q, receiyed his education 
at Westminster school, where he formed an 
intinMU^ with lords Cobham, Chesterfield 
and Lyttelton,and others afterwards distin- 
giiiahed io literature. He was appoint^ 
equeny to Frederic, prince of Wales ; and, 
in 1741, was chosen member of parlia- 
ment for Tiuro. He died the following 
year, his heahh, if not his intellect, having 
been disordered by an unfortunate attach- 
ment ro a young lady who rejected his ad- 
dmsesL After his death, a small volume 
of his Love Elegies was published, with 
a pie&ce by lord Chesterfield. They are 
ctadhf imitations of Tibullus, and display 
a ctdtivated taste and warm imaginatioD. 
Hampobn, John, celebrated for his 
patriotic opposition to taxation by pre- 
rogative, was bom in London, in 1594, 
and, at an eariy age, was entered a gentle- 
man commoner at Magdalen coUese, Ox- 
ford. On leaving the universitv, he took 
chambefs in one of tlie inns of cx>urt, in 
order to study hw ; but the death of his 
fitther patting him in possession of an 
ample estate, he indulffed in the usual 
career of country gentlemen, until the 
aspect of the times, and the natural weight 
orhis connexions and character, produosd 
greater strictness of conduct, without any 
abatement of his cheerfulness and afia- 
iHlity. He was cousin-german, by the 
mother's side, to Oliver Cromwell. He 
entered pariiament in 1626 ; and, althouffh 
for some years a unifomi opposer of the 
arbitnuy practices in church and state, and 
one of those who, in 1637, had engaffed a 
ship to carry them to New England, 
he acted no very distinguished part 
Hume sneers at the motives of this in- 
tended emigration, as merely Puritanical ; 
bat the conduct of Hampden in regard to 
the demand for ship-money, which im- 
mediately followed the prohibition to de- 
part the kini^dom, forms a conclusive 
answer to this insinuatioiL His resist- 
ance to that illegal impost (to use the lan- 
gnagl of lord Clarendon) made him the 
argument of all ton|;ues, especially as it 
was after the decinon of the judges in 
&vor of the king's right to levy ship- 
money, that Hampden refiised to pay it 
Being prosecuted in the court of exche- 
quer, he himself, aided by counsel, argoed 
tiw case against the crown fewyers for 12 
days, before the 12 judges ; and, although 
it was decided against him by eight of 
ihem to four, the victory, as ftr as regard- 
ed public opinion, was his. From this 

time, he received the title of the patriot 
Hampdtn ; and his temper and hie mod- 
esty on this great occasion acquired him 
as much credit as his courage and perse- 
verance. Henceforward he took a prom- 
inent part in the great contest between the 
crown and the parliament, and was one 
of the ^ye members whom the king so 
impmdentiy attempted, in person, to seize 
in the house of commons. When the 
appeal was made to the sword, Hampden 
acted with bis usual decision, by accept- 
ing the command of a regiment in the 
parliamentary army, under the earl of 
Essex. Prince Rupert having beaten up 
the quarters of the parliamenta^ troops, 
near Thame, in Oxfordshire, Hampden 
eagerly joined a tew cavalrv that were 
ramed in haste, and, in the skirmish that 
ensued, received a wound which proved 
fotal six days after its infliction, on the 
24th June, 1643. It is said that the king 
testified his respect for him by sending 
his own physician to attend him. His 
death was a great subject of rejoicing to 
the royal party, and of grief to his own. 
That the joy of the former was misplaced, 
there is now much reason to believe, as 
he would probably have proved a power- 
fill check upon the imprincipled ambition 
of his relative Oliver. Clarendon sums 
up an elaborate character of this eminent 
leader, by declaring that, like Catiline, 
^ He had a head to contrive, a tongue to 
persuade, and a hand to execute, any 
mischief." But his character and con- 
duct, fit>m first to last, evince his con- 
scientiousness, and he has taken his rank 
by acclamation on the one side, and tacitly 
on the other, high in the list of Enghsh 

Hampden Sidnet College ; a collese 
in Prince Edward county, Virginia, bO 
miles S. W. of Richmond, and central to 
the southern section of the state. It was 
founded in 1775. The corporation con- 
sists of 27 men, most of whom are gradu- 
ates fit)m other colleges. The president 
of the college is tiie professor of mental 
philosophy, rhetoric, moral phUoeophy and 
natural law. There is a professor of 
chemistry and natural philosophy, one of 
mathematics, and one of die learned hm- 
guages. There are two college build- 
ings, which are very commodious. The 
number of underffraduates is about 100. 
There are four linraries belonging to the 
institution and the students, comprising 
more than 2000 volumes. The college 
year has two sesmons. There is no town 
or villa^ in the vicinity of the college. 
The Umon Theological seminary, a Prea- 



byterian insdtutioii, cataMkhed in 1834, is 
frituated near the college, and contained, 
in 1890, 35 students. 

of the southern counties of England, on 
the Enfflish channel, including, also, the 
Isle of Wight, and, in some points of 
jurisdiction, the more distant islands of 
Jersey and Guernsey. 

Hampshire, New. (See Aet^ liaunp' 

Hampstead ; a populous village of 
England, in Middlesex. It is simated on 
the declivity of a high hill, firom which 
there is one of the best and most charming 
prospects of the metropolis and the adja- 
cent counties. According to tradition, 
this was formerly a hunting seat of James 
II. PoDulationoftheparJsh,7263. Four 
miles N. London. This place is much 
resorted to in summer, by the inhabitants 
of London. 

Hampton Court ; a royal residence, 
on the northern bank of the Thames, 
about 13 miles from London. It was 
erected by cardinal Wolsey, who lived 
here magnificently. The palace was said 
to be provided with 280 beds for visitors 
of rank. Wolsev presented it to Henrv 
VIII, in 1536, after which it was much 
resorted to by the English kings and 
queens, until lately. The palace and 
appurtenances are very spacious, and are 
described at length in the various Guides 
of London. Much of the celebrity of 
Hampton court is owing to the gallery of 
paintings, in which the famous cartoons of 
ilapham are preserved. They are called, 
1^ way of excellence, the cartoons* They 
are part of a scries of desims made for 
tapestry, and were purchased by Charles I. 
They are deservedly reckoned among the 
finest of Raphael^ works, and cuuse- 

Suently among the finest woiks of art 
kichardson has given an accurate histor- 
ical and critical description of them ; and, 
in his opinion, thiey are more fitted to con- 
vey a true idea of the genius of Raphael, 
than even the loggie of the Vatican. The 
tapestries that have been wrought from 
them are but shadows of the ori^nals, 
yet are preserved with great veneration at 
Kome, and only shown on a few days in 
the year, in the gallery which leads from 
St. Peter's to the Vatican, and never fail 
to attract an inmiense crowd. Towards 
the end of the ^ear 1797, the French gov- 
ernment exhibited, in the Salon du Muah^ 
several tapestries worked at Brussels, 
which were said to have been executed 
after the designs of Raphael. The car- 
toons at Hampton court have been several 

times engn^ved, first by Gribelin, in queea 
Anne's rei^i, next by Dorigny, and since 
that by several inferior artists, most prob- 
ably finom the other engravings. Thev 
have also been engraved lately, of a small 
size, by Fitder, and of a very large size, 
and in a splendid and superior manner, 
by Hollo way. One of the most admired 
of these cartoons is St Paul preaching at 
Athens. (For more information respect- 
ing them, and the other valuable pictures 
at Hampton court, see BriiUh GaUerits of 
^ri (London, 1824). — Hampton, the villace 
near Hampton court, contains 3549 inhab- 
itants, and is 14 miles distant fiiom Lon- 

Hanaper ; an office in chancery, under 
the direction of a master, whose deputy 
and clerks answer, in some measure, to 
thejiscal among the Romans. The clerk 
of the hanaper receives all fines due to the 
king for seals of charters, patci::?, com- 
missions and writs. He attends, also, the 
keeper of the seal daily, in term, and at 
all umes of sealing, and takes into his cus- 
tody all sealed charters, patents, &,c. 

Hanau, a province or Hesse-Cassel, in 
the Wetteravia, constituted, from 1809 to 
1813, part of the grand-duchy of Frank- 
fort. It contains 572 square miles, with 
88,100 inhabitants, mosdy Protestants, who 
formed a religious union in 1818. The 
capital is Hanau, on the Kinzig ; lat. 5(P 
5V N. ; Ion. 8° 51' E. ; widi 1479 houses 
and 9700 inhabitants ; fiimous for the battle 
fought here, Oct 30, 1813, between the 
Bavarian general Wrede and Napoleon, 
on the retreat from Leipsic. The victory- 
was, at first, decidedly for the French ; 
but the allies clsimed the advantage, be- 
cause they had seriously embarrassed the 
retreat of Napoleon. Military writers 
have reproached general Wrede for his 
bad tactics. He was himself severely 
wounded. The allies did not advance 
before November 2, and therefore could 
not have gained any great advantage. Jt 
is said that die French lost 15,000 killed 
and wounded, and 10,000 prisoners, in the 
combats in and near Hanau. 

Hancock, John, was bom at Qnincy, 
near Boston, and was the son and grand- 
son of eminent clergymen, but, having 
early lost his fiither, was indebted for his 
liberal education to his uncle, a merchant 
of great wealth and respectability, who 
sent him to Harvard university, where he 
was graduated in 1754. He was then 
placed in the counting-house of , his beue- 
nctor, and not long aiierwaids visited 
England, where he was present at the cor- 
onation of George HI, as little prescient 



as the monarch himself of the {Mirt which 
he was destined to act in relation to the 
English government. On the sudden de- 
mise of his uncle, in 1764, he succeeded 
to his large fortune and extensive business ; 
both of which he managed witli great 
judgment and munificence. As a mem- 
ber of the provincial legislature, he exerted 
himself with zeal and resolution against 
the royal governor and the British minis- 
try, and became so obnoxious to them, in 
consequence, that in the proclamation is- 
sued by general Gage, after tlie battle of 
Lexington, and a few days before that of 
Bunker hiU, offering pardon to the rebels^ 
he and Samuel Adams were specially ex- 
cepted, their offences beinff ^ of too flagi- 
tious a nature to admit of^an^ other con- 
sideration than that of condign punish- 
ment.'* This circumstance gave additional 
celebrity to these two patriots, between 
whom, however, an unfortunate dissension 
took place, which produced a temporary 
schism in the paity tliey headed, and a 
long pergonal estrangement between them- 
9elve& In fact, they differed so widely in 
their modes of living and general disposi- 
tions, that their concurrence in pohtical 
measures may be considered one of the 
strongest proofs of their patriotism. Han- 
cock was a magnificent liver, lavishly 
bountiful, and splendidly hospitable ; 
Samuel Adams had neither the means nor 
the inclination for pursuing a similar 
couise. He was smdiously simple and 
frugal, and was of an austere, unbending 
chiuacter. Hancock was president of the 
provincial congress of Massachusetts, un- 
til he was sent as a delegate from the 
province to the general congress at Phila- 
delphia, in 1775. Soon after his arrival 
there, he was chosen to succeed Peyton 
Randolph as president of that assembly, and 
was the first to affix his signature to the dec- 
laration of independence. He continued 
to fill the chair until the year 1779, when he 
was compelled by disease to retire from 
congress. He was then elected governor 
of Massachusetts, and was annually cho- 
sen finom 1780 to 1785. After an interval 
of two years, during which Mr. Bowdoin 
occupied the post, ne was reelected, and 
continued in the office until his death, 
Oct 8, 1793, at the age of 56 years. In 
the interval, he acted as president of the 
convention of the state for the adoption 
of the federal constitution, for which he 
finally voted. (An able sketch of his char- 
acter is contained in Tudor*s Life of Otis.) 
The talents of Hancock were rather use- 
ful than brilliant. He seldom spoke, but 
his knowledge of business, and facility in 

VOL. TI. 14 

despatching it, together with his keen in- 
sight into the characters of men, rendered 
hun peculiarly fit for public Ufe. As the 
president of a deliberative assembly, he 
excelled. His voice was sonorous, his 
apprehension of questions quick ; he was 
well acquainted with parhamentaiy fonns, 
and he inspired respect and confidence 
by his attention, impartiality and dignity. 
In private life, he was eminent for his hos- 
pitality and beneficence. He was a com- 
plete gentleman of the old school, both in 
nis appearance and manners; dressing 
richly, according to the fiishion of the day, 
keeping a handsome equipage, and being 
distm^ished for politeness and affiibilitf 
in social intercourse. When Washington 
consulted the legislature of Massachusetts 
upon the proprietor of bombarding Boston, 
Hancock advised its being done immedi- 
ately, if it would benefit the cause, although 
nearly his whole property consisted m 
houses and other real estate in that town. 

Hah D ; a measure of four inches^ or of 
the clenched fist In painting and sculp- 
ture, it signifies also the style of the artist 
Hands are borne in coats of armor, ri^t 
and left, expanded or open ; and a blo^^ 
hand in the centre of an escutcheon, is 
the badge of a baronet of Great Britain. 

Haudbrkadth ; a measure of three 

HiimcuFFs ; an instrument formed of 
two circular pieces of iron, each fixed on 
a hinffe on the ends of a verv short iron 
bar, wiuch, being locked over the wrists of 
a rnalefiu^r, prevents his using his hands. 

Handel, properly Haeiidbl, George 
Frederic. This celebrated composer was 
a native of Halle, in the duchy of Magde- 
burg, in Lower Saxony, where his fiuher 
practised with considerable reputation as a 
physician and surgeon. He was bom 
Feb. 24, 1684. His fiither, intending him 
for the kw, discouraged, as much as possi- 
ble, the strong passion which he evinced 
early in life wr the science of music. 
But, although he was foii)idden the use of 
musical instruments, the young musician 
contrived to secrete a small clavichord in 
a garret, where he amused himself during 
great piut of the night after the rest of the 
family had redred, and made such progress 
that, on paying a visit to the court of Saxe- 
Weissenfels, where his brother held a 
subordinate situation in the household, he 
played on the church organ with such 
power and effect, that the duke, who ac- 
cidentaDy wimessed his performance, used 
his influence successfully with his father, 
to permit him to follow his inclination. 
He was accordingly placed under the 



tuiti<m of Zachau, oiganist of the cathednL 
«Dd attfie age of nine was so fiff advanced 
in the piaelical pan of the science, as to 
be able to officiate occaaionally as deputy 
to his instnicter, while his theoretical pro- 
ficiency enabled him to compose a serrioe, 
or Bpintual cantata^ weekly, for neariy 
dbree vean. On the death of his fiuher in 
17C9^ he repaired to Hambiin, then cele- 
brated for the exceDence or its musical 
performances, and procured an engage- 
ment in the orchestra at the opera mere. 
At this period of his life, he commenced 
an acquaintance with Matfaeson the com- 
poser, which, thou^ untoward in its 
commencement ripened into a strict 
Aiendship. A nreach of etiquette durins 
the performance of the latter's opera of 
Cleopatm, on the 4th of December, 1704^ 
produced a quarrel between the young 
men, which terminated in a duel Fortu- 
nately, Matheson's sword broke against one 
of Handel's buttons, which ended the ren- 
counter, and a reconciliation took place. 
On the 30th of the same month, Handel 
brought out his first opera, Almira, which, 
m the February following, was succeeded 
by his Nero, Matheson performing the 
principal character ineacn. Having at 
length saved 200 ducats, — enouffh to war- 
nmt him in making a joumev to Italy,— ^e 
proceeded in succession to Florence, Ven- 
ice, Nq)les and Rome; in which latter 
capital he fi>rmed an acquaintance vrith 
CoreUi, at the house of caraiE»l OttobonL 
On his return to Qermany, in 1710, he en- 
tered the service of the elector of Hanover, 
afterwards Geor^^ I of England, as chapel- 
master ; butyhavmg received presnng invi- 
tations from severu of the British nobility 
lo visit London, he, with the permission 
of that prince, set out for EIngland, where 
he arrived in the latter end of 1710. The 
flattering reception which he met with in 
that country, induced him to break his con- 
tinental engagement, in violation of a pos- 
itive i>ronuse which he had given to re- 
turn within a q[>ecified time ; and he was, in 
consequence, on the accession of his royal 
patron to the throne of Great Britain, in 
much disgrace, till the good offices of baron 
KilmanseiKc restored him to favor, and the 
penaon of £200, granted him by queen 
Arme, was doubled. From 1715 to 1718, 
Handel resided with the earl of Burims- 
ton, and then quitted that nobleman for 
the service of the duke of Chandos, 
who entertained him as maegbro di capeQa 
to the splendid choir which he had estab- 
lished at his seat at Cannons. For the 
service of this magnificent chapel, Handel 
produced those anthems and organ fugues, 

which alone would have been sufficient to 
inmiortBlize him. After two years dedi- 
cated to this munificent patron, the royal 
academy of music was instituted ; and 
this great composer, whose fame had now 
reached its height, wbb placed at iis head ; 
and this, for a snort period, may be consid- 
ered as the most splendid era of music in 
England. The v^rarmth of his own tem- 
per, however, excited by the arrogance 
and caprice of Caresdni, Cuzzoni, and oth- 
ers of his principal Italian ringers, gave birth 
to many violent quarrels ; and, public opin- 
ion becoming to a certain extent enlisted in 
fiivorof his opponents, his popularity be- 

rto wane, and, after ten years' duration, 
9peras under his direction were ahon- 
donM. In 1741, he brought out his chtf- 
tPcnufn, the oratorio of the Messiah. This 
sublime comporition was not, however, 
duJ^ appreciated at its first representation — 
a circumstance which may be accounted 
for by the offence which its author had 
just given, in refuring to compose for Se- 
nesino, who had insulted him. Disgusted 
at its receptiou, Handel set out for Ireland 
towards the close of the same year, where 
it was much more successful ; and when, 
after an absence of nine months, which 
had turned out most profitably bolh to his 
purse and fame, he returned to London, 
the hostility afrainsthim had much abated, 
and his oratonos were constantly received 
at Covent-garden theatre, with the greatest 
approbation, by overflowing audiences: the 
Messiah, in particular, increased veariy in 
reputation. Some time previouslv to his 
decease, he was afflicted by total blind- 
ness ; but this misfortune had little effect 
on his spirits, and he continued not only 
to perform in public, but even to compose. 
His own air, however, from the oratono of 
Sampson, Total Eclipse, is said always to 
have affected and agitated him extremely 
after this melancholy privation. April ^ 
175d, he was, as usual, at his post^in the 
orchestra, but expired, afler a very short iU- 
nesB, on the 13th of the same month. His 
habits of life were regular ; and although, 
in his contests widi the nobility, he lost at 
one time the whole of his savings, amount- 
ing to £10,000, yet he afterwaras recover- 
ed himself, and left £20,000 at his decease. 
His appetites were coarse, his person 
laree and ungainly, his manners rough, 
and his temper even violent ; but his h^ut 
was humane, and his disposition liberal. 
His eariy and assiduous attention to his 
profession prevented him from acquiring 
much literary information, but he sp^e 
several modem language His musical 
powers can hardly be estimated too high- 



ly. lu boldnefls and ttaeaftih of fl^le, and 
in the comliiiuition of vigor, spirit and 
inyention in his instruniental compoai- 
tions, he was never surpaased. His cho- 
raaea have a grandeur and sublimity 
which have never been equalled. A very 
honorable national tribute of applause was 
given to Handel in 1785, by a musical 
commemoration at Westminster abbey, in 
trhich pieces selected exclusively from his 
works were performed by a band of 500 
instruments, m the presence of the royal 
family, and the principal nobility and gentiy 
of the three kmgdoms. This oreat com- 
poser never married ; he was nuried in 
Westminster abbey, where a monument by 
Roubilliac is erected to his memoiy. 

HANnspiKE ; a wooden bar or lever to 
heave roimd the windlass, in order to raise 
tiie anchor fiom the bottom ; or for stow- 
isiff the anchor^provisionB or cargo, in the 
ship's hokL The gtmnar'a kandipike is 
riiorterthan the fcmner, and armed with 
two claws for manaong the artillery. 

Hanoino. (See i/eof^ Puniahment of.) 

Hano-tcheou ; a city in China, of the 
first rank, capital of Tche-kiang ; 600 
miles S.S.W. of Peking ; Ion. 119^46' 
£.; lat 90^ Sa N. It isone of the inchest 
and largest cities of the empire, called by 
the Chinese the terrtstrial paradise, and 
said to contain 1,000,000 (sou Is; situated 
between the basin of the grand canal and 
the river Taen-tanff, which falls into the sea 
at the distance of Bttle more than 60 miles 
to the eastward. The tide, when full, in- 
creases die vridth of this river to about four 
rafles, oppofflte to the city. It has nothing 
inand in its appearance except its walls. 
The houses are low ; none exceed two sto- 
ries ; the streets are narrow ; they are 
paved with large, smooth flags in the mid- 
dle, and with small flat stones on each 
ade. The chief streets consist entirely of 
diops and warehouses, many not inferior 
to the most splendid of the kind in Eu- 
rope. A brisk and extensive trade is 
carried on in silks, and not a little in 
fuis and English broadcloths. The coun- 
try around produces great quantities of ex- 
cellent nlk ; and the people of the nlace say 
that 60,000 persons are employed in niis- 
iiiffit in the neighboring towns and YTlingsB. 

HijfMER, su- Thomas, was bom in 1676, 
and succeeded his uncle in his tide and 
the femily estate of Hanmer. In 1713, he 
was chosen speaker of the house of com- 
mons. This distinguished office he filled 
during the remainder of his parliamentary 
career. Towards the dose of his life, he 
withdrew altogether from public business, 
and occupied himself in elegant litera- 

ture ; the fruits of which appeared in a 
corrected and illustrated edition of Shak- 
speare's dramatic works, in six quarto vol- 
umes. He died in 1746. 

Haitnibajl, or Annibal ; son of Hamil- 
carBarcas;bomB.C.247. At the age of 
9 years, his father, whom he was eager to 
accompany in the war against Spain, made 
him swear at the altar eternal hatred to 
the Romans. He was a witness of his 
fiither's achievements in Spun ; but Ha- 
milcar having fallen in battle, in Lusitania, 
nine years afterwards, and his son-in-law 
Hasdrubal having be^ appointed to suc- 
ceed him, Hannibal returned home. At 
the age of 23, he returned to the army, at 
the request of Hasdrubal The soidien 
perceived in him the spirit of Hamilcar, 
whom they had so highly esteemed ; and, 
in three campaigns, his talents and his 
courage were so conspicuous, that the ar- 
my, on the murder of^ Hasdrubal, in 931, 
conferred on him the chief command bj 
acclamation. Faithful to his eariy vow, 
the young general of 36 yean soon mani- 
fested his determinalion to violate the trea- 
ties with Rome, whenever an opportunity 
should offer. This object was effected by 
the capture of Saguntum, which he took, 
with the consent of the Carthaginian sen- 
ate, aflcr a siege of eight months. The 
Romans, alarmed by the fate of this city, 
sent ambassadora to Carthage to demand 
that Hannibal should be delivered up. The 
demand being refused, they declared war 
Hannibal rai^ a powerfbl fiHce, and con- 
ceived the bold desijm of attnr'kiny the 
Romans in Itahr. After providing far the 
security of Africa, and having left his 
brother Hasdrubal with an army in Spain, 
he began his mareh with 90,000 fbot-eol- 
dierB, 40 elephants and 13,000 horsemen, 
traversed Gaul in the depth of winter widi 
incredible rapidity, and reached the foot 
of the Alps. In nine days, he crossed the 
summit ofthelitde St Bernard. At least 
this is the spot fixed upon by the careful 
invesd^ons of general Melville ; but, 
according to Reichard, he crossed the 
Genevre. Of the troops with which he 
had set out, however, he had now only 
30,000 foot-soldiere and 6000 horse re- 
maining; and these were litde more than 
skeletons. But his courage remained unsha- 
ken, and his only altemadve was victory or 
death. The capture of Turin secured 
htm a sui^ly of provisions, and encour- 
a^d the people of Cisalpine Gaul to join 
him. These auxiliaries would have been 
still more numerous, had not Publius 
Sdpio approached, by forced marehes. a^ 
the head of a Roman army, which had 



knded at Pisa. On the banks of the "H- 
cinus the annies engaged, and a charge of 
the Nnmidian liorse left Hannibal master 
of the field. Scipio avoided a second bat- 
Ue, and retreated beyond the Trebia, leav- 
ing the stronff town of Clastidiuni in the 
enemy's hands. Meanwhile Seuiprouius 
arrived with a second army, which held the 
Carthaginian leader in check for a while ; 
but Hannibal soon provoked his impetuous 
adversaty to an engaffemeut, disposed an 
ambuscade near the Trebia, and surround- 
ed and destroyed the Roman forces. The 
Romans lost their camp and 26,000 men. 
Hannibal now retired to winter quarters 
among his allies, in Cisalpine Gaul ; and, at 
the openmg of the next campaign, he 
found two new armies awaiting his ap- 
proach in the passes of the Apenmiies. 
lie determined to engage them separately, 
and destroy Flaminius before the arrival 
of his colleague. He deceived him, there- 
fore, by feigned marches, crossed the 
Apennines, and traversed the Clusian 
marsh. For four days and iiights the Car- 
thaginians were marching tlu*ough w^tcr. 
Even Hannibal, who had mounted the 
only remaining elephant, saved himself 
with difiicult}% and lost mi eye in conse- 
quence of an infiammatiou. He had 
scarcely regained firm footing, when he 
employed every means to compel Flamini- 
us to a batde. He wasted the whole coun- 
tiy with fire and sword, and feigned a 
march to Rome ; but suddenly fonned an 
ambush in a narrow pass, siurounded by 
almost inaccessible rocks. Flaminius, who 
inconsiderately followed him, was imme- 
diately attacked ; a bloody engagement 
took place near the lake Thrasymenus, in 
which Roman valor was overcome by arti- 
fice and superior skilL Assailed on every 
side, the Roman legions were cut in pieces 
without beinff able to display their col- 
umns. Enricned with the spoils of the 
conquered, Hannibal now armed his sol- 
diers in the Roman manner, and marched 
into Apulia, spreading terror wherever he 
approached. Rome, in consternation, in- 
trusted her safety to Fabius Maximus, the 
dictator, who determined to exhaust by 
delay the strength of the Carthaginians. 
He attacked Hannibal with his own weap- 
ons, and hung upon him every where 
without attempting to overtake him, con- 
vinced that the Carthaginians could not 
long hold a desolated territory. These 
were led by their general into the plauis of 
Capua, with the design of separating the 
terrified cities fix)m their alliance witii the 
Romans, and drawing down Fabius fit>m 
the mountains. But he suddenly found 

himself in the same toUs in which F]a> 
minius had perished. Shut up between 
the rocks of FormisB, the sands of Lecster- 
num, and impassable marshes, he was in- 
debted for his safety to a strataigem. Hav- 
ing collected a thousand oxen, and fastened 
burning torches to their horns, he drove 
tlie flmous animals at midnight into the 
defiles which were guarded by the Ro- 
mans. Panic-struck at the terrible sight, 
tiiey abandoned the heights, and Haimilial 
forced his way through their ranks. The 
Romans, dissatisfied with the delay of Fa- 
bius, now made Minutius Felix, master of 
the horse, liis colleague in the dictatorBhip. 
Eager for combat, he fell into an ambush 
at Gerunimn, and would have perislied, 
but for the aid of Fabius. Ailer this 
cam|)aign, the other Roman ffenerals 
seemed unwilling to trust any tiling to 
chance, and imitated the delay of Fabius. 
Hannibal saw wi\h grief his army slowly 
wasting a^way, when the new consul, Te- 
rentius Varro, an inexperienced and pre- 
sumptuous man, took the command of the 
legions. Hannibal had occupied Cannae 
(q. v.), and reduced the Romans to the 
necessity- of risking an engagement The 
two armies were drawn up in presence. 
Paulus iEmilius, the colleague of Varroj 
wished to put off tiie battle, on account of 
the disadvantageous position of the Ro- 
mans ; but Varro chose the day of his com- 
mand, gave the signal fi>r the attack, and 
the Roman army was destroyed. Hanni- 
bal now marched to Capua, which imme- 
diately opened its gates. Although tlie 
soldiers were enervated by a residence in 
this luxurious city, no Roman genera], 
after the battie of Cannae, ventured to 
show himself in the plain. Hannibal, 
however, was no longer in a condition to 
prosecute his successes. His army was 
enfeebled ; and, notwithstanding his splen- 
did success and the influence of his party 
in Cartilage, his enemies had gamed such 
an ascendency, that his brother Hasdrubal 
with difiiculty procured him a smaU rein- 
forcement of it^OOO foot and 2500 horse, 
which he was obliged to conduct by the 
way of Spain, mnnibal was therefore 
compelled to assume the defensive. Capua 
was mvested by two consular armies, and 
was on tiie point of surrendering. Han- 
nibal hoped to save it by a bold mversion. 
He marched to Rome, and encamped in 
sight of the capitol, B. C. 211 ; but tiie 
Romans were not thus to be discouraged ; 
Capua fell. This success gave tiie Ro- 
mans a decided superiorit}', and nearly rJl 
the people of Italy declared in their fiivor. 
Held in check by the consul, Claudius 



ffero, Hannibal could not effod a union 
witfi his brother, who, after having paaaed 
the Apenninea, was attacked and de- 
feated by ^oro, u> ^^- Haadnibal himaelf 
feU, and his bloody head waa thrown into 
the camp of Hannibal. The latter then 
retired to Brattium, where, auirounded 
with difficultiea, he yet maintained the 
contest with inferior loroea against victo- 
rious armies. But Scipio now carried the 
war into Africa, and made Carthage trem- 
ble ; and Hannibal was recalled to defend 
his country. ^ Not Rome, but the senate 
of Carthage has conquered Hannibal," he 
exclaimed, in the deepest anguish, when 
he read the orders recalling him from 
Italy. He embariced his troops, put to 
death the Italian allies who refused to ac- 
companv him, and, in 205, left the countiy 
which, tor 16 years, he had held in spite of 
afl the efforts of Rome. He landed at 
Leplis, gained over a part of the Numidi- 
ans, and encamped at Adrumetum. Scipio 
took several cities, and reduced the inhah- 
hanti to slaveiy. Pressed by his country- 
men to come to a decisive engagement, 
Hannibal advanced to meet him, and en- 
camped at Zama, five days' journey fit)m 
Caitnage. The two ffenerals had an in- 
terview, and HaEmibalproposed tenns of 
peace ; but in vain. Hanmbal was defeat- 
ed ; 20,000 Carthaginians were left upon 
the field, and as many more taken prisf n- 
en. Hannibal fled to Adrumetum, ralhed 
the fiigitives, and, in a few da^ collected 
a new aimy capable of checkmg the con- 
cnieror^s progreaa. He then hutene<Cto 
Caithage, and declared to the senate that 
there was no safeQr but in peace ; and per- 
suaded that body to acceae to the terms 
oflfered. llius ended the bloody contest 
of 18 years ; doubly fatal to Carthage, 
winch was at once stripped of her former 
conquests, and of all hope of new ones, by 
the loss of her fleet Hannibal, neverdie- 
leas, still retained his credit, and was made 
commander-in-chief of an army in the 
interior of Afiica. But the partisans of 
. Hanno, his bitterest enemy, continued to 
persecute him, and accused him to the 
Romans of maintaining a secret corre- 
spondence with Antiochus, king of Syria, 
with the desini of lighting anew the flames 
of war. Amoassaaors were accordingly 
sent to Carthage, to demand that he should 
be delivered up. He saved himself^ how- 
ever, by fileeinff to Cerdna, and tiience to 
lyre, where he was received with the 
greatest honors. He afterwards went to 
Elphcsus, to the court of Antiochus, en- 
gaged him io declare war asainst the Ro- 
mans, and persuaded him mat Italy must 

be made the theatre (faction. Antiocfaas 
apiMoved his plana ; but when Hannibal 
woposed an ailianoe with that prince to 
his own countiy, his enemies prevailed 
in the senate, and the whole design was 
fhistrated. He was indeed uipointed to 
the command of the Syrian neet, and at* 
tacked the Rhodians, who were allies of 
Rome ; but, owing to the treacheiy of one 
of his officers, he veas forced to retreat 
Antiochus himuBelf was led by a series of 
misfortunes and errors to conclude a dis- 
graceful peace. Hannibal was again oblig- 
ed to flee, to escape being delivered up to 
the Romans, and went to the court of 
Pnisias,king of Bithynia, who was ani- 
mated by the same spirit of hostility against 
the Romans. He was the soul of a power> 
ful league formed between Pruaas, and 
several neighboring princes, against £u- 
menes, king of Peigamus, an all^ of Rome, 
took the command of the mihtaiy forceu 
and gained several victories by land ana 
sea. Notwithstanding these advantages 
Asia trembled at the name of Rome ; and 
Prusias, to whom the aenate had sent 
ambassadors to demand the person of 
Hannibal, was on the point or comply- 
ing vrith the requisition. But the hero 
prevented the disgrace by swallowing 
poison, which he always carried about in 
his ring. He died B. C. 183, aged 64 
years. In the wotk HanaSbd^s Hunug 
iiber die Mten (Hannibal^ March over the 
Alps), by C. L. E. Zander (Hamb., 1823, 
4to.), all the previous investigations con- 
cerning Hannibal's route are cmleded'; tiM 
author foUows Deluc. 

Hanno ; a Carthaginian genend, who 
made a voya^ on me western coast of 
Africa, of which he has left the descrq>- 
tion. The puipose of this voyage was to 
make discovenes for the benefit of com- 
merce, and to settle colonies, of ndiich he 
established six on the coast of Morocco, 
whence he continued his voyages of dis- 
coveiy. From his description, he probably 
proceeded as far as the coast of Cruinea ; 
for his accountB of the people he de- 
scribes, are applicable to the Negroes of 
that countiy, and the two large sbeams 
containing crocodiles and hippopotamus- 
es conneqpond to the rivers Sen^(al and 
Gambia. Hanno lived, probably, 550 B.C., 
and deserves a distinguished place amongst 
the ancient navigatcm. The Ptr^phu of 
Hanno is die Grecian translation of the 
relation of his vovage. An English transla^ 
tion of it by Falconer appemd in 1797 
(8vo.) — ^Two Carthaginian genefals, of 
the name of Hanno, commanded in Sicily, 
successively, during the first Punic war.— 


Another Hanno \fbs one of the com- 
mandere under Huuiibiil in Italy, and was 
distinguiahed by several fortunate enter- 

Haitover ; a kingdom in the north of 
Germany, erected in 1814, consisting of 
the duchy of Bremen, the principality of 
LuDebuig, and of several other countries. 
It does not fbnn a consolidated whole, 
several portions of it being detached from 
the mam bodv. Area, 14,800 square 
miles. The inhabitonts, in 1829, amount- 
ed to 1,582,574, of whom 1,253,574 are 
Lutherans, 200,000 Catholics, and the rest 
Calvinists, Jews and Menonites. Its fig- 
ure somewhat resembles an oblong square, 
having the Elbe along its north-east dde, 
the German ocean on the north-west, 
Dutch Friesland, with Prussian Westpha- 
lia, on the south-west, and Saxony on the 
south-east. It lies between 6P 5V and 11'^ 
51' of E. Ion., and 5P 18^ and 53^ 54' of 
N. lat In 1815, it was divided into the 
11 following provinces : Calenbeig, G6t- 
tiiu^n, Luneburff, Hoya and DiephohZy 
HildeGiieim, Osnwriick, Veiden, the duchy 
of Bremen fwhich is distinct from the 
town), Bentheim, East Friesland, and 
Lin^ (with part of the lordships of 
Rhema and Meppen). These provinces 
are subdivided into 107 baitiwics. With 
the exception of the Hartz, and other ele- 
vated tracts in the south, the territory of 
Hanover consists of an immense plain, 
with gentle undulations, but hardly any 
thin^ that can be called a mountain. In 
the south, the valleys are fertile. In the 
north are manv barren heaths and moors. 
The most productive tracts are those along 
the banks of die rivers, which have been 
reclaimed from a marshy state. The 
mountain tract of the Hartz is covered 
with vast forests, which are particularly 
valuable in this, quarter, as they afford 
fuel for the supply of the mines, ^vith 
which the country abounds, and which 
are still more valuable than its forests. 
Those of silver were discovered as eariy 
as the vear 968, and are supposed to have 
been the first opened in Europe. Iron, 
coppcfr and lead are wrought here to a 
.great extent ; also zinc and sulphiu-, with 
green, blue and white vitriol The iron 
mines are the most productive ; and their 
annual tenth yields a revenue of about 
£1 15,000 sterling. The rivers of Hanover 
are the Elbe (joined by the Jeetzel the 
Ilmenau, the Oste, the Weser (wliicn re- 
ceives the Leine), the Ocker, the Innerste, 
the Ruhme, and the Embs (joined by the 
Stunte and Haze). The chief lakes are those 
of Stemhude and Dununer. The Hartz, 

being a moimtain tract, is, like other 
mining districts, deficient in com. The 
duchy of Luneburg contains hnmense 
heaths, called, on account of their barren- 
ness, the Arabia of Crermam/. These are 
turned to account as sheep-walks, and, 
in some degree, as affording nourish^ 
ment to bees. The corn cultivated is a 
mixture of wheat, bariey and oats, but 
with a considerable proportion of rye and 
buck-wheat; peas and beans are very 
generally raised; but agriculture is, in 
many parts of the kingdom, in a very back- 
ward state. Thread and linen manufac- 
tures are carried on in various parts. The 
other manu&ctures of the kingdom are 
coarse woollens, paper, leather and glass, 
carried on in a number of places, but on 
a small scale in each. The only town 
which has a maritime trade of conse- 
quence is Embden. Four fairs are held 
annually at Hanover, and two at Osna- 
br&ck. The goods imported firom abroad 
are Elnglish manufactures and colonial 
produce ; linen from Friesland and Prus- 
sia; broadcloth, silk and jewelry from 
France. The chief exports are coarse 
linen, iron and copper fit)m the Hartz, 
timber cut into planks, with horses and 
black catde fiiom various parts of the 
country. Hanover has one university', 
37 gymnana and Latin schools, 3561 com- 
mon schools in toi^ns and villages, four 
seminaries for the education of school- 
masters, six schools for midwives, &;c. 
Public debt, 30,000,000 ffuilders ; revenue 
of 1829, 3,202,324 guilders ; expenditure, 
3,127,692 ; standinff army, 12,940 ; contiii 
gent to the army of the Germanic confbd 
eracy, 13,054. Dec. 7, 1819, the prince 
regent of England gave Hanover a con- 
stitution, if we may designate by this 
name the charter, which expressly says, 
that no untried principles shall be intro- 
duced ; but that, in the main, the chambers 
shall exercise the same privileffra as the 
former provincial deputies. The pro- 
\iucial estates were not abolished, and tlie 
regent reserved to himself the right to 
change and modify the charter, wmch is 
founded on old aristocratic principles. 
The Hanoverian nobility is noted as the 
most arrogant in Germany, and the least 
advanced m modem Uberal ideas. There 
are two chambers, neither of which is 
founded on the principle of general rep- 
resentation. (See European VonaHtutionSy 
Leipnc, 1820, 3d vol., p. 345.) Their first 
session was opened Dec. 28, 1819, and the 
duke of Cambridge, brother to the reffent, 
in his speech, reminded the two'chaniDers 
that they were divided only to investigate 



the affiun of the country more thoroughly, 
and not to have different principles of de- 
libemtion. Publicity of debate, of course, 
was not adnuasible. The privileges of 
these chunberB amount to little more 
than the liberty of discussinff matters 
which government lays before them. By 
the edict of Oct 12, 1822, the government 
received a new orsuiization, and the 
kingdom was divided into seven districts. 
At the head is a ministry at Hanover, 
which makes reports to the king in Eng- 
land, and receives orders in regard to 
affidrs of importance. In many parts of 
the country, the feudal jurisdictions still 
exist, and, in many instances, the judicial 
and executive authority is still united, as 
was formeriy the case almost every where. 
At Zell, there is a supreme court of appeal. 
Ernest Augustus, of the Bninswick-Lune- 
bonr line, was made the first elector, in 
1692. His son, Georse Lewis, ascended 
the throne of England as George I. His 
successors have been sovereigns, both of 
Great Britain and Hanover. In the time 
of the continental wars, Hanover under- 
went many changes ; was once in posses- 
sion of Prussia; afterwards formed the 
main part of the kinsdom of Westphalia, 
and, by the treaty or Paris, was raised to 
the rank of a kingdom. The duke of 
Cambridge, brother to William IV, is 
governor-general of Hanover. 

Hah OVER ; a city of Germany, the capi- 
tal of the kingdom of that name, on tne 
Leine, which here becomes navigable. 
It is in the fi>rm of a half moon, and is 
separated, by the river, into two perts, 
called the Old and New Town. These 
were formerly surrounded with walls and 
ditches; but, in 1780, part of the ramparts 
were leveUed, and hud out into streets, 
and the rest formed into an esplanade, 
where a monument has been erected to 
Leibnitz. Hanover belonged to the Han- 
aeatic league, in the middle ages. The 
town has an antiquated aspect This is 
particulariy the case in what is called the 
Old Town. The New Town, winch stands 
on the right side of the river, is buUt in a 
much better style than the Old. The 
public binldings are the elector's palace, 
and thepuUic hbraiy, founded by Leib- 
nitz, nrfie charitable institutions are an 
orphan house, two hospitals, and two 
poor-houses. For the purpose of educa- 
tion, there is a gymnasium, a female 
school of industry, and several elementarv 
schools. The Ueorgianum is a school, 
erected in 1796, for the education of 40 
sons of Hanoverian nobles. Hermhau- 
aen and Montbrillant are country man- 

sions of the royai ftmiiy, at some dis- 
tance firom the town. The inhabitanlB of 
Hanover derive their chief support fiom 
the presence of die court, and me gentry 
of landed property. They have, however, 
some manuftctures on a small scale, such 
as gold and silver lace, the printing of 
cotton and linen, the preparation of cich- 
017 for cofifee, brewinfcmaking of vine- 
gar, &c. Population, 27,500 ; 154 miles 
W. Berlin; Ion. ^ iSf 5V^ E.; kt 52^ 
22^ 25" N. 

Hanover ; a post-township, in Graflon 
county, New Hampshire, 53 miles N. W. 
of Concord, 102 from Portsmouth, and 
114 from Boston; lat 43^42' N. The 
population, m 1820, was 2222. Dart- 
mouth coUege is situated in the S. W. 
part of the township, about half a mile E. 
of the river, on a beautiful plain, where 
there is a village of about 70 housea It 
was founded liy doctor Eleazer Wheelock, 
and chartered by royal fnnL in 1769. 
The funds, which were oncinally created 
by chariud)le individuals, have been in- 
creased by grants from die legislatures 
of New Hampshire and Vermont, and 
afibrd, at present, an annual income of 
about $1600. The college library con- 
tains about 4000 volumes; the medical 
library about 500 ; and two libraries, be- 
longing to coUege societies, about 4000 
eacn ; makinr, in all, upwards of 12,000 
volumes. The college has a philosophical 
apparatus, chemical f^>parBtus, an anatom- 
ical museum, and a cabinet of minerals. 
The executive government is intrusted to a 
president, eight professors, and two tu- 
tors. The number of under-graduates, hi 
1830, was 137, and medical students, 103. 
There is a grammar-school connected 
with the college, which has about 50 stu- 

Hansa, or Hanseatic League. In 
the middle of the 13th oentuiy, the sea 
and land swarmed with pirates and rob- 
bers. The German trade, during this 
reign of violence, became exposed to va- 
rious accidents, when the merchants lost 
the right of travelling with armed attend- 
ants, and the convoy afforded by soveni- 
ment degenerated into a means of^extort- 
ing a tax without yielding any protection. 
Hamburg and Lobeck, which, with Bre- 
men, had become important, since the 
time of the Othos, found a powerful com- 
mon enemy in the Danish king Walde- 
mar, whom they opposed with great vigor. 
This circufnstanee, the insecurity of the 
navigation of the Elbe, which was becom- 
ing constantiy more infested with pirates, 
and the increasing dangers of the roads. 



gave rise to a coQfeatioii, in 1U39, be- 
tween Hambufg, the free city of Dutmanh, 
and Hadeln, and, in 1341, to a confede- 
mcf between Hambuiig and Lfibeck, in 
which they mutually engaged to defend 
each other against all violence, and par- 
ticulariy against the attacks of the noolea 
The confederacy was joined, in 1247, by 
Bnmswick, which served as a depot to the 
two first named towns; for while Italy 
was in possession of the trade to the Le- 
vant and India, a commercial route had 
been formed through Germany, by the 
way of the Upper Palatinate and Franco- 
nia, to the east of the Hartz, and throucfa 
Brunswick to Hambuig, aMiough, at the 
same time, some goods were earned down 
die Rhine. Thus Brunswick was espe- 
cially interested in the allied towns, which 
were soon joined by numerous others. 
This union was called, bv way of emi- 
nence, the Hanta, which, m the old Teu- 
tonic dialect, ngnifies a league for mutual 
defence. In a ^ort time, the membere 
became so numerous that, in 126Q, a diet 
was held at Likbeck, the chief city of the 
league. Regular meetings of the con- 
federacy now took place there eveiy three 
years, about Whitsuntide, and the general 
archives of the league were kept there. 
The number of the Hanse towns varied. 
The laigest number was 85, as follows : 
Ancbm, Andemach, Ascheraleben, Ber- 
lin, Bttgen in Norway, Bielefeld, Bols- 
wnrt in Friesland, Bruideoburg, Brauns- 
beig, Brunswick, Bremen, Buxtehude in 
the duchy of Bremen, Campen in Overys- 
sel, Dantzic, Demmin in Pomerania, u^ 
venter, Dorpat, Dortmund, Duisbuig, Ein- 
beck in theHaitz, Elbing, Elburg in Guel- 
deriand, Emmerich in Cleves, Frankfort 
on the Oder, G<^ow in Pomerania, Gos- 
lar, €r6ttingeD, Greifewald, Gr5ningen, 
HaDe in Saxony, Halberstadt, Hamburg, 
Hameln, Hamm in Westphalia, Hanover, 
Harderwyck in Guelderland, Helmstadt, 
Hervorden in Westphalia, Hildesheim, 
Kiel, Coesfeld in Monster, Colben, Co- 
logne on the Rhine, K6nigBberg in Prussia, 
Cracow in Poland, Cuhn in Prussia, Lem- 
go in Westphalia, Lizheim in Lorraine, 
on the bordera of Alsaoe, Liibeck, Lfine- 
borg, Maffdeburg, Minden in Hanover, 
Mfinster, Nimeguen in Guelderiand,Noid- 
heim, Osnabrfick, Osterbuig in the Alt- 
maric, PadeiiiorD, Quedlinburg, Revel, Ri- 
fla, Rostock, Rfigenwalde, Rfiremond in 
uuelderiand, Salzwedel, Seehausen in the 
maik of Brandenburg, Soest in Westpha- 
lia, Stade in Bremen, Stargard, Staveren in 
Friesland, Stendal, Stettin, Stoipe, Stral- 
sund, Thorn, Venkw in Guelderland, Veh- 

zen in Lfinebiug, Urnia in Westphalia, 
Wariienr in Sweden, W^ffoen in the Ak- 
nuufk, Wesel, Wisby in Gothland, Wis- 
mar, Zfitphen, Zwoll in Guelderland. 
These towns were divided into four prov- 
inces, each having a chief town. To the 
first belonged the Wendish or Vandalic 
towns ; chief city, Lfibeck: to the second, 
die towns of Cleves, the Mark and West- 
phalia, and the four towns in Guelderland, 
which were not subject to the government 
of Burgundy; chief city, Cologne : to the 
third belonged the Saxon and Branden- 
buiv towns; chief city, Brunswick: and 
to the fourth, the Prussian and Livonian 
towns; chief city, Dantzic. At another 
period, the whole was divided into three 
provincesw At the same time, four great 
mctories or depots were established in 
foreign countries : at London, in 1250 ; at 
Bruges, in 1252; at Novgorod, in 1272; 
and at Bergen, in 1278. Charters fiK>m 
kings and princes gave finnness to die 
whole ; and, in 1964, an act of donfede- 
racv was drawn up at Cologne. In the 
14tn century, the league every where 
attained a high political importance, and 
gave rise to the developement of that 
commercial policy which has eince be- 
come intimately connected with all politi- 
cal relations, but of which the sovereigns 
of that time had little idea. The object of 
the league was now more fully declared ; 
to protect themselves and their commerce 
from pillage; to guard and extend the 
foreign commerce of the allied citiea, 
and, as fer as practicable, to monopolize it ; 
to manage the administration of justice 
within the limits of the confederacy; to 
prevent injustice bv public assembyes, 
diets, and courts or arbitration; and to 
maintain the lifi^ts and immunities re- 
ceived fiHHn princes, aild, if posnble, to 
increase and extend them. Among the 
intenial regulations were, the obligationa 
incurred, on being received into the con^ 
federacy, to fiunish soMieis and vessds, 
or, in certain cases, money as a substitute, 
and to pay the duties and amercements. 
The league exercised a judicial power. 


fiictories were subjected to an almost mo- 
nastic discipline, which even required tbe 
celibacy of fectors, maaiera and membera 
of the guilds. The laws prescribed to the 
scents of the English fur companies, in 
North America, and the North- west and 
Hudson's bav companies, resemble, in 
many particulais, those of the Hanseatic 
fectories. By a uniform adherence to their 



great object, and by the maintenaiice of 
good order, the Hanaeatic cities obtained 
a great importance, although the confed- 
eracy was never formally acknowledged 
by the empire ; and kings and princes 
were, in reality, more dependent on the 
league than it was on them. The Hanse 
towns in England were exempted from 
duties on exports, and in Denmark, Swe- 
den and Russia, from those on imports — 
privileges which were enjoyed by no sub- 
jeclB of those countries. The extennve 
carrying trade of the Hanseatic confed- 
emcy was a great source of wealth ; and, 
at length, there was no mart in Europe 
which was not gradually drawn within 
the circle of its influence; and, by the 
greatness of its wealth and the might of its 
anns, it became the mistress of crowns, 
and lands and seas. It conquered Eric 
and Hakon, kings of Norwav, and Walde- 
mar III of Denmark. It deposed a king 
of Sweden, and save his crown to Albert, 
duke of Mecklenbui^. In 1428, it equip- 
ped a fleet of248 ship6,with 12,000 soldiers, 
against Copenhagen. Niederhof^ a bur- 
gomaster of Dantzic, ventured to declare 
war against Christian, king of Denmark. 
E^land, Denmaric and Flanders con- 
cluded treaties with the league, for the 
extension of their conunerce. It under- 
took to provide for the security of com- 
merce on the Baltic and North seas. In 
the country under its immediate influence, 
it constructed canals, and introduced a 
uniform system of weights and measures. 
But the prosperity of the Hanse towns 
was naturally dependent on the continu- 
ance of the cnpcumstances which gave rise 
to it; and when those circumstances 
changed, the league was destined to ML 
When, therefore, the routes by land and 
sea were no longer insecure ; when 
princes learned the advantages of trade to 
their own states, and turned their attention 
to the formation of a naval force of their 
own, and the encouragement of naviga- 
tion ; when the inland members of the 
confederation perceived that the great 
seaport towns had a separate interest of 
their own, and used them principally to 
promote their own ends ; when the mari- 
time towns ceased to be the masters of the 
Baltic, and the German princes deter- 
mined to subject those of tiie interior to 
their immediate control, in order to secure 
the greatest possible advantages from their 
commerce, to which they were encour- 
aged especially by the emperor Charles V, 
who thought to improve the commerce 
of his possessions in the Netherlands, and 
vnSf consequentiy, disafibcted to the alli- 

ance ; and when the discovery of America 
produced a total revolution in trade,— then 
the dissolution of the Hanseatic league 
was evidendy approaching. The last 
diet was heki at L&beck, m 1690, and the 
confederation was dissolved. But Ham- 
burg, Lfibeck and Bremen united anew 
(and, in certain cases, Dantzic was admit- 
ted amonff them), though not under tiie 
name of Hanseatic toWns. In 1S96, Great 
Britain concluded treaties with the Han- 
seatic towns, regulating the trade on prin- 
ciples of reciprocity, the saine as with 
Sweden, Denmark, &c. (See Bmmn, 
Hcanlnav, Mbeck, and Dree CiiU$.) The 
name of Hanse towns no longer exists in 
the vocabulary of politics. Hamburg, 
Bremen, L&beck and Frankfort are styled, 
in the Gerwan confederation, the four free 

HlirsFoLZ. (SeeJbfe.) 

Hans Sach^. (See Sachs.) 

Hanwat, Jonas, a merchant and travel- 
ler, distinguished for his active benevo- 
lence, was bom at Portsmonth in 1712. 
At an eariy age, he was apprenticed to a 
merchant at Lisbon, and, m 1743^ became 
a partner in an English house at Peters- 
burg. The concerns of the parmership 
renderirur a journey to Perma desirable, it 
was gladly undertaken by Mr. Hanway, 
who went to Astrabad with a carao of 
English goods. In 1753, he publi^ed a 
work entitied An Historical Account of 
the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, 
&C., with the particular History <^ the 
neat Usurper Nadir Kouli (4 vola 4to.). 
In the same year, he engaged in die con- 
troversy concerning the naturalization of 
the Jews, and pubCshed a Review of the 
proposed Naturalization, by a Merchant; a 
thiiti edition of which appeared the same 
year. From this time, Mr. Hanway con- 
tinued publishing, on a varie^ of topicfl^ 
all relating to points of pubSc gooa, or 
schemes of charity and utility. His fel- 
low citizens entertained such a sense of 
his merits, that a deputation of the princi- 
pal merchants of London waited upon 
lord Bute, to reouest that some public 
mark of favor might be conferred upon a 
man who had done so much service to 
the conununity, at the expense of 1^ pri- 
vate fortune. He was, in conSiqilRnce, 
made a commissioner of the navy, which 
post he held for twenty years, and, on res- 
ignation, was allowed to retain the salary 
for life. He died in 1786, and a monu- 
ment was erected to him by subscrip- 

Hapsbueg (properiy Hahshwv) ; a small 
place in the swiss canton of Aargau^ oai 



the- light baak of the Aar. The casile 
wag built, ID the 11th oenUny, by bishop 
Wenier, on a steep, rocky situation; 
whence the name, which was originally 
HMelMm (Hawka-Castle). The nro- 
prietOTB of HapriHiK became, at a uter 
period, eounts of Hapabui^, and grad- 
ually jaoquired a mcie extensive tsiri- 
toiy. In 1373; Rodolpb, count of Haps- 
buig, was choisen empcsor of Germany. 
He is the founder of the reipning house 
of Austria, which is of the Ime of Haps- 
buig-Lorraine, From Rodolph toChanes 
VI, the Austrian monarchs were of the 
Hapebuig male line. Maria Theresa, who 
succeeded Charies VI, married Francis 
Stephen of Lorraine, who, in 1745^ was 
chosen emperor of Germany. Their son, 
the first of the Hapsbrnig-Lonaine line, 
Joseph II, died 1790. His successor, Leo- 
pold II, died 179SS. His successor, Francis 
(as emperor of Germany, II ; as emperor 
of Austria, I), is the present sovereign. 
The castle of Hapsbuiig is still to be seen 
on the WiUpelsberg. 

HARDBiTBEBa^ Frsderic von ; known as 
an author under the name of Abtxalw, 
bom flfoy 3, 1772, died March 2S, 180L 
His parents paid great attention to his 
education. In Jena, Von Hardenben 
studied philosophy, and at Leipac and 
Wittenberg, the taw. From thence he 
went to TennstAdt, where it was intended 
he should be practically instructed in ju- 
risprudence. In December, 1797, he 
went to Freybeig, where Julia yon Char- 
pentier won his aflbcti<w& In 1799, he 
foimed a finendship with L. Tieck and 
the two SchlegelsL He had made himself 
well acquaints with law, natural philos- 
ophy, mathematics and philosophy, but 
was most eminent for his poetical talents. 
In the woriu of Novalifl^ tnere is a singu- 
lar mixture of imagination, sensit>iliQr> r^ 
ligion and mysticism. He was the gen- 
tlest and most amiable of enthusiasiBi 
Same of his hymns are very beautifuL 
His novel Heinneh von Clfterdingtn was 
left unfinished. His Hvmns to Night 
have the gpmoest merit His woiks have 
been pubBsbed at Beriin (1814 and 1816, 
3d edit). 

HAADBHBKae> Charies Augustus (baron, 
afiermaii prince of) ; Prussian chancellor 
of state. He was bom at Hanover, May 
31, 1750, and, after having completed his 
studies in Leipsic and G6ttingen, entered 
into the civil service of his country in 
1770. He passed severalyean in travel- 
ling througli Germany, France, Holland, 
and particukriy England. In 1778, he 
was made privy counsellor; but a misun- 

with one of the Engfati 
princes iiufuced him to resigp his plaoiB in 
1789; and to enter the service of Bruns- 
wick. The duke sent him to Berlin^ in 
1786, with the vrill of Frederic II, which 
had been deposited with him. Here he 
gave so much satisfaction, that the duke 
sent him repeatedly to the same place. In 
1790, he was made minister of the last 
margrave of Anspach and Baireuth, on 
the recommendation of Prassia. When 
the mararavate was incorponuted with 
Prussia, Hardenberg remained in his of- 
fice, and was made Prussian minister of 
state, and, soon aftei^ cabinet minister. 
April 5, 1795, he signed the peace be- 
tween the French republic ana Pruaria, 
on the part of tlie latter. At the begin- 
ning or this centuiy, Beriin became the 
centre of many negcrtiations between the 
noithero powers. The minister Haug- 
witsE fiivorad France, but the influau^ ^ 
Hardenbeig decided the Pmssian cabinet 
to take part with England. Count Haug- 
witz therefore gave in his resignation, ami 
Hardenberg succeeded him, in August, 
1804. The disastere which Pmsaa soon 
aftersufifered, in the conflict with Napo- 
leon, are well known. In consequence 
of the tineaty of December 15, 1806, 
which Haugwitz concluded at Vienna, 
between Prussia and France, Hardenberg 
again gave up his place to that minister ; 
but, on the breaking out of the war of 
180iS, he once more resumed the port-folio. 
After the peace of Tilsit, he asked lor his 
dismission ; but, in 1810, the king of Prus- 
sia appointed him chancellor of slate 
(prime minister), and endeavored to form 
a union with France ; but the disasten of 
the French armv In Russia changed his 
policy. Hardenberg signed the peace of 
Paris, and was created prince. He went 
to London with the sovereigns, and was 
one of the most prominent acton at the 
congress of Vienna* He was subeequenl- 
Iv the active agent in all matten in which 
Pnisaia took ^art ; he was made president 
of the council of state ; vras present, in 
1818, at the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
in 1819, at Carlsbad ; in 1830, at Vienna, 
at Troppau and Verona. While on a 
journey m the nordi of Italy, he fell sick 
at Pavia, and died at Genoa, November 
27, 1829L As to his political jninciples in 
the latter part of his life, he was an active 
minister of the holy alliance ; but, still, 
he understood that the time of feudalism 
vras pest, and his abolition of feudal ser- 
vices and privileges in Prussia will always 
be remembered in his fiivor. He patron- 
ized the sciences munificently, and the 



AundBtioii of tfhe qni ww it^ of Bonn m 
iiononble to him. He lored power, but. 
at the same time, his admimBtration had 
many good features. In the yeafa 1807 — 
1810, prince Hardenbetg wrote Memoin 
OB hia Time, from 1801 to the Peace of 
TSfait, and, before hie death, gave the 
noanoacript to Sch6tt, a counaeUor of state. 
The fcin#, however, sealed it with hia 
aims, ancf ordered it not to be opened un- 
til 1850. Haidenbeig was twice manied. 
His son by the fint maniage is a count, 
and in the Danish service. 

Haedicarute, king of England and 
Denmark, was the sonof Canute, lyy Emma, 
daughter of Richard, duke of Normandy. 
He succeeded his Atfaer on the Danish 
throne in 1088, and, at the same time, 
kid claim to that of England, which had 
devolved to his elder and half-brother, 
Ibrold. A compromise was effected, by 
which the southern part of the kingdom 
waa, for a while, hela in his name by his 
mother Emma ; and, on die death of his 
broiher, be socoeeded to the whole. His 
government was violent and tyrannical; 
he revived the odious tax of Danegeh, 
and punished, with great severity, the in- 
BunnectionB which it occasioned. The 
death of this despicable prince, in conse- 
quence of intempei^uice at the nuptials of 
a Daniflh nobleman, broufdit his nngn to 
an early termination, to me gfeat joy of 
his 8ub|ects^ in 1041. 

HAnnnsBB, m physiolo^ ; the lesiat- 
anee oppOaed by a bod^ to mipreesiori, or 
to the separation of its paiUclea. This 
property depends on the force of cohe* 
aion, or on that which chemists call qgk^ 
1^ joined to the arrangement of the par- 
tides, to their figure, and other circum- 
stances. A body, says M. Hauy, is con- 
flidered more hard in proportion as it pre* 
aents greater resytance to the fnction of 
another hard bodv, such as a steel file ; or 
as it is more amable of wearing or worit- 
ing into such omer body, to which it may 
be applied by dicdon. Lqndaries judge 
of the hardness of fine stones, &C., fiom 
the difficulty with which they are worn 
down, or polished. 

HAknouiN, John ; a learned French 
Jesuit, no less cekbrated for his intimate 
acqunntance with the claarical authon of 
annquity, than remaikabfe for the smgu- 
larity of his opinions respecting the au- 
dienticity of their writings. He was bom 
in 1646, at Quimper in Bretagne,and died 
at Paris, 1739. The woriL bv ft^ich he is 
principally known, is his Vmmiogia ex 
m» lfervd£»ft«ii,in which he aui^ona the 

extmordinaiy hvpethesiB, that almost all 
the writings under the names of the Oieek 
and Roman poets and historians, are the 
spurious productions of the 19th century. 
HJ0 exceptions to this denunciation are, 
the worics of Cicaro and Pliny, aa well as 
of some of those attributed to tfonce and 
VirgiL He contend% at the same time, 
that the two latter are allefforical wrilen, 
who, under die names of Ldage and iEne- 
as, have represented the Chnstian relig- 
ion and the hie of its Ibunder. This 
treatise was condemned and proscribed, 
the author was called upon mr a mibfic 
recantation of his errois, which in net he 
made ; but he afterwards repeated his of- 
fence in other publicadons. Among his 
102 works are, AUsinu anHqui Pa/nmntm 
H Uihwm muttraU (1684); PBny^ Natu- 
ral Histoiy, in usum Delpnini (5 vok., 4to^ 
1685) ; and another in 13 folio volumes of 
The Councils (1705). On this latter woric 
he expended a great deal of time and 
labor, but it was suppressed br the parlia- 
ment He considered all the councili^ 
previous to that of Trent, as imaginary. 
A selection fiiom fttherHardouin's worki^ 
comprising most of those which had fidlen 
under the censure of the Romish church, 
appeared, in 1700, at Amsterdam. Hie 
following epitaph, which has been eiro- 
neously ascribed to Atterbuiy, and to 
ureeident de Roee, was written by Jacob 
Vemet, of (ileneva : 

Hie Jacet Ii'Miiuiimi paradoKol*tot. 

Orbit mbc^ii partentnm, 

VeneraiMbe utiquitaiii oiltor ei defmdator, 

Docte febricit8u.r; 
Sonuia et inaudita commenUi vigi..iiifl edidit^ 

Scepticum pie egit, 

OedoliUOe poar, 

Deliriis teaei. 

Hare (Imt), The generic charactere 
of this well known animal are, four cutting 
teeth in the upper jaw, and two in the 
lower ; two of the upper teeth, however, 
are pkced behind the othen^ and are of a 
much smaller size ; the whole dental for- 
mula is, incisors |, canines 9, molars f f 
b28; the two fore feet with five, and the 
hinder with four, toes. These animals 
are found in almost eveiy part of the 
world, living entirel;^ on veiretable food, 
and all remaricably timid. They run by 
a kind of leB{Hng pace, and, in walkings 
use their hind ftet as far as the had. 
Their tails are either veiy short or ahnost 
wanting. The female goes with young 
about a month, generally modttdng duee 
to rix at a litter, and this anottt four timea 
a year. The eyes of the young are open 
at biitfL The dam euGUes tiiam about 


1U&£— HAREM. 

90 dajBy after which Aey leave her^ and 
urocure their own fbocL The European 
liare (L, tvmdus) ia found throughout 
Europe, and some parts of Asia. The 
color of this speciee is of a tawny red od 
the back and sides, and white on the 
belly. The ears, which are veiy long, 
are tipped with black ; ^e eyes are very 
large and prominent. The length of this 
anSnal is about two feet, and, when full 
grown, it weighs six to eight pounds. It is a 
vratchftil, timid creature, always lean, and, 
from the form of its lega^ runs swifter up 
hill than on level grouiS. Hares feed on 
vegetables, and are veiy fond of the bark 
of young trees ; their mvorite food, how- 
ever, is parsley. Their flesh was forbid- 
den to be eaten among the Jevrs and the 
aacient Britons, whilst the Romans, on the 
contraiy, held it in great esteem. '*hder 
quadrvpedes gforia prima Upua^ — ^Martial ; 
and Horace, who is good authority as an 
eincure, sav% Every man of taste must 
prefa* the fore shouMer— '^ F^cundi lepcfis 
sapUm udabiiur armosJ* The flesh is 
now much prized for its peculiar flavor, 
thodgh it is veiy black, dry, and devoid 
of fw. The voice of the hare is never 
beard but when it is seized or wounded. 
At such times, it utters a sharp, loud ciy, 
not very unlike that of a child. It has a 
rem.aiKaUe instinct In escaping from its 
eneiuies; and manj instances of the sur- 
prising sagadty of these animals are on 
recon^ though it appears that all of them 
do not poflsesB equal experience and cun- 
ning. A perpetual war is carried on 
against them by cats, wolves, and birds of 
prey ; and even man makes use of eveiy 
artifice to entrap these defenceless and 
timid creatures. They are easily tamed, 
but never attain such a degree of attach- 
meol as rendere them domestic, always 
avaiBng themselves of the first opportunity 
to escape. Among the devices of hares 
to elude their pursuers, the following have 
been observed : Getting up into a hollow 
tree, or upon ruined walls ; throwing 
themsetves into a river, and floating down 
some distance; or swinuning out into a 
lake, keeping only their nose above the 
surfiice ; returning on their own scent, &c 
The American Imre (L. Amerieanus'j, so 
well known under the name of rabbU^ is 
found in most {larts of North America. 
The summer hair is dark brown on the 
umier part of the head, lighter on the 
sides, and of an ash color below ; the 
ears are wide, edged with white, tipped 
with brown, and dark colored on their 
back; tail, dark above, white beneath, 
having the inferior surface turned up ; the 

foro legs are shorter and the hinder longer 
in pn^rtion than those of the European. 
In the Middle and Southern States, the 
change in the color of the hair is by no 
means as remarkable as it is farther north, 
where it becomes white, or nearly so. 
This species is fiom 14 to 18 inches long 
The American hare generally keeps with- 
in its form during me day, feeding early 
in the mornincr or at night. The flesh is 
dark colored^ but is much esteemed as an 
article of food. It is in its prime late in 
the autumn and in the winter. It is not 
hunted in this country as in Europe, but 
is generally roused by a dog, and shot or 
caught by means of snares or a common 
box trap: this latter is the most usual 
mode. In its gait, it is very similar to the 
European, leaping rather than running. 
Like that animal, it breeds several times 
during the year. There are several other 
qiecies of the hare inhabiting North 
America, of which the most remaricable 
is the polar hare (L. glacidUa). This 
occuro in vast numbera towards the ex- 
treme northern part of the continent It 
is larger than the common hare. The fur 
is exceedingly thick and woolly, of the 
purest white in the cold months, witli the 
exception of a mfl of long black hair at 
the tip of the ears. In summer, the hair 
becomes of a grayish brown. [SeeRabbiL] 

Harelip is a single or double fissure 
.of the upper lip, by which it is divided 
into two or three parts, and is thus made 
to resemble the lip of the hare. .Children 
are not unfi«quently bom with this de- 
formity. The fissure is sometimes con- 
fined to the lip, but more commonly 
extends t6 the gums and palate, which it 
divides into two parts. It produces great 
difiiculty in speech, and besides keeping 
the mouth open, and thus suflTering the 
saliva to escape, it is a dreadfiil deformity 
in appearance. It is veiy common, but, for- 
tunately, is easily curable, so that it seldom 
goes lon^ unremedied, unless fit>m choice 
or timidity. The operations for removing 
this most unfortunate deformity, in its 
worst forms, are among the merits which 
have given celebrity to the name of Des- 

Harem (Arabic, sacrtdy the sanctuary) 
is used, by Mussulmans, to sirni^ the 
women's apartments, which are forfcndden 
to every man except the husband. It 
answers, in some measure, to the gyntt- 
cemii of the Greeks. The term sera^ioy 
often used by Europeans for hannij is a 
corruption of the word send, i. e., palace. 
The ladies are served by fomale slaves, 
and guarded by black eunuchs ; the head 



of the latter is called IddixMutti, There 
are two kizlar-aj;aSy one of the old, the 
other of the new pdaoe, each of which 
has its harem. The one is occupied by 
the women of former sultans, and those 
who have incurred the displeasure of the 
rejffning prince; the other, bv such as 
still enjoy his &yor. Doctor Ckrke, who 
visited the summer palace during the 
absence of the occupants, has given a 
particular description of it in his Travels 
(voL iii, pp. 20— o7). The women of the 
imperial harem are all slaves, een^rally 
Circassiaus or Georgians ; for no fiiee bom 
Turiuflh woman can be introduced into it 
as an oddhrlicj or concubine. Their num- 
ber depends solely on the pleasure of the 
sultan, but is very considerable. His 
mother, female relations and grandees, vie 
with each other in presenting him the 
handsomest slaves. Out of this great 
number he chooses seven wives, although 
but lour are allowed by the prophet. 
These are caUed cadins, and have splendid 
appointments. The one who fim pre- 
sents him widi a male heir is styled the 
ntUanOy by way of eminence. She must 
then retire into the eski serai (old palace); 
but if her son ascends the throne, she 
returns to the new palace, and has the 
title of wUana valide. She is the oidy 
woman who is allowed to appear without 
a veil; none of the others, even when 
sick, are permitted to lay aside the veil, in 
the presence of anv one except the sultan. 
When visits by the physician, their bed 
is covered with a thick counterpane, and 
the pube felt through gauze. The li& of 
the bdies of the imperial harem is spent 
in bathing, dressinff, walking in the gar- 
dens, wimeaaing the voluptuous dances 
performed by their slaves, &;c. The 
women of other Turits enioy the society 
of their friends at the baths or each oth- 
er^ houses, appear in public accompanied 
by slaves and eunuchs, and enjoy a de- 
cree of liberty which increases as they 
descend in rank. But those of the sultan 
have none of these privileges. When 
transferred to the siunmer residences on 
the Bo^horus, they are removed at break 
of day, pass firom the garden to the boats 
between two screens, while the eunuchs, 
fcNT a considerable distance round, warn 
eveiy one off, on pain of death. Each 
boat*^has a cabin covered with cloth, and 
the eunuchs keep the boatmen or hos- 
tandgis at a distance. It is, of course, only 
the richer Moslems who can maintain 
harems ; the poorer classes have generally 
bat one wife. 

Hariot, or Heriot, in law; a due 

VOL. VI. 15 

belonging to a kffd at the death of hii 
tenant, consastkig of tne best beast, either 
horse, 03K, or cow, which he had at the 
time of his deatii ; and, in some manorsi 
the best foods, piece of plate, &c., are 
called Aonote. 

Harlxian Library. (See Uartey.) 

Harlem. (See HaarUnu) 

Harlequin (arieccMnOf Italian). It is 
not in our power to determine the etymol- 
ogy of the name of this dramatic person- 
age. Manage derives it from a comedian, 
mo was so called because he frequented 
the house ef M. de Harlay, in the reign of 
Henry UI of France. Batteux derives it 
from the satirical drama of the Greeks. 
Rjccobini conjectures (History of the 
Italian Theatre) that the dress of the 
harlequins is no other than the centunculta 
of the old Roman mtmt, who had their 
heads shaved, and were called ofon^Miet 
(barefooted). To the reasons adduced by 
Iticcobini, we may add the rkliculoas 
sword of the ancient mimi, which, with 
the hariequin, has been converted into a 
stick. HaiWuins and buffoons are also 
called xmaiij hy the best Tuscan writen^ 

?robablv from die Latin sannio, of which 
!icero (De Oratore, ii, 61) gives a descrip- 
tion applying so strongly to the harlequm, 
that it places his derivation from the jda- 
nipedes almost beyond a doubt The 
character of the ancient harlequin was a 
mixture of extravagant buffoonery with 
great corporeal agility, so that his body 
seemed aimoet constantiy in the air. He 
was impudent, droU, satirical and low, 
and often indecent in his expressions. 
But, in the middle of the 16th centuiy, his 
character was essentially changed. The 
modem harlequin laid aside the peculiari- 
ties of his predecessor. He became a 
simple, ignorant servant, who tries very 
hard to be witty, even at the expense of 
bemg malicious. He is a paraate, cow- 
ardfy, yet faitiiful and active, but easilv 
induced, by fear or interest, to commit all 
sorts of tncks and knaveries. He is a 
chameleon, who assumes all colors, and 
can be made, in the hands of a skilibl 
actor, the principal character on the stafle. 
He must excel in extempore sallies. The 
modem harlequin plays many droll tricks, 
which have been handed down, from gen- 
ention to generation, for centuries. This 
account applies more particulariy to the 
Italian hanequin. Italy, in &ct, particu- 
lariy in the commedia wTarit^ is his natu- 
ral scene of action. He can only be prop- 
eriy appreciated when seen in that de- 
partment of the drama, and distinct from 
all other similar personages. Whether ha 



J8 to be tolented or not, is a question of 
importance. He has found an able advo- 
cate in Mdser (Harlequin, or Defence of 
the Grotesque-Comicl (See Mask.) The 
gallan^ obsequious French harlequin is 
an entirely national mask. In the Vaude- 
ville tlieatre, he is sQent, with a black half 
mask, and reminds oncj throughout the 
representation, of the grace and agility of 
the cat (See Carlisru} In England, he 
became a lover and a magician; and) in 
exchange for the gift of language, of which 
he was there deprived, he was invested 
with the wonder-working wand, from the 
poeseasion of which Mr. Uouce pronoun- 
ces him to be the <* illegitimate successor 
of the old Vice" (On Shakspeare, i, 458). 
(See PunckineUo.) A standing grotesque 
character, on the German stage, was called 
Hanswurst (Jack-Pudding^ and answered 
to the Dutch Pickled-Hernng, the Frendi 
Jean-Potage, the Italian (more proper^ 
Neapolitan] Maccaroni, and the En^ish 
Jack-Puddmg. This family was a race 
of ffourmands, clowns, coarse and rude in 
their wit 

Harlet, Robert; earl of Oxford, and 
earl Mortimer, a distinguished minister of 
state, in the reign of queen Anne. He 
was bom in London, in 1661, and was the 
son of sir Edward Hariey, a Herefordshire 
gentleman, who had been an active parti- 
san of the parliament during the civil war. 
The subject of this article, though of a 
Presbyterian fiimily, adopted tory princi- 
ples in politics, and joined the hign church 
party. In the reign of William III, he 
acted with the whigs ; but, after the acces- 
sion of Anne, he, as well as his more cel- 
ebrated colleague, St John, afterwards 
lord Bolingforoke, deserted the party with 
which they had acted, and became lead- 
ers of the tones. Hariey was chosen 
speaker of the house of commons in 
1702, and afterwards was secretary of 
state. He resigned his post in 1708. The 
cabals of their political opponents having 
effected the removal of the duke of Marl- 
borough and his fiiends from office, Har- 
iey was nominated a commissioner of the 
treasuiT and chancellor of the exchequer, 
in 1710. In 1711, Hariey was raised to 
the peerage, and constituted lord hi^ 
treasurer. After the peace of Utrecht, m 
1713, the toiy statesmen, having no 
longer any apprehensions of danger fiom 
abroad, blegim to quarrel amonff them- 
selves; and the two chiefi, Ox&rd and 
Bolingbroke, especially, became personal 
and political foes, actuated by different 
views and sentiments. The former re- 
signed the treasurarship just before the 

death of the queen in 1714. Whatever 
prejects may have been formed by othefs 
of the forty f there seems to be no ground 
for behaving that lord Oxford had en- 
jnged in any measures to inteinipt the 
Protestant succession, f^u'ly in the reign 
of George I, he was, however, impeached 
of high treason by the house of commons, 
and was committed to the Tower. He 
remained in confinement till June, 1717, 
when, at his own petition, he was brought 
before die house of peers, and, afler a 

Subhc trial, acquitted of the crimes laid to 
is charge. The rest of his life was spent 
in adding to his literary stores, in the col- 
lection of which he expended a consider- 
able portion of the wealth which his pub- 
lic employments had enabled him to accu- 
mulate. He died May 21, 1724. His 
patronage was extended to Swift, Pope, 
and other literary men. Lord Oxford 
published a Letter to Swift fbr correcting 
and improving the English Tongue ; an 
Essay on publtc Credit ; an Essay upon 
Loans ; and a Vindication of the Rights 
of the Commons of England. He was 
succeeded in his tides by his son Edward, 
who augmented the collection of printed 
books and manuscripts formed by his 
father. On the death of the second eail 
of Oxford, in 1741, the libraiy of printed 
books v^as sold to Osborne, a bookseller, 
who published a catalogue of them, com- 
piled by WUliam Oldvs and Samuel John- 
son (4 vol&, 8vo., 17^>. The MSS. are 
preserved in the British museum, where 
they form the BUdiotheca Harldana. 

Harmattan ; a wind which blows pe- 
riodically fit)m the interior parts of Africa, 
towards the Adantic ocean. It prevails 
in December, January and February, and 
is generally accompanied with a foff or 
ha»5, that conceals uie sun for whole days 
together. Extreme dryness is tlie charac- 
teristic of this wind ; no dew falls during 
its continuance, which is sometimes fbr a 
fortnight or more. The whole vegetable 
creation is withered, and the grass be- 
comes, at once, like hay. The human 
body is also afl^ted by it, so that the 
skin peels oft*; but it checks infection, 
and cures cutaneous diseases. 

HARMonius. (See Htppiaa^ and Arts- 

Harmonia, or Hermionx; a daughter 
of Mars and Venus, the fiuit of an amour, 
in which they were surprised by Vulcan. 
Her name was at first used to indicate 
music in seneral. She emigrated with 
her hudband, the Phoenician Cadmus, into 
Greece, where she is said to have intro- 
duced music. 



HABMomcA, or AMUomc^ is a. name 
which doctor Fnnklin has givea to a mi** 
flical inatruiiient conatructed with drinking 
ghaees. Itia well known that a drinking 
|da8B yiekls a sweet tone, by paasinf awet 
miser round its hrim. lAr. Pockncb, of 
InSEind, was the first mIio thought of play- 
ing tunes lormed of these tones. He col- 
lected a number of glasses of different 
ozes, fixed thera near each other on a ta- 
ble, and tuned them by putting into them 
water, more or less, as each note required. 
Mr. Deiayol made an inatnunent in imitv- 
tiouy and finom this instniment doctor 
Frankfin took the hint of constructing his 
annomca. The glasses for this musical 
instniment are blown as neariv as possible 
in the form of hemiBf^eres, having each 
an open neck or socket in the middle. 
The thickness of the glass near the brim 
is about one tenth of an inch, increasing 
towards the neck, which, in the lai]gest 
gjwftw, is about an inch deep, and an inch 
and a half wide within ; but these dimen- 
flionB lessen as the size of the glasses dimin- 
ialies: the neck of the smallest should not 
be shorter than half an inch. The diameter 
of the huvest glass is nine inches, and that 
of the smdlest three inches. Between these 
there are 23 different sizes, differing fix>m 
each other a quarter of an inch in diameter. 
The larsest fflass in the instrument is O, a 
little beiww ttie reach of a common voice, 
and the highest G, including three com- 
plete octaves ; and they are distinguished 
bv painting die apparent parts of the 
pBu o ca withm side, every seroiUme white, 
and the other notes of die octave with the 
seven prismatic colon ; so that glasses of 
the same color (the white excepted) are 
always octaves to each other. When the 
glaases are tuned, they are to be fixed on a 
round 8|nndle of hard iron, an inch in 
diameter at the thickest end, and tapering 
to a quarter of an inch at the smallest. 
For this purpose, the neck of each glass is 
fitted wiUi a cork, projecting a little with- 
out the neck. These corks are perforated 
with holes of different diameters, according 
to the dimension of the spindle in that part 
of it where thev are to be fixed. The 
glasees are all p&ced vrithin one another ; 
the krgest on the biggest end of the spin- 
dle, vrith the neck outwards ; the next in 
aze is put into the other, leaving about an 
inch orits brim above the brim of the first ; 
and the odien are put on in the same order. 
From these exposed parts of each glass 
the tone is drawn, by laying a finger upon 
one of them as the spindJe and glasses 
turn round. The spindle, thus prepared. 
Is fixed horizontally in the middle of a box, 

and made to turn on brass gudgeons at each 
end by means of a foot-wheel This instru- 
ment is plajred upon by shtuiff before it, as 
before the keys of a harpsichord, turning 
the spindle vmh the foot, and wetting the 
glasses, now and dien, with a sponge and 
clean water. The fingere should be first 
soaked in water, and rubbed occasionally 
with fine chalk, to make them catch the 
riaaB,and bring out the tone more readily. 
iHfiferent narts may be played together by 
using both hands ; and the tones are best . 
drawn out when the glasses turn fix>m the 
ends of the fingers, not when they turn to 
them. The advantages of this instrument, 
says doctor Franklin, are, that its tones are 
incomparably sweet, beyond those of any 
other, and that they may be sweUed or 
softened at pleasure, by stronger or weaker 
meesures of the fin^r, and continued to any 
length ; and when it is once tuned, it neveV 
wants tuning again. From the effect which 
it is supposed to have upon the nervous sys- 
tem, it has been suggested that the fingers 
should not be allowed to come in imme* 
diate contact %vith the glasses, but that the 
tones should be produced by means of a 
key, as upon the harpsichord. Such a 
key has been invented in Berlin or Dres- 
den, and an histrument constructed on 
this plan. It is called the harptithord" 
harmomccu But these experiments have 
not produced any thing of much value ; 
and It is impossible that the delicacy, the 
swell and the continuation of the tone 
should be carried to such perfection as in 
the first mentioned method. The har- 
monica, however much it exeels aB other 
instruments in the delicacv and duration 
of its tones, yet is confined to those of a 
soft and melancholy character, and to slow, 
solemn movements, and can hardly be 
combined to advantage with other instru- 
ments. In accompanying the human 
voice, it throws it in tlie shade ; and in con- 
certs, die accompanying instruments lose 
in effect, because so for inferior to it in 
tone. It is therefore best enjoyed by itself, 
and may produce a charming effect, in cer- 
tain romantic situations. Besides the proper 
haraionica, there is a pegged or naned 
hannonica, the pegs of which are of steel, 
and, being placed in a semicircle, are played 
with a strung bow. This has no resem- 
blance to the proper haimonica, except 
some nmilarity in tone. 

Harmont ; 1. a tovm in the western 
part of Penneylvania, where Rapp first 
settled vrith his Harmonists fiom Wfir- 
temberg, in 18CK3L He afterwards removed 
to Indiana, but has emce returned asain to 
Pennsylvania, with his 700 folfowen, 



fHiere he founded the village of Economy. 
Tlie Uannonists are fiu^ and industrious, 
and hold their propeitjr in common. (See 
12a0p.)— 3. A village in Indiana, on the 
Waoaah, about 25 miles from its mouth, 
founded by Rapp. Mr. Owen's society 
afterwards attempted to cany the new 
social system into execution here, but it is 
now broken up. (See Oweru) 

Habmont (nomthe Greek); the agree- 
ment or consonance of two or more 
united sounds. Harmomf is either natural 
or artificial. Mihiral harmomf, properly 
so called, consists of the harmonic triad, 
or common chord, t^jijfieial harmomf is 
a mixture of concords and discords, bear- 
ing relation to the harmonic triad of the 
fbndamental note. The word harmomf 
being originally a proper name, it is not 
easy to determine the exact sense in which 
it was used by the Greeks ; but from the 
treatises they have left us on the subject, 
we have great reason to conclude that 
they limited its signification to that agree- 
able succession of sounds which we call 
air, or mdodv. The moderns, however, 
do not di^iniQr a mere succession of single 
sounds with the appellation of harmomf : 
for the formation ot harmomf, they require 
a union of melodies, a succession of com- 
bined sounds, composed of consonant in- 
tervals, and moving according to the stated 
laws of modulation. 

HuiMOirr, or Evanokucal Harmony, 
is the title of various books, composed to 
show the uniformity and agreement of the 
accounts siven by the four evanselistB, by 
veducing me events recorded m the difier- 
ent evangelists to the order of time in 
which they happened. 

Harmont, FieuRED. Figured harmomf 
is that in which, for the purpose of melo- 
dy, one or more of the parts of a compo- 
sition move, during the continuance cSf a 
choni, throuji^h certain notes which do not 
form any of the constituent parts of tliat 
chord. These intermediate notes not be* 
ing reckoned in the harmony, considerable 
judgment and skill are necessary so to 
dis^Me them that, while the ear is gratified 
with their succession, it may not be offend- 
ed at their dissonanee with respect to the 
harmonic notes. 

Harmoitt of the Spheres ; a hypothe- 
sis of Pythacoras and his school, according 
to which me motions of the heavenly 
bodies produced a music imperceptible 
by the ears of mortals. He supposed 
these motions to conform to certain fixed 
laws, which could be expressed in num- 
bers, corresponding to the numbers whkh 
give the harmony of sounds. The im- 

mortal Kepler, in his Harmonieet Myndi, 
endeavors to apply the Pythagorean ideas 
on numbeiB and musical intervals to as- 
tronomy, and in this work, as also in his 
Pro dr omua, sets forth eternal laws respect- 
ing the distances of the planets, which 
were not fully appreciated, until Newton, 
a long time after, snowed their importance 
and connexioiL It is in the Hcarmonices 
Mundi,pro€miium to the 5th book, De Mo- 
tilnu Ptanekarum, that Kepler, in his enthu- 
siasm, pronounces these, oold words con- 
cerning his discovery : ^ Elighteen months 
ago, I saw the first ray of light; three 
months since, I saw the dtnr ; a few days 
ago, I saw the sun himself of most ad- 
tmrable beauty. Nothing can restrain me ; 
I yield to the sacred &nzy. I dare in- 
genuously to confess, that I have stolen the 
golden vessels of the Egyptians (alluding 
to the ideas of Ptolemy on the same sub- 
ject), and vrill build of them a tabernacle 
to my God. If you pardon me, I rejoice ; 
if you reproach me, I can endure it ; the 
die is thrown. I write a book to be read ; 
whether by the present or future ages, 
it matters not. It can wait for a reiser 
a cenniry, if God himself waited six 
thousand ycuns for an observer of his 
woiks.*^ To understand this enthusiasm 
fiilly, we must recollect the erroneous 
ideas with which the world had teemed 
firom the time of Ptolemy. 

Harmont, Preestabushxd. (SeeLetfr- 

Harmotome, or Cross-stone ; the 
name of a substance curious in minendo- 
piy, on account of the cruciform figure of 
Its crystals, and the pecufiarity of its com- 
position. It sometimes occurs in right 
rectan^lar prisms terminated by four 
rhombic planes, corresponding to the solid 
angles of the misms ; but more fi:equendy 
in twin-cxystfJs formed by the intersection 
of two flattened prisms at right angles to 
each other, and m such a manner that a 
common axis and acumination is formed. 
The crystals yield to cleavage parallel to 
the planes and both diagonals of a right 
rectangular prism, which is their primary 
form. Its prevailing color is white ; it is 
translucent or serm-tran^Muent, with a 
somewliat pearly lustre, and hard enough 
to scratch glass. Specific gravity 2.3^ 
It consists of silex 49.00, alumme 16.00, 

* 8i ignoteitit, gaudebo ; ri tueceruetitf fe- 
ram ; Jacio en aleam, Ubrumque tcribo, »eu pre- 
sentibus sen posUris UgenSuHf nihU interest; 
erpectet ille natm Uctoremper annot centum ; si 
Deua ipse per annorum sena mxUia contemptato- 
rem prtestolatus est. Joannis^ Kepleri Har- 
monices Mundi, Lihri v. LincU, Auttrim^ 



buytes laOO, and water 15X)0. It chiefly 
oecuTB in melalKfenMis vein% as at Andre- 
asberg, in the Hartz, and at Strontian in 
Scotland* It has abo been found in 
amygdaloid at Oberatein. 

Harms, Klaua, archdeacon of Kiel, 
celebrated as a preacher and author, bom 
May 25, 1778, at Fahratedt, a village in 
HcJstein, was the son of a miller. 1^11 
his twelftti year, he studied in the yillaffe 
school, after which he learned the rum- 
ments of the Latin and Greek lamniages, 
fiom the preacher of the village. He was 
then obliged to attend to the mill and to 
the &rm. From his seventeenth year, 
when his father died, he assumed the du- 
ties of the head of the fiunily. In his 
nineteenth year, his mother having sold 
the mill, he entered the school at Meldorf^ 
in Ditmaish, studied, 1799, at Kiel, and 
became a tutor. In 1806, he was chosen 
by the society at Lunden, in North Dit- 
maiah, deacon, and, in 1816, wai4 elected 
archdeacon at Kiel. As a pulpit orator, 
he is eminent ; his words flow with ease 
and ftcility, often rushing, powenRil and 
eoersetic, as a torrent, and his style is 
simpR, original and perspicuous. All 
clasaes of hearere, the learned as well as 
the rustic, listen with edification to his 
preaching. He has published Summer 
and Winter Sermons, and The 95 Tlieseis 
of Doctor Martin Luther, with 95 other 
Positions accompanying them, by KL 
Harms (Kiel, 18171 in which he exposes 
many defects of the Protestant church. 
He is also the author of many other 

Haefebb. (See MaU,) 

Harold I, Harfiigar (fiiir-hajred) ; 
king of Norway, son of Hafdan the 
Black ; one of the greatest monarchs of 
that country. At the time of his fiuher's 
death (863^ he was in tiie Dofrefield 
mountains, and had already evinced great 
talent and personal prowess in several 
battles. Love made him a conqueror. 
He had oftered his hand to Gida, the 
dau^ter of a neighboring king; but the 
proud beauty rephed to Harold's ambas- 
sadors, that Ske would only consent to be- 
come his wife when he had subjected aU 
Norway. Harold swore he would not 
cut his hair tiU he had accomplished 
Gida's desire, and, in ten years, succeeded 
in obtaining sole possession of Norway. 
In the mean tiine, his hair had grown 
long and beautiful, from which circum- 
stance he derived his surname. While he 
reduced the lesser kings, he left them, with 
the title jori, the adminislntion of th«r 
territCMies, and the third part of their in- 

come ; but many of them emigrated and 
founded Norwegian colonies. Hrolf, or 
RoUo, emigrated to Neustria (France). 
Others, wiUi their followers, established 
themselves in Iceland, the Shetland Isles, 
Faroe and the Qrcades, all which were 
then uninhabited. When Harold found 
that die emigrants oflvn extended their 
incursions into his dominions, he embark- 
ed, with a naval force, to subdue them. 
After a bloody war, he conquered Scot- 
land, the Orcades, &c., and returned 
home. He fixed his rendence at Dron- 
theim, and died there in 990, after having 
raised his countrv to a prosperous state, 
by vrise lavrs and the encouragement of 

Harold I, suraamed Hartfooi, king of 
EIngland, succeeded his father, Canute, in 
10^ notwithstanding a previous agree- 
ment, that the sovereignty of En^and 
should descend to the issue of Canute by 
his second wife, the Norman princess Em- 
ma. His countrymen, the Danes, main- 
tained him upon the throne against the ef- 
forts of «ul uodwin, in fovor of Hardica- 
nute ; but, Harold gaining over that leader 
by the promise of marrying his daughter, a 
conopromise was effected, and they united 
to enect the murder of princeAlfred, son to 
Etheldred II. Afler a reign of four years, 
in which nothingmemoraUe occurred, 
Harold died, in 1^. 

Harold II, king of England, was the 
second son of Godwin, earf of Kent He 
succeeded his father in his government 
and great offices, and, upon the death of 
Edward the Confessor, m 1066, stepped 
without opposition into the vacant throne, 
without attending to the more legal claim of 
Edgar Atheling, or the asserted bequest of 
Edward in fiivor of the duke of Normandy. 
The latter immediately called upon him to 
reffign the crown, and, upon his refbsal, 
prepared for invasion. He also instigated 
Harold's brother, Tosti, who had retired 
in disgust to Flanders, to infost the northern 
coasts of England, in conjunction with the 
king of Norway. The united fleet of 
these chiefr saikd up the Humber, and 
landed a numerous body of men, who 
defeated the opposing forces of the earis 
of Northumberland and Mercia, but were 
totally routed by Harold, whose brother, 
Tosti, fell in the battle. He had scarcely 
tune to breathe after this victory, before he 
heard of the landing of the duke of Nor- 
mandy at Pevensey. in Sussex. Hasten- 
ing thither, with all the troops he could 
muster, a seneral engagement ensued at 
Hastinfls, Oct 14, 1066, m which thisspir- 
ited pnnce, after exerting every effort of 



valor and military aki^ was alaiD yvith an 
anow ; and the crown of Finglnnd waa 
the immediate fruit of William's victory. 

Haeoun, or Aaron al Rasbid, a cel- 
ebrated caliph of the Saracens, was the sec- 
ond son of tne caliph Mahadi. He succeed- 
ed his elder brother, Hadi, in the caliphate 
A. D. 786, and was the most potent jn-iiioe 
of his nice, ruling over tenitoriea extend- 
ing from Egypt to Korasan. He ob- 
tamed the name of Al Rashid, or the Just, 
but his claim to the title must be r^arded 
with considerable allowance for Astern 
notions of deqK>tic justice. One of his 
noblest qualities was his love of learning 
and science. He caused many Greek and 
Latin authors to be trandated and dis- 
persed throu(;hout his empire, and 
made his subjects acquainted vnth the 
Ihad and the Odyssey. He eight times 
invaded the Greek empire, and, on the 
refusal of the emperor Nicephorus, in 803, 
to pay tribute, addressed to him a singu- 
larly airogaut epistle, and followed it up 
by an irruption into Greece, wliich 
terminated in the defeat of Nicephorus, 
who was obliged to pay an auinnented 
tribute, and agree not to rebuild Her- 
aclea and the other pillaged and dilapi- 
dated frontier towns. During these 
transactions, the ruin of the ftmily 
of the Barmecides exemplified the des- 
potic rigor of Haroun's character. Yahia, 
the hef^ of it, had superintended his edu- 
cation ; and of his four sons, the eldest 
was a successful general ; the second, the 
caliph^ prime vi2ier, Giafrer; and the 
third and fourth in dignified stations. 
The generooty, munificence and af&bUity 
of the Barmecides, rendered them the 
delif^t of all ranks of people ; and GiafiTer 
was so much in his mastei^s graces, that 
die caliph, in order to enjoy his company 
in the presence of his sister Abaasa, to 
whom he was equally attached, formed a 
maniaffe between the princess and vizier, 
but witn the capricious restriction of their 
fi»twaring the privileeee of such an union. 
Passion broke through this unjust prohibi- 
tion, and the caliph, in his revenge, pub- 
licly executed Giafrer, and confiscated the 
property cft the whole ftmily. Haioun 
attamed the summit of worldly power 
and prosperity, and the French historians 
mention a splendid embassy which he 
sent to Chariemagne, which, among other 
presents, brought a magnificent tent, a 
water-clock, an elephant, and the kevs of 
the holy sepulchre at Jerusalem, implying 
a permission fbr European pilgrims to 
visit it. Haroun was seized with a mortal 
distemper, while on the point of march- 

ing 10 put down a rebellion in the prov- 
inces beyond the Oxus ; and, retiring to 
Tous, in Korasan, expired in the 47th 
year of his age, and 23d of his reign. 
The popular fame of this caliph is evinc 
ed by the Arabian Nights' Entertainments, 
in which Haroun, his wife Zobeide, his vi- 
zier Giafier, and his chief eunuch Mesrour, 
are fi^qnent and conspicuous characters. 

Harp ; a stringed instrument, con^st- 
ing of a triangular frame, and the chords 
of which are distended in parallel direc- 
tions firom the u[^r part to one of its 
aides. Its scale extends through the com- 
mon compass, and the strings are tuned 
by semitonic intervals. It stands erect, 
and, when used, is placed at the feet of 
the performer, who produces its tones by 
the acltion of the thumb and fingers of 
both hands on the strings. The ancients 
had a triangular instrument, called trigo- 
niim, corresponding somewhat to our 
harp. Some authors say that it came 
ori^nally fi!om the Svrians, fh>m whom 
the Greeks borrowed it. The ancient 
Honbuca is believed by some to corre- 
fipond to the harp. Some writers say that 
the harp came to us from the nations of 
the nortn of Europe, in whose languages 
they trace its etymology. Papias and Du 
Cange assert that the harp derives its 
name from the .^nM, a people of Italy, 
Who invented it; but Galileo maintains 
that the Italians received it fiom the Irisii. 
Whatever may have been its origin, its 
invention is very ancient. It was known 
to the Effvptians, as appears fiiom tlie 
travels of Bruce and Denon. The four 
harps, of which the latter traveller has 
given drawings, are almost the same in 
shape as ours. The two fiiBt have 21 
strings, the third 18, and the fourth only 
4. The designs are from the paintings 
found in the tombs of the kings, in the 
mountain west of Thebes. TheHebre wh, 
the Greeks and the Romans appear to 
have made particular use of this instru- 
ment The ivory harp, with seven 
strings, belonged to the Greeks, who, 
however, neglected it The Romans pre- 
served the use of it a long time in sacri- 
fices. The harp was much played in 
France m the time of chivalry. Tho 
Anglo-Saxons excelled in playing on the 
harp, which they generally accompanied 
with the violin and the comicinus. The 
ancient Irish, Scotch and Welsh also 
made much use of this instrument, and 
the han> figures conspicuoudy in the 
arms of Ireland. The Anglo-Nonnans 
also were skilful perfomieni on this instru> 
ment Strutt in his England, Ancient 



and Modem, has giwn dnwmsB of the 
faaips used by the peode of Uie Nordi 
about the 9lh centuiy. They are trienga- 
hr, like ouib, but have only 10 or 12 
su^igB. Id the 19th coDttury, the harp 
had onl^ 17 atrings, aa appears fiom a 
manuscript of the tune, cited and analys- 
ed by Lebeuf (Menu dc r^cadenne de$ In- 
icr^ torn., xx, page 377). No inatnunent 
has received greater improvement fiom 
modem arttats tfian tfai& In its present 
state, while it forma one of the most ele- 
gant objects to the eye, it produces some 
of the most agreeable effects to the ear, 
of any instrument in practice. 

Habp, ^oliait. (See JEoUan Harp*J 

Uaapagus; a Mode, minister of long 
Aatyages, who ordered him to put Gyms 
to death. As he did not obey this com- 
mand, Astyages invited him to a banquet, 
at wiudi die body of his own sou was 
served up before him ; at least, so Qerodo- 
018 telk us. (See Cyrus, and ,^ttyages^ 

Ha&pe, Jean Francis de la. (See La- 

HiLBFE, Frecteric Ciesar la. (See Za- 
fcarpe, /V. Cemt.) 

Haifes, Robert Croodloe, was bora 
near FVedericksburg, Virginia, of poor, 
out raspectable parents, who, while he 
was very youn^, emigrated to Granville, 
in North Carohna. He dkplayed, in his 
boyhood, vivacity of npirit and veraa^ 
ti&y of taient, and, before the age of 
15, posMBod the rudiments of a uberal 
education, a various fund of profitable 
ideaa^ and an expertness in the use 
of tools, which would have made him a 
successful mechanic. The ardor and 
gallantly of his character prompted him, 
at that ace, to join a troop of horse, com- 
posed of the young men of the neighbor- 
hood, to wiudh he acted as quarter-master, 
and with them he participated iff€rreene's 
canipaign ; but his thirst for learning and 
InieUecmal culture soon induced bun to 
withdraw fiom &e mihtaiy career, and 
seek some situation in which he could 
complete his studies. He procured ad- 
mission into Princeton college, where he 
taught one or two of the iimirior cl&ases, 
whue he gained instraction and distinc- 
tion in the upper. About the age of 19 
or 20^ he accompanied a Mow student to 
Pliikidelpfaitt, on a visit, and here form- 
ed the resolution to embaik, at once, fi>r 
Endand, and make the tour of Europe 
on foot He mtended to begin vnth giv- 
ing lessons in London, and to work simul- 
taneously at the trade of a joiner, for 
which he was qualified bf his earir prac- 
tice. This romantic project was frustrat- 

ed by ice in the Delaware, that prevented 
the departure of any vessel duraig many 
weeks, in the course of which the youth- 
ful adventurer nearly exhausted his purse, 
and had leisure to reflect upon the diffi- 
Ctthies of the enterprise. As soon as the 
river became navigable, he resolved to 
sail for Charieston, and try his fortune 
there, his new scheme being to study the 
law. He arrived, after a short passage, at 
that city, and found himself on tlie wharf, 
a stranger to every one, with but a dollar 
or two in his pockets. As he stood ru- 
minating on his condition, he was accost- 
ed by a man of respectable appearance, 
who asked him whether he had not taught 
a class at Princeton college, in which 
there was a youth of a certain name ; and, 
being answered affirmatively, he pro- 
ceeded to say that the youth was his son, 
who had rendered him famiHar witli the 
name of his tutor by the affectionate testi- 
mony often repeated in his letters. He 
professed a strong desire to serve his new 
acquaintance, mentioned that he kept a 
tavern, and offered him a^ assistance 
which he might require, llie welcome 
kindness vna accepted: the generous 
friend introduced him to a lawyer, under 
whom he prepared himself for the same 
profession; and, in less than a twelve- 
month, he undertook causes on his own 
aocount The hope of speedier success 
in lus profession mduced him to retire 
ftom Charleston to an interior distiict; 
and in this residence he first acquired 
some political consideration by a series of 
essays, in a newspaper, on a proposed 
change of the constnution of the state ; 
and he was soon elected into the legisla- 
ture. The reputation which he gained, as 
a speaker and man of bunness, soon plac- 
ed him in congress. It is unnecessary to 
follow him, in his legislative coiuse of 
eight or nine years, from the commence- 
ment of the French revolution to the 
year 1802, when the democratic party bad 
succeeded to tiie natiO|)al gqverament. In 
the importance of events and discussions, 
the excitement of parties, the talents of 
leaders, the difficulties of action, the period 
just mentioned may be termed the most 
remukable in our independent annals. 
Such men as Marshal, Madison, Griles, 
Nicholas, Ttecy, Ames, Griswold, Bayord, 
Gallatin, exerted their various powers to 
tiie utmost, in congress ; and among them 
Mr. Harper was constantly seen the equal 
adversary or coadjutor of the ablest. He 
nded with the federalists, and zealously 
supported the poUcy and measures or 
Wiiahington, of^ whom he was the per* 



8onal fiiend, as he was abo of Hanuhon, 
and odien of the principal federal states- 
mefL Many yean afterwanb, he collected 
into an octavo volume a portion of his 
ciroulan and add rcaaca to lus constituentB, 
and a few of his speeches, as they were 
printed while he was a representative. 
These attest the vigor of his tacuhies, the 
depth of his views, and the extent of his 
knowledge. No member of the national 
councils was better acquainted with the 
foreign relations of his countiy, and the 
affiiirs of Europe, or could discuss them 
in a more instructive, argumentative and 
fluent strain. His pamphlet, published in 
1797, and entitled Observations on the 
Dispute between the United States and 
France, acquired great celebrity at home, 
passed rapidly through several editions in 
England, and was esteemed, over Europe, 
one of the ablest productions of the crisis. 
The speeches which he delivered in his 
capacity of manager of the impeachment 
against Blount, on the question whether a 
senator of Ae U. States be liable to impeach- 
ment, and his aipmient on the constitu- 
tional powere of the president and senate 
relative to the appointment of forei^ 
ministera, are specimens of his capacity m 
the examination of constitutional points. 
Soon after the downfall of the federal par- 
ty^ he retired from oonjeress, and, having 
mairied the daughter of the distinguishea 
patriot diaries cSirroU of Carolhon, resum- 
ed the practice of the law in Baltimore, 
where he soon became eminent in his 
profession. Judge Chase, when impeach- 
ed bv the house of representatives, en- 
gaged Mr. Harper fer nis defence, and 
committed to mm the duty of preparing 
his full answer to the articles of impeach- 
ment The victorious answer, a master- 
piece in all respects, was thought to be 
the woric of the judge himself, and excited 
a lively admiration of the supposed 
author's powere; but he furnished to- 
wards it onlv a few manuscript pages of 
loose heads, leading topics, most of which 
were either omitted, or essentially modi- 
fied. It was mainly supplied and wholly 
composed by his mend and counsellor, 
who, in concurrence with two distin- 
guished colleagues, Luther Martin and 
Joseph Hopkinson, defended him before 
the senate. Mr. Harper attended almost 
every session of the supreme court, from 
the time of its removal to Washin^on to 
that of his deatii, and was always listened 
to with respect by the court His style 
of sneaking was animated, neat, suffi- 
ciently fluent, and uncommonly perniicu- 
ous. Juries especially felt the combined 

influence of bis clear, natural tones, shn- 
pie, easfy gesture, lucid annangement and 
impressive exposition of fa^ and his 
fecility in qiplying general principles, and 
deducini^ motives or conseauences at the 
exact pomt of time. Mr. Harper did not 
sufl^ his taste for literature to languish. 
He was a diligent reader of belles-lettres, 
of history, geoffiaphy, travels and alatisticB. 
He was versed in the sciences of morals 
and government, and was particularly 
well acquainted with political economy, 
and well knew how to use, in his puUic 
addresses, the stores with which his excel- 
lent memory readily supplied him. The 
federal par^ happening to acquire the as- 
cendant in Maryland, Mr. Harper was im- 
mediately elected, by the legisbture, a 
senator in congress; but this position the 
demands of his profession obliged him 
soon to rehnquisl). The same councils 
bestowed upon liim the rank of major- 
general in the militia. About the yeara 
1819 — ^SiO, he set out for Europe unth a 
part of his femily, and visited, m succes- 
sion, England, France and Italy. He was 
absent from home neariy two years. Fa- 
vorable circumstances, and his own repu- 
tation and merit, procured for him access 
to many of the most renowned person- 
ages and brilliant circles, both of Great 
Britain and the continent Durinr the 
few years between his return and death, 
he employed himself chiefly in plans of a 
public character, such as the |»t>motion 
of internal improvement and the coloiuza- 
tion of the blacks. - He delij^ted in topo- 
oraphical and geographical studies; and 
the particular notice which he had be- 
stowed upon Afiican geography served, 
besides his pMlanthropic z(«l, to draw him 
into the scheme of African colonization. 
In private life, general Harper had signal 
virtues and attractions. His relatives and 
friends knew well the warmth and tender- 
ness of his heart, and the generosity of 
his disposition. He administered aid, 
praise and sympathy wherever .they were 
due. He Kved witii elegant hospitality, 
and enjoyed the company of the younr 
and gay. In conversation, he exceUec^ 
perhaps, even more than he did in puUic 
roeakm^. He made a liberal estimate of 
the motives and qualities of his political 
antagonists. He never avoided social in- 
tercourse with any as such, but mixed 
with them in the kindest temper. For 
the leaden and principles of the federal 
party he retained a profound esteem, 
immediately after the inauguration of 
Mr. Jefferson, he vindicated their meas- 
ures, and predicted the final adoption of 



their whole policy, in an elaborate biatori- 
cal aurrey, addreeaed to hia conatituenta. 
Hia awom oairative and ezplaaatioDa of 
the conduct of thoae who Toied for colo- 
nel Buir, in oongreaa, in ISOl, and hia 
piinted Letters, in refiitation of Mr. Mon- 
loe'a chargea, evince further the deep con- 
cern which he took in the reputadon of 
the fedeFoliatB and the cauae of truth. 
General Harper waa above the middle 
flize, well abaped, muacular and robuat; 
of erect, firm gait; of regular featurea and 
expreaaiye countenance, and of active 
habitB. Hia conatitudon waa atrong and 
equal to fittigue, bodily or mental, until 
the laat two years, after he had underaone 
a aevere attack of the bilious fever. .Thia 
enfeebled and extenuated hia frame, and 
entailed upon him, or was followed by, a 
dangeroua affection, called angma pedortB^ 

which kiUa suddenly, and when the iia^ 
tient may appear, and auppoee himaeli to 
be, in good healtL Agamat this fcmnida- 
ble enemy, he employe a strict diet and 
regimen, and much ezerciae in the open 
air, and at length believed it to be sub- 
dued. Being engaged in a v^ important 
cause, in the aecond week in Januaiy, 
1825, in one of the Baltimore courts, he 
finished hia a]|;ument in the morning of 
die 14th. The next momin^, he bxeak- 
fiffited in good appetite and spirits, and, on 
rising fi»m the table, stood near the fire, 
with a newspaper in his hand. In a few 
minutes, he waa perceived to be fidling,by 
hia son, who caught him in hia anna, but, 
are medical aid could be procured, he was 
dead. He waa 60 years of a^. 

Ha&p£e's Fsaar; a poat-vdlage in Jef- 
ferson county, Viri^nia, at the junction of 
the Shraiandoah with the Potomac ; it ia 
^bt miiea E. N. E. of Charieston, and 
65 W. N. W. of Washington. The cele- 
brated paasace of the Fotomac, at thia 
place, ia an object truly grand and magnifi- 
cent. The eye takea in, at a glance, on 
the north aide of the Potomac and Shen- 
andoah, at their junction, an impetuous 
totreatj foaming and daahing over numer- 
ous rocka, which have tumbled from pre- 
cipicea that overhang them; the pictur- 
eaque tops and sides of the mountains, the 
aende and winding cunrent of the river 
below the ridge, presenting, altogether, a 
landacape capable of awakening the most 
delightml and sublime emotions. ^'This 
scene," says Mr. Jefferaon, ^is worth a 
▼ojage across the Atlantic.'' There ia at 
tfan place, belonging to the U. States, 
a very extensive eAabliahment for the 
manuracture of arms. It waa founded in 
1796, and now empbys about 960 work- 

men. There are ei^t large brick build- 
inga, six on the Potomac, luid two on the 
Shenandoah, two nules distant, occupied 
by the worka ; also two larffe brick build- 
ings, occupied as an arsend. The village 
contains about 1000 inhabitants. 

Harpies (jApirvMi, Greek) ; the rapacious 
goddeases or storms. Their ages, appear- 
ance, namea and number, are so difl^ntiy 
given by the Poets, that it ia difficult to say 
any thing dennite concerning them. They 
are represented, by Homer, as residing 
near the Erinnyes, on the ocean, before 
the jaws of hell, and as goddesses of 
storms. If any one waa ament so long 
fixnn home, that it waa not known what 
had become of him, and he was supposed 
to be dead, it waa commonly said, *' The 
harpies have carried him off." Hesiod 
represents them as young virsins, of great 
beauty. The later poets and artists vied 
with each other in aepicting them under 
the most hideous forms. One has given 
them the head of a ben, with winffi, and 
a body covered with feathers, human 
arms, with claws, a white breast and hu- 
man ietp, which terminate in the feet of a 
hen. OtheiB have given them the face of 
a young woman, with the ears of a bear. 
Spanheim's woik contains three represen- 
tations of the harpies, from coins and 
works of art, with the claws andbodiesof 
birds. The first has a coarse female &ce; 
the second a completely feminine head, 
and two breasts ; the third a visage orna- 
mented with vneaths and a head-dress. 
T%ere are also other representations ot 
them. Leclerc supposes that they are an 
allegorical description of the noi^ flight, 
the destruction, the stench and the con- 
tamination of locusts. 

Harpockatks ; the god of silence among 
the Egyptians ; a son of Iris and Osiris. 
Ifis statues represent him as holding one 
of his fingers on his mouth. They ap- 
pear at the entrance of most of the Roman 
and Egyptian temples. 

Hakpoon. The harpo<m is an histru- 
ment of iron, of about three feet in length. 
It consists of three conjoined parts, called 
the sockd, shank and mouth, the latter of 
which includes the barhs, or wUhtn. This 
instrument, if we except a small addition 
to the barbs, and some enlargement of di- 
mensions, maintains the same form in 
which it was originally used in the fishery 
two centuries ago. At that time, the 
mouth, or barbed extremity, was of a tri- 
angular shape, imited to the shank in the 
middle of one of the sides, and this, being 
Ecroped out on each side of the shank, 
formed two simple flat barbs. In the 



ooune of the last oentuiy, an improve- 
ment was made, by adcKnff another small 
baib, reaemMing the beard of a fiah-hook, 
within each of the former withers, in ar&- 
▼erae position. The two principal with- 
eiB, in the (nvsent improved harpoon, 
measure about eight inches in length and 
six in breadth ; the shank is eighteen inch- 
es to two feet in length, and four tenths of 
an inch in diameter ; and the socket, which 
is hoUow, swells fiom the size of the shank 
to near two inches m diameter, and is about 
six inches in length. To this weapon is 
ftsten^ a long cord, called the trftafe-fme, 
whkh lies carefully coiled in the boat, in 
such a manner as to run out without being 
interrupted or entangled. As soon as the 
boat has been rowed within a competent 
distance of the vrhale, the harpooner 
launches his instrument ; and the fish, be- 
mg wounded, immediately descends under 
the ice with amazing rapidity, carryinff the 
harpoon along with nim, and a considem- 
ble length of the line, which is purposely 
let down, to give him room to mve. Be- 
ing soon exhausted with the fatigue and 
loss of blood, he reascends, in order to 
breathe, where he presently expires, and 
floats upon the surface of the water ; when 
the whalers approach the carcass t^ 
drawing in the whale-line. The line is 60 
to 70 iShoms long, and made of the fin- 
est and softest hemp, that it ma^ slip die 
eaaer ; if not well watered, by its fiiction 
against the boat it would soon be set on 
fire ; and if not sufficiend^ long, the boat 
would be soon overset, as it frequently is. 
With the harpoon, other large fish, as 
stufveons, &c., afe also caught When 
the harpoon is fi>rced, by a blow, into the 
6t of the whale, and the line is held tight, 
the principal withers seize the strons liga- 
mentous nbres of the blubber, and pre- 
vent it from being withdrawn ; and, in the 
event of its being puUed out so ftr as to 
remain entangM by one wither only, 
which is finequendy the case, then the lit- 
tle reverse barb, or tlUrp wUher, as it is 
called, collecting a number of the same 
redculated sinewy fibres, which are very 
numerous near the skin, prevents the har- 
poon from being shaken out by the ordi- 
naiy motions of the whale. The point aiMl 
exterior edges of the barbs of the harpoon 
are sharpened to a rough edge, by means 
of a file. This part of the harpoon is not 
formed of steel, as it is finequendy repre- 
sented, but of common, soft iron, so diat, 
when blunted, it can be readily sharpened 
by a file, or even by scraping it with a 
kiiife. The most important part in the 
construction of tJm instrument, is ttie 

As diis part m liable to be fbrcil^ 
and suddenly extended, twisted and bent, 
it requires to be made of the softest and 
most pliable iron. 

Hearpoon-Ciun. The harpoon-gun is 
weU calculated to facilitate the capture of 
whales, under particular ciroumstancee, es- 
pecially in calm weather, when the fbh 
are apt to take the alarm at the wproach 
of boats within 15 or 20 yards of^ them. 
The harpoon gun was invented in the 
year 1731, and used by some individuals 
with success. Being, however, somewhat 
difficult and dangerous in its application, 
it was laid aside for many years. It has^ 
however, subsequendy been hi^ly im- 
proved, and rendered capaUe of dirowing 
a harpoon nearly 40 yards, with efiect ; 
yet, on account of the address ^ich is 
requisite for the proper management of it, 
and the loss of fish which, in unskilful 
hands, it has been die means of occasion- 
ing, together with some accidents which 
have resulted from its use, it has not been 
so generally adopted as might have been 
expected. In its present Improved form, 
the harpoon-gun consosls of a kind of 
swivel, having a barrel of wrought iron, 
24 to 26 inches in lensth, of 3 inches ex- 
terior diameter, and 1} inches bore. It is 
furnished vrith two locks, which act si- 
multaneously, for the purpose of diminish- 
ing the liability of the gun missing fire. 
The slmnk of me harpoon fired from it is 
double, terminating in a cylindrical knob, 
fitting the bore of the guiL Between the 
two parts of the shank a wire ring slideB 
freely, to which is attached the line. 
When the harpoon is introduced into the 
barrel of the gun, the ring with the attach- 
ed line slides up, and remains on the out- 
side, near the mouth of the harpoon ; but, 
the instant that it is fired, the rinf , of 
course, flies back against the cylindrical 
knob. Some harpoons have been lately 
made with a single shank, similar to the 
common hand harpoon, but swell at the 
end to the thickness of the bore of the 
gun. The line, closely spliced round the 
shank, is slipped tomrds the mouth of 
the hfupoon, when it is placed in the gun, 
and, when fired, is prevented &om disen- 
gaging itself by the size of the knob at the 
end. (For fiiither information, see ff%ale- 

Harpsichord ; a stringed instrument, 
consisting of a case framed of mahogany, 
or walnut-tree wood, and containing the 
belly, or sounding-board, over which the 
wires are distended, supported by bridges. 
In the front the keys are disposed, the long 
ones of which are the naturals, and tbs 



abort cmes the ahaips and flats. These 
keya being preased by the fingefB, their 
enclosed extremities raise little upright ob- 
kmg slips of wood, called jaekif fiiniished 
with crow-quill plectrumSi which strike 
the wires. The |neat advaDtage of the 
hupeichonl beyoiid most other stringed 
instrumeniBy consisis in its capaci^ of 
sounding many notes at once, and unrm- 
ing those combinations, and petrforming 
those evolutions of hannony, which asin- 
de instrument cannot conunand. This 
mstrument, called by the Italians davir 
ceadHdoj by the French dooeciii, and in 
Latin m»e cmhalvmy is an improvement 
upon me danchord, which was borrowed 
mm the harp, and has, for more than a 
century, been in the highest esteem, and 
in the most general use, both public and 
private, throughout Europe; but, since 
the invention of that fine instrument, the 
grand piano-forte, the use of it has con- 
siderably diminished. 

Haeouebuss (in the ancient statutes 
called alao orjiiefrttf , haqudniij or hof^nU) 
is a hand-gun, or fire^urm, of a proper 
length, &€., to be borne on the aim. The 
word is fonned of the French orgiiefrtae, 
and that from the Italian archtSnuOy or or- 
co a huo (of orco, a bow, and hmo^ a holel 
on account of the touch-hole, at whicn 
powder is put to prime it, and the circum- 
stance of its having succeeded to the bows 
of the ancients. The harquebuss is, prop- 
eriy, a fire-arm, of the ordinaiy length of 
a musket or fi)w]ing-piece, codLed, usual- 
ly, with a wheeL Hanzelet describes its 
legitimate leng& to be 40 calibres, and the 
weight of its Ml one ounce seven-eighths ; 
its diaige of powder as much. There is 
also a luger kmd, called armtdmst h croc, 
much of the nature of our olunderiiiusBes. 
This was used, in time of war, to defend 
places, being usually rested on something 
when discharged. The first time these 
instnunents were seen was in the imperial 
anny of Bourbon, who drove Bonnivet 
out of the state of Alilan. They vrere so 
heavy, that two men we^ employed to 

fiLiRBiifiyroif, James, a celebrated nolit- 
ical writer, was bom at Upton, in Moith- 
amptonshire, in 1611, and was educated at 
Trinity college, Qxfind, under the care of 
the celebrated Chillin^orth. On the 
death of his Ather, he visited the Nether- 
lands, where he entered lord Craven's reg- 
iment, and, being quartered at the Hague, 
fieqfuented the courts of the prince of Or- 
ange and the queen of Bohemia, and ac- 
companied the elector palatine to Den- 
maiK. He subsequently visited Qeimany, 

France and Italy ; and, (m his return to 
England, siding with the parliamentaiy 
party, in 1640, he accompanied their com- 
misHi<Mien to Charles I at Newcasde, and, 
on their recommendation, was appointed 
groom of the stole to the king, in this 
capacity, he never disguised Us republi- 
can sentiments; yet he was desirous of 
producing an accommodation betwee:i 
Charles and the parliament ; which is sup- 
posed to have produced his removal from 
the kin^s person. During the protector- 
ate, he paned his time in retirement, and 
occupiea his leisure in writing his famous 
woriL, Oceana ; which, after some opposi- 
tion on the part of Cromwell, was pub- 
lished in 165iS. In order to propagate his 
opinions, he established a sort of club, or 
debating socie^, called the roto, which 
was terminated by the restoration. Be- 
ing axrested for a supposed plot against 
the government, of which he was entirely 
innocent, he was treated with great sever- 
ity, and his release by habeas corpus evad- 
ed, by an arbitrary removal to St Nicho- 
las island, near Plymouth. Here, either 
fixnn distress of mind, or improper medi- 
cal treatment, his fiiculties became imnair- 
ed; which, being ropresented to the King 
by his relations, led to his release. He 
partly recovered, and married a lady to 
whom he had been early attached. He 
died, of paralysis, in 1677, and was buried 
at St Margaret's, Westminster. Hairing- 
ton was a profound thinker. His OceanOf 
vdiich is a poHtical romance, and the Uto- 
pian image of a republic, is a worit of 
genius, thought and invention, and is 
characterized by an enthusiastic love of 
liberty. The writings of Hairington were 
published (in one vdume, folio) by Tin- 
dal, in 1700, and again, more completely, 
by doctor Bireh, in 1737. 

Hauiis, James, a learned writer on phi- 
lolof^ and the philosophy of languajge, 
was Mm at Saliabuiy, m 1709. Having 
passed through his preliminaiy studies, he 
entered as a gentleman commoner of 
Wadharo college, Oxford, at the age of 16; 
after which Ite became a probaBoner at 
Lincok's Inn. The death of his ftther 
put him in possession of an independent 
fortune at the ape of 23 ; on which he re- < 
tired to his native place, to dedicate his 
time to classical literature. In 1744, be 
publidied a volume, containing three trea- 
tises,— On Art ; on Music and Painting; 
and On Happiness. This was a prelude to 
the most celebrated of his produclionB^ 
Hennes^ or a Philosophical Enquiiy con- 
cerning Universal Qrammar. This work 
displays much ingenuity, and an extensive 



acquaintanoe with the writiiin of the 
Greek poets and pfailosophen ; but the au- 
thor^ ignorance of the ancient dialects of 
uie noraiem nadoua has caused him to 
take an imperfik*! survey of his subjecL 
In 1761, he was chosen member of parlia* 
ment, and held several public places. In 
1775, he published Philosophical Ananj^ 
ments. part of a eystemadc work, which 
he haa projected, as an illustration of the 
Loffic of Aristotle. His concluding work, 
Phuological Inquiries, was completed in 
1780, but was not published till after his 
death (December 2S2, 1780). A collective 
edidon of his works was published by his 
son, the earl of Malmesbuiy (2 vols. 4to., 

HARRiSBuae ; a borou^ in Daiuphin 
county, and the seat of govenunent or the 
state of Pennsylvania, on the east bank of 
the Susquehannah, over which there is 
here erected a covered bridge, of 12 arch- 
es, which cost 190,000 dottanu The Penn- 
sylvania canal passes along the 
side of the town, and forms a large basin 
for a haibor ; 35 miles W. N. W. Lancas- 
ter, 96 W. by N. Philadelphia. Popular 
tiQn,inl820, 2990; in 1830, 4307; and, 
indudingthe adjoining village of McClays- 
buig, 4526. The whole number of houses 
in 1830 was 636 ; 431 of them fiame 
houses, 201 of brick, and 4 of stone. Har- 
hsburg is pleasantly situated, regularly 
laid out, ana, in general, well buik. The 
capitol is a spacious and elegant brick edi- 
fice, situated on a considerable elevation, 
on the outside of the town. From its cu- 
pola is presented a fine landscape, em- 
nracing a wide extent of cultivated coun- 
try, the meanders of the river, swelling 
hills, and the neighboring mountains. 
The town contains a county couit-house, 
a jail, two banks, a large Lancasteiian 
school-house, capable of accommodating 
1000 children ; 10 places of public wor- 
ship, for Presbyterians, Lutherans, German 
Reformed, Episcopalians, Roman Catho- 
lics, MethodislB, Baptists,Unitarian6, United 
Brethren, and Africans, one each ; and 
eight printing-ofiices, fix>m six of which 
newsmipen are issued, two of them in 
the German language. It has also a 
steam-mill, a variety of manu&cturing es- 
tablishments, and is a place of conad- 
«BUe trade. Fifty yean smce, Hanis- 
kirg was a vrildemesi, inhabited by In- 

Hamusou, Beniamin, a signer of the 
declaration of independence, was of a 
Highly respectable &mily in Virginia. 
The date of his birth is not precise^ 
known. He was a student in the college 

of Wmiam and Mary, when his ftdier and 
two sisten were amukaneously killed by 
a stroke of ligfatninj^. He went eariy into 
public life (in wfawh his aaceston bad 
lon^ been distinguished), commencing his 
pohtical career, in 1764, as a member of 
the legislature of his native province. The 
eminence which he acouired in that ca- 
pacity, combined with the influence natu* 
rally accruing from fortune and distin- 
guished fiunily connexions, rendered it an 
object for the royal government to enli^ 
him in their fovor ; uid he was according- 
ly offered a seat in the executive coun^ 
of Virginia,-^ stadon analogous to that 
of a privy-counsellor in Enyand. This 
was a tempting bait to an andntious young 
man ; but as, even at that time, the meas- 
ures of the British ministir indicated an 
oppressive spirit, he refused the proffered 
dignity, and always exerted his mfluence 
for the benefit of the people. When the 
time came for active resistance to the ar- 
acts of the government, he was not 
founcT backward. In the fost general 
congress of 1774, he was a deiegaSiB, and 
consecrated his name, by affixing it to that 
declaration which can never be forgotten 
as long as Uberty is wotshipped. It is re- 
lated conceminff him, that| whilst sisning 
the instrument, ne happened to stand near 
Mr. Gerry, of Massachusetts, who was of 
a slender and spare form, while he was 
vei^ corpulent ; and, turning to him, afW 
layuig down the pen, he said, in a face- 
tious wav, ** When the time of hanging 
comes, I shall have the advantage ovw 
you. It win be over with me in aminute, 
but you will be kicking in the air half an 
hour afler I am ffone." Mr. Hanison was 
particularly useral as chairman of the 
board of war. After his resignation of his 
seat, in 1777, he was elected to the house 
of bu igosno s of Virginia, of which he wan 
imme&tely chosen speaker. This situa- 
tion he occupied until the year 1789; 
when he vras made chief ma^psmte of 
the state, and was twice reelected. In 
1785, he retired into private life, but, in 
1788, became a member of the convention 
of Virginia that ratified the present consti- 
tution of the United States. Of the first 
committee appoinled by this body, that of 
prinleges and elections, he was ^hosen 
chairman ; but his age and infirmities pre- 
vented him fiom taking an active part in 
the debates. He, however, advocated the 
adoption of the constimtion, with certain 
amendments. He died, of the gout, in 

Harsison, John; a skilfiil mechanic, 
celebrated as the inventor of the time- 



keeper for ascertaining the lon^tnde at 
sea, and also of the gridiron-penduhim. 
He was bom at Foulby, near Pontefiract, 
in Yorkshire, in 1693,* and was the son 
of a caipenter or builder, who brought 
him up to the same occupation. Be^re 
he had attained the age of 21, he found 
out, without instructR)n, how to clean 
clocks and watches, and made two clocks, 
chiefly of wood-work. In 1735, he exe- 
cuted his first machine for determining the 
longitude at sea, tlie merit of which he 
proved in a voyage to Lisbon. In 1739, 
he completed a second, and, in 1749, a 
thivd machine, which erred only three 
or four seconds in a week. He then 
tnmed his attention to the improvement 
of pocket watches, in which he succeeded 
so well, that he was induced to make a 
fourth machine, or time-keeper, in that 
fbnn, which he finished in 1759. This 
chronometer, in two voyaj^s, having been 
found to correct the longitude within the 
fimitB required by the act of parliament 
of the V&h of queen Anne, Harrison ap- 
plied for the proposed reward of £20,000, 
which he received. This inffenious artist 
employed the latter part of his life in con- 
structing a fifth improved time-keeper, on 
the same principle. This, after a ten 
weeks' triaC was found to have erred only 
four and a half seconds. He died in 1776. 
He was the author of a tract, entitled a 
Description concerning such Mechanism 
as will afibrd a nice or true Mensuration 
of Time (1775, 8vo.^ 

Harrowbt, Dudley Ryder, earl of^ was 
bom in 17^, and educated at St John's, 
Cambridge. He was elected member of 
pariiameiit for Tiverton, and became con- 
nected with Mr. Pitt and his party. In 
1801, he was made treawirer of the navy, 
in the Addington administration, and, on 
Mr. Pitt's restoration to the head of the 
ministry, in 1804, received the seals of 
the foreign depardnent In 1812, he was 
made president of the council — a place 
which be held till the appointment of the 
duke of Wellington to the premiership, 
when he retired fit)m public life. He 
was always an advocate of Catholic con- 
cessions, and an active patron of the Brit- 
ish and Foreign Bible Society. He was 
created viscount Sandon and earl of Har- 
rowby in 1809. 

Harrow-on-the-Hill ; a village of 
Enfftand, in Middlesex, situated on the 
highest hill in the county, and command- 
ing cne of the finest prospects of the 
metropolis on the east It is famous for 
its free school, founded in the reisn of 
Elizabeth, by John Lyon, and still con- 

VOL. VI. 16 

ffldered one of tlie first in the kingdom. 
Popidation of the parish, 3017 ; 10 miles 
N, W. London. Doctor Parr, sir William 
Jones, Sheridan, Byron, eari Spenser, sir 
Robert Peel, &c., were educated tfaene. 

Har8I>6rfer, George Philip, a distin- 
guished scholar and poet of the 17th cen- 
niry, lived fiom leffSf till 1658. He was 
descended fit)m a patrician fimiily in N(i- 
remberff, travelled through Holland, £ng- 
kind, France and Italv, and acquired so 
much knowledge of languages, that he 
was called the kamed. He was also a 
member of the high council at Nurem- 
berg. His German and Latin works, his- 
torical and literary, fill 47 volumes. Yet 
he was neither a profound scholar nor a 
poetical genius. His best songs are to be 
found in his IVautniimmerfrespr&cken (Nfi- 
rembeig, 1642, 8 vols.). With his friend 
and poetical companion, John Klai (Cla- 
jus), who was bom at Meissen, 1616, and 
died (1656) at Kitzingen in Franconia, 
where he was a preacher, he instituted at 
Nuremberg, in 1644, the Order of Flowers, 
or Society of Shepherds of the Pegnitz, 
which is yet in existence. The purity of^ 
the German language was the object of 
this society, which numbered prinses and 
distinguished scholars among its members. 
Klai's poems are partly in the collection 
published by the Shepherds of the Pecnitz, 
and have been partly published by mem- 

Hart, John, a signer of the declaration 
of independence, was bom in New Jereey, 
and was the son of a fiurmer, who left him 
a considerable estate, and whose occupa- 
tion he followed. He was distinguished 
for sound sense and integrity, and was 
frequently chosen to the colonial legisla- 
ture, in which he always eviuoed at- 
tachjnent to hheral principles. In 1774, 
** honest John Hart" as he was caUed, was 
one of the first deputed from New Jersey 
to the general congress at Philadelphia. 
His moderation and cool judgment enabled 
him to render valuable services ; and these, 
combined with his zeal and inflexible rec- 
titude and fimmesB, caused him to be 
frequently reelected. He gave his vote 
for, and signed the declaration of inde- 
pendence with peculiar ardor. Near the 
end of the year 177^ New Jersey became 
the theatre of war; and, in the destruc- 
tion of property which was made by the 
enem^', that of Mr. Hart, as of a rebel 
especially obaoxious, suffered to' a great 
extent Active exertions were also made 
to take him prisoner, and he was hunted 
about for some time, without intennisnon* 
fitortieing obfiged to fly fimn his house. 



when hv wife was afflicted by a die- 
tiesBiiig maMjy which uhimately caused 
her death, tie waa often in great wast 
of food, and, on one occasion, was forced 
to conceal hkomid^ during the night, ui a 
dog-kenneL After the evacuation of New 
Jeney by the ^^gl^b^ he returned to his 
Ann, and began to repair the injuries it 
had received; but his oonsdtution was so 
much shattered by the hardships he had 
encountered in his eftforts to elude the 
pursuits of his foes, that it ffradually fiiiled 
him ; and, hn the year 178Q, be breamed liis 
last, umvemlly esteemed and respected. 

Hartforb ; a dtv hi Haitford coun^, 
and the aami-capkal of Connecticut, on 
the west bonk of Connecticut riven 50 
miles above its mouth, 34 from New 
Haven, and 100 W. a W. of Boston; 
ton. W W W. ; lat 4P 46^ N.: popula- 
tion in 1890, including the township, 9617; 
in 1890L 9789, of which the city had 
7074. It has a pleasant and advanta- 
geous situation at Uia head of sloop navi- 
cation, and is surrounded by a ferule and 
beautiful country. It contains a hand- 
some state-house of stone and brick, three 
banks, includmg a branch of the U. 
States bank, an arsenal, an academy, a 
museum, a eoUege, an asylum for the 
deaf and dumb^ and eight houses of pub- 
lic worship, six of theno witliin the city, 
viz., three for Congregationalisis, one for 
Episcopalians, one for BapticAs, and one 
for Umvenalists. The city is generally 
well built, particulariy the main street 
A iMidge with mx arches, 974 feet ]on|[, is 
erected over the Connecticut, connecting 
the dtv with East Hartford. Hartford 
has a nourishing commerce. It has an 
ezlansive inlana trade, and a variety of 
manufiictures, as leather, shoes, coaches, 
cotton and woollen goods, saddlery, brass 
woric, &c. The genend asseinblv has one 
mmoa annuaUv, and meets altemately 
at Hartford and New Haven. Hartford 
was first settled by the English in 1635. 
Washington college, an institution under 
the direction of the Episcopalians, was 
established here in 1826^ It is veiy pleas- 
antlv situated, and has a president, eight 
professors, about 80 students, and a li- 
liraiT of 5000 volumes. The American 
Asylum for the education and mstruction 
of the deaf and dumb» at Hartford, owes 
its origin to the success which attended 
the enoris of the reverend Thomas H. 
Gallaudet, to give insuruction to tlie deaf 
and dumb daughter of a gentleman of that 
city. The attention of people being ex- 
cited, it was computed that tliera were 
more than a himdred deaf mutes in Con- 

necticut ; and Mr. Gallaudet was induced 
to undertake the establishment of an insti- 
tution at Hartford for their relief^ having 
previously stipulated for means of person- 
ally examining the European insatutions 
for the relief of persons thus afflicted. 
Mr. Gallaudet embarked for Europe in 
May, 1815. He returned in August, 1816, 
accompanied by Mr. Laurent Clerc, a 
disdnguished pupil of the abb6 Sictud. 
The course of instnicdon commenced, 
with seven pupils, in April, 1817, and, in 
1899, there were 143 pupils in the institu- 
tion, under the care or Mr. Gallaudet and 
nine assistant instructers. 54 of the pupils 
were supported wholly by the legislature 
of Maasachuaetts ; 15, in whole or in part, 
bv that of New Hampshire; 13 by that of 
Maine; 21 by that or Vermont; and 13 by 
that of Connecticut The institution, from 
its establishment to 1830, had imparted its 
benefits to 318 persons. The funds of the 
asylum have been derived fit>m private 
donationd^ and fiiom a grant of land in 
Alabama, made by the congress of the 
U. States, in 1819. These have flunished 
the institution with a large And commodi- 
ous brick building, in which the pupils 
reside and receive insdruction ; a dwelling- 
house for the principal, and convement 
out-houses, including two brick woHl- 
shops, in which the nude pupils work four 
or nve hours daily, in order to acquire a 
mechanical trade ; and have enabled the 
directors to form a permanent fund of 
considerable amount The crounda (be- 
tween seven and eight acres m extent) are 
on a veiy deligiiuiil and commanding 
eminence, half a mile west of the city. 
When the asylum commenced, the chat^ 
to each pupil was ^200 a year for board, 
kidging and washing, fiiel, candles, station- 
eiT, and other incidental expenses of the 
school-room ; besides a continual super- 
intendence of their health, conduct, man- 
ners and morals, and tuition. In eon- 
sequence of the sales of a portion of 
the lands in Alabama, the charge is 
now reduced to $115 a ^ear— a sum, 
however, which fkUs considerably short 
of the actual expense incuned for each 
pupil. By this mode of distributing the 
annual income derived from the fimds of 
the instimtion, every state in the UnLon^ 
and every parent of a deaf and dumb 
child, may receive an equal share of tiie 
public bounty. To employ their fiinda in 
educating pupils ffratuitously, would soon 
entirely exhaust them. One great object, 
that the asylum has aimed to accomplish, 
is, the difnjsioii of a unifonn system of 
instruction throughout the Union, and to 



SBtiafy candid ajid uiteUigem minds, that 
ezperience in teaching the deaf and dumb, 
as IB aJl otlier purauitM, mechanical or in- 
tellectual, is of primaiy importance. Iti 
efibrtsi in this re^)ect, have met with great 
Buecees. It has furnished the Pennsyl- 
vama ii^tution, at Philadelphia, with its 
present prindptd and two astiatant teach- 
cfb; it awMdad instruction to the princi- 
pals of the two institutioiui in Kentucky 
and Ohio ; and the principal of the one at 
Canajoharie, in the stale of New Yoik, 
himself deaf and dumfa^ was one of its 
eariiest pupilB. In addition to these insti- 
tutionsi all of which haye derived their 
system of instruction fiom the American 
asylum, theie is but one odier in the 
U. Btates,-~tfaat in the city of New Yoik. 
Among the 318 pupils, who have been 
memberB of iIIb asylum, only 75 have 
been aunported by their parents or fiienda^ 
mosi or whom were in quite moderate 
cimimstancea. Out of the same number, 
conastiog of 178 males and 140 females^ 
134 were bom deaf; 154 lost their hearing 
in in&ncy and childhood ; and of 30 no 
cenain infbrmotiQn could be procured. 
Araonff the causes of this calamity, were 
the Imlowiztf { feven, more particulariy 
ihe spotted lever; eankar rash; measles; 
inflainmation of die brain ; drop^ in die 
head; snail pox; hooping cough ; palsy; 
ID one instance, dischsjve of cannon ; and 
sudden falla In onnr two cases has 
either of the parents of the pupils been 
deaf and dumb ; and, in each of these, it 
was the ftther ; while^ among several in- 
stances of marriage diat have come to the 
knowMge of those connected with the 
asylum, where either one or both of the 
parliBa wcte deaf and dtnnb, their chU- 
dien were in poanssion of all their fiuml- 
ties. The pfayriology of the deaf and 
dumb is a subject of the most curious 
kind, and, if thoroug^y inyesdgated, might 
shed much additional light upon that of 
our spades in general It would serve 
very much to promote this object, if the 
ele^ and the physieians, in th^ respec- 
tive towns, would institute inquiries on 
this subject. The result of such inquiries 
eould be communicated to some of the 
public eedenasdcal or medical associa- 
tiMia, and ibence transmitted, free of ex- 
pense, to the officers of die asylum. If a 
single association would commence inqui- 
ries of this kind, on some well digested, 
regular plan, it would soon be more gen- 
erally, and, it is to be hoped, at len^h 
nnivenally, adopted. Among these m- 
quiries, the following are die most hnpor- 
tant: the sex, age, place of nativity and 

rendence of the individual ; whedier tiie 
dea&esB is owing to some original defect, 
or vras produced by disease or accident, 
and, if so, hi what way, and at what dme; 
whether there are other cases of deafiiesB in 
the same &mily, or among am^ of the an- 
cestors or collateral brsnches oA3ndred,aBd 
how and when moduced ; if a pait of the 
children hear and speak, and a part «e deaf * 
and dumb, what is the order of their 
ages; whether the deafiiesi » total ot 
pardal, and, if partial, what kmd of sounds 
can foe heard, and to what extent; whedisr 
any medical meana have been employed 
to remove it, and the result; whether the 
individual can utter any articulate sounds^ 
and to what extent; wiiether any instruc- 
tion has been given, and with what auccess ; 
whether the individual has been taught 
any mechanical art or trade, or is engaged 
in any regular occupation; if married, to 
whom, to a deaf and dumb pennn, or to 
one who can hear and speak, and, if there 
are children, whether they are in p o s s e s 
sion of their ftcuhles ; what are tne dr- 
cumsrances of the faidividual, or of the 
parents or fiiends, and, more particulariy, 
whether diey are able to flmiisn the means 
of educadon at aome institution for the deat 
and dumb. With regard to the coum of 
instruction pursued in the American asy- 
lum, we wdl only add to what has been 
already said in the article Dumb and Dettf, 
that the period, for which pupils are sent 
to the asylum, does not usually exceed 
four years ; and, in this thne, it is expected 
that thc^ will receive sufficient instruction 
for all the usefhl purposes of life, and also 
that amount of religious knowledge, with 
which, as immortal beings it ii^ of essen- 
tial importance that they should be made 
acquainted. A moment*to reflection vriU 
show the difficulnr of the task imposed on 
the Snstructer. Other children have to 
pass through a much lonaer course of 
instruction, countinff fitim me time when 
diey first begin to nam thefar letters, be^ 
fore diey acquire what is termed a com- 
mon education. In the four years, how- 
ever, besides being taught the prominent 
facts and leading truths of the Bible, the 
pupils generally acquire the ability to read 
books in an easy and femiliar stvle^ and to 
express their thoughts intelligibly m writ- 
ing; and they make some proffress in 
arithmetic, geography, the oulfines of 
histoiy, orthography, and the practical 
part of grammar. Hie male pupils also 
acquire some mechanical art 
Hartford Convention. (S^U,Sbde$,) 
Hartlet, David, an English physician, 
principally celebrated as a vmter on meta^ 



physics and monls, ytbs bom in 1705. 
At the ajre of 15, he was sent to Jesus 
oollece, Cambridge, of which he became 
a feuow. He engaged in the study of 
medicine, and pnctised as a phyracian in 
Nottinghamshire, and, subsequently, in 
London. When Mrs. Stephens, a female 
empuic, professed to have feund out a 
specific for the stone, doctor Hardey con- 
tributed towaids her obtaining the grant of 
£5000 from parliament for her discovery. 
He spent the latter part of his hfe at Bath, 
and died there, Aug. 38, 1757. His &me as 
a philosopher and a man of letters depends 
on hL«i work entitled Observations on Man 
(1749, 2 vols., 8vo.). This treatise ezhibitB 
the outlines of connected systems of physi- 
ology, mental philosophy, and theolonr. 
His physiology is founded on the hypoth- 
esis of nervous vibrations. The doctrine 
of association, which he adopted and il- 
lustrated, explains many phenomena of 
intellectual philosophy ; and this part of 
Hartley's work was published by doctor 
Priesdey, in a detached form, under the 
title of the Theoiy of the Human Mind 

Ha&tlet, David; distinguished as a 
politician and an ingenious projector. He 
was for some time member of pariiament, 
and uniformly displayed hberal views. 
His steady opposition to the war with the 
American colonies, led to his being ap- 
pointed one of the plenipotentiaries to 
treat with doctor Franklin, at Paris; and 
some of his letters on that occasion were 
published in the correspondence of that 
statesman, in 1817, and are contained in 
the Diplomatic Correspondence of the 
American Revolution (Boston, 1831). In 
the house of commons. Hartley was one 
of the first promoters of the abolition of 
the slave-trade. This benevolent philoso- 
pher died at Bath, Dec 19, 1813» aged 84. 

Ha&tshorn; the horns of the common 
male deer, to which many very extraor- 
dinary medicinal virtues were attributed ; 
but the experience of late yeare gives no 
countenance to them. The honia are of 
neariy the same nature as bones, and the 
preparations from them by heat are aimi- 
lar to those finom solid animal substances 
in general ; so that the articles denominat- 
ed apirU ofharUhom and soli of hartshorn^ 
though formerly obtained onl^fix>m the 
horns of different species of deer, are 
now chiefly prepared from bonea The 
former of these, which is a volatile alkali 
of a veiy penetrating nature, is an effica- 
cious remedy in nervous complaints and 
fidnting-fits ; and salt of hartsliom has 
been succewfuUy prescribed in fevera. 

The scrapings or raspings of the homs^ 
under tiie name of kartthom shavinggj 
are variously employed in medicine. 
Boiled in water, the horns of deer give 
out an emdlient jeUy, which is said to be 
remarkably nutritive. Burned hartsliom 
is employed in medicine. The horns of 
the stag are used, by cuders and other me- 
chanics, for the handles of knives and cut- 
ting instruments of different kinds. 

Hartz; the most northerly mountain 
chain of Germany, fix>m which an exten- 
sive plain, interrupted only by some in- 
considerable hills, stretehes to the North 
sea and the Baltic The Hartz, though 
surrounded by a low ranse of hills, fonns 
a separate mountainous diain, 70 iniles in 
length and 20 to28 miles in breadth. The 
Hartz, properiy speaking, conunences in the 
east, in Mansfeld, passes throuffh Anhalt- 
Bemburg, the counties of Stoiberg; Ho- 
henstem and Wemifferode, a part of Hal- 
berstadt and Blankenburg, Brunswick- 
Wolfenbuttel and Grubenhagen, and ter- 
minates on the west, at the town of Seesen, 
comprising an extent of 1350 square miles, 
and embracing 40 towns and numerous 
villages^ with Ss,000 inhabitantB, belonging 
principally to Hanover. The Hartz is di- 
vided mto the Upper and Lower, in a dou- 
ble sense. In the vrider sense, the Brock- 
en, the loftiest summit of the chain, forms 
the line of separation. The Upper Haitz 
lies west of the Brocken, and is the most 
elevated, extennve, and rich in mine- 
rals ; the Lower Hartz lies on the east of 
the Brocken, and is superior in the beauty 
of its scenery. The same summit is alsa 
the dividing point of the riven ; those on 
the east empty into the Elbe ; those cm the 
west, into the Weser. There are several 
ranges of mountains in Germany, that are 
much hufher than the Hartz ; as, for in* 
stance, the German Alps, the Riesenge- 
birge and the Schwartzwald (Bkck Forest)^ 
The Brocken, the highest summit of die 
Hartz, is 3489, or, according to some ac- 
counts, 3435 feet hiffh ; next to this are 
the Brachberg (2755 teet), tiie Wormbeiig^ 
(9667 feet), and die AckermannsbShe 
(2605 feet). That part of the Hartz which 
includes tne Brocken, with the neighbor- 
uighigh summits, coneists entirely of gran- 
ite ; then come the hiUs of the second 
rank, formed ofgreywacke, in which the 
ores are chiefly found ; at their foot lie the 
FloBtz hills, knovm under the name of the 
Vorkartz. The climate, particularly of the 
Upper Hartz, is cold. The frost contin- 
ues till the end of May, and appean earfy 
in September, accompanied by snow ; and 
even m June, night frosts aro not uncom- 



nMuu The warm weather bflcs only aboitt 
six weeks, and the boow upon the hi^^hest 
peaks seldom disappears before June; 
firea are kept up, even in mid-summer. 
The Hartz is wooded throughout, even to 
the top of the Brocken (the Hanoverian 
part alone contains 286,a^ acres of forest). 
On the Brocken itself stand fin dwindled 
into dwaif trees. Upon the leas lofty 
hiU^ serenU sorts of deciduous Urees are 
found intenningled with the everneens, 
and the Fkstz hills are covered with the 
finest oaks, beech and birch. The hills 
ako abound in wild berries, in trufifles and 
mushrooms. In medicinal plants, Ice- 
land moss, and fine pastures ; andin sum- 
mer, immense heids of neat cattle, sheep, 
goats and horses graze here. In the Up- 
per Hartz, little grain is raised, except 
oatB ; in the Lower Hartz, the productions 
are more various. The woods fiimisli a 
great quantity of game, such as stags, 
roe-bucKS^ foxes, wild boars, wild cats, &c. 
But the wealth of the Hartz consists in its 
forests and valuable mines. The latter 
furnish some gold (on account of its rarity, 
ducats wertf formerly codned, with die in- 
sciipdon Ex maro tiemfnuz) ; in the Ram- 
mefe-beige, great quantities of silver, iron, 
lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, manganese, 
vitriol, granite, porphyiy, slate, marble, 
alabaster, d&c The gross produce of the 
Hanoverian mines is but little over the ex- 
penses; but they support the greatest pan 
of the inhabitants of the Hartz. The 
towns of the Upper Hartz are entirely 
open. In addition to the establishments 
for canying on the mines, the oUects of 
curiosity in the Hartz are the Brocken, 
with its prospect ; the hoise-track (.Rm«- 
trmH)f the wildest and most beautiful port 
of ttie Hartz, near the village of Thale ; 
the difiSarent caves, as those of Baumann, 
Biely Schwartz&ld, the romantic Selken- 
thal, with the Maiden's Leap, and the 
Bath of Alexis ; the wild Ockerthid^ &c. 
A wide plain on the summit of the 
Brocken, is the place of the annual ren- 
dezvous of all the witches and spirits of 
Germany, of which Q6the has made such 
a noble use in his Ihuut It is on the 
Brocken, also, that the wild huntsman of 
the Hartz is supposed to dwell. The 
spectre of tfie Brocken is aa image of the 
spectator, of a magnified and distorted 
Hume, reflected fiiom an opposite cloud 
uncter particular drcumstances. (See the 
7\uchmlnich f&r Rtisende in den Hartz, 
byOottschalk (3d edit., Marburg, 1817). 
Habuspex. (See ,^tnumces.] 
Harvard Colleoi:. (See Cambridge.) 
Hakvet, William^ an English physi- 

cian, celebrated as the discoverer of the 
circulation of the blood, was bom at Folk- 
stone, m Kent, April 2, 1578, and, in 1598, 
removed to Caius collese, Cambridge. At 
the age of 19, he went idiroad for improve- 
ment, and, after visituig France and Ger- 
many, he staid some time at the univer- 
sity at Padua, where Fabricius ab Acqua- 
pendente, and other eminent men, were 
professors of the medical sciences. He 
took the degree of M. D. in 160S, and, 
returning to En^^d. obtained a similar 
distinction at Cambridge. Having settled 
in London, in 1604 he was admitted a li- 
centiate of the college of physicians, and, 
three years after, a fellow. In 1615, he 
was appointed to read lectures at the col- 
lege, on anatomy and sui|pery ; and, in the 
course of this undertaking, be developed 
the discovery which has immortalized his 
name. It was not tiU 1630, that he save 
publicity to his new doctrine of the c&cu- 
latiou of blood, bjr his treatise entitled 
ExereUaiio anaiomtiea de Mata Cordis d 
Sangvimsin AmmaKbuB. In a prefixed 
address to the coUege of physicians, he 
observes, that he htul fiequently, in his 
anatomical lectures, declared his opinion 
concerning the motion of the heart and 
the circuliuion of the blood, and had, for 
more than nine yean, confirmed and illus- 
trated it by reasons and arguments ground- 
ed on ocular demonstration. It speedily 
excited the attention of anatomists m eve- 
lY European school of medicine ; and the 
theorv of Harvey' having been triumphant- 
ly defended against all ixijections, attempts 
were made to invalidate his claiin to the 
discovery; but it is now admitted, that 
whatever hints may be found in the writ- 
ings of his predecessors, Harvey first clear- 
ly demonstrated the system of sanguine- 
ous circulation, and thus produced one of 
the greatest revolutions in medical sci- 
ence. Harvey was appointed physician 
extraordinary to James I, and, in 1632, 
physician in ordinary to king Charies, by 
whom he was much esteemed. Adhering 
to the court party, on the occurrence or 
hostihties, he attended his majesty on his 
removal from London. He was with him 
at the batde of Edgehill, and afterwarcb 
at Oxford, where, in 1642, he was incor- 
porated M. D. In 1651, he published his 
Jjxercitatiimei de GeneraHone AmmaUum 
(4to.). This curious woik would have been 
still more interesting, had not the plunder 
of the author's museum, while he was in 
the king's service, deprived him of the 
fruits of some of his anatomical research- 
es, especially those relative to the flenera- 
tion of insects. He presented to uie c>il- 



lege of i^hyBiciaiis his patenial estate of 
£56 a year, for the iustitution of an annu- 
al festival and other purposes. In his (dd 
age, he was subject to distressing attacks 
of the gout, which imbittered his exist- 
ence so much, that he is said to have 
shortened his life with, a dose of opium. 
He died June 3, 1658^ A splendid edition 
of his works was published m one volume, 
4to., with an account of his life, by doctor 

Harwich ; a seaport of England, on a 
peninsular point or land on die Essex 
coast It 18 the port from which the 
packets sail regularly, in time of peace, 
tor Holland aiMl Grermany ; the seat of a 
navy-yard, and also a considerable batlung 
place. Two light-houses have lately been 
erected on the Harwich side, to faciUtate 
the entrance by night The harbor is of 
great extent, and forms, united to the bay, 
a roadstead for the largest ships of war, 
and for an immense number of vesseb at 
a time, upwards of 300 sail having an- 
chored here with ease. Harwich sends 
two members to mrliament Population, 
4010 ; 71 miles N. E. London ; Ion. P 
17' E.; lat5P57'N. 

Hasorubai.; the name of several distin- 
guished Cartha^nians ; among others, of 
Uie brother of Hannibal, (q. v.) 

Hasb, Charles Benedict, professor of 
the Oriental languages at Paris, and, since 
1834, member of the academy of inscrip- 
tions, bom May 11, 1780, at Suiza, near 
Naumburg, studied at Weimar, under 
Bottiger. The eloquence and leaminsr 
of that distinguished scholar attracted 
bun to philoloffical studic^ to which he 
applied himself during his residence in 
Jena and Helmstiidt In 1801, he went 
to Paris, where Millin and Villoison intro- 
duced the young German Hellenist into 
their literary circle. By Villoison, Hase 
was introduced to the acquaintauce of 
Choiseul Grouffier, who, on the deadi of 
Villoison (1805). intrusted to him the pub- 
lication of John Laur. Lydus's ti'catLse 
De Magishraiibus Romanorwru For this 
publicatiou Hase only wrote the uitroduc- 
tion, the translation being by Fuss. At 
the same time, he began a catalogue of 
the cl&ssical manuscripts, which the suc- 
cessss of die French arms at that time 
brought from all quarters to Paris; but sub- 
sequent circumstances prevented its ap- 
|)earance. These researches carried liim 
into the Byzantine literature, as appears 
by his JSTotices du TrcdU de Draam de 
Stndomc^e sur la Mitrique des Anciena ; 
also, De VHxatoin de LtonAe-Diacre ; and 
the EnlreHem de VEmpertvar Manud Pa- 

Uologue avee un Professeur Mc^mHaitf 
in tiie eighth volume of die Nbiices et Ex- 
iraiia dela BUbL L R. By his mtercouree 
wid) Crreeks in Paris, he acquired so thor- 
ou^ a knowledge of the modem Greek, 
that, in 1816, he vras appointed professor 
of that language in the school for the liv- 
ing Oriental languages. This study led 
him, imperceptimy, to the times where its 
first traces are discernible— times not vexy 
remote from the clasacal. The style or 
the thurch fathers, and the Byzantine wri- 
ters, gave him a further insight into the 
nature of an idiom which had been neg- 
lected by most scholars, while, at the same 
time, the idiom itself furnished him iOus- 
trations of the Byzantine writers. The 
continuation of the Corpus SKsL Byz, was 
the chief object of his researehes. Tlarou^ 
the patronage of the Russian imperial 
chancellor, count Romanzofi^ Hase was 
enabled to publish his Leo Diaeonua, and 
some authors of the same period, forming^ 
a continuation of the Paris edition of the 
Byzantines (Paris, 1819). The explana- 
toiy and critical commentary, accompany- 
ing the text, is veiy valiuibfe. He has 
since prepared for the press a similar 
volume, containing PseUus, and some 
chronographers, in the preparation of 
which he examined, with peat care, the 
French and Itahan libraries. Besides 
these, he has collected all the fragments 
which have any relation to the religious 
opinions of the Romans. In two joume}is 
to Italy, under the patronage of the French 
government, in 18^ and 1821, he became 
acquainted with the treasures of Italian li- 
braries. His Laur, L^dus de (hterdU^ qutt 
9\qtersunt^ appeared at Paris in 1823, with 
an introduction, commentary and a Latin 
version. He is at present editing an edition 
of Stephens's Thescaxnu IMu Orac. 

Hasenclever, Peter, a distinguished 
mercliant, was bom at Remscheid, in the 
duchy of Berg, in 1716. In 1748, be es- 
tablished himself at Lisbon, and afterwards 
at Cadiz, whence he returned to Grerma- 
ny, and had a great influence in promot- 
ing tlie manufacture of linen in Silesia. 
Frederic the Great used to ask his ad- 
vice in important commereial affairs. In 
1761, he returned to Cadiz, and, though a 
Protestant, was the intimate friend of Ve- 
lasquez, die grand inquiator. He after- 
wards estabMied a company in London, 
for cxportinff hemp, potash and iron to 
North Amenca, which was connected, in 
17G5, with a houso at New York, where 
lie built a great many vessels. The spec- 
ulatioiis of his parmer having caused the 
bankruptcy of die finn^ he went to Eu- 



rope, but soon after returned to America. 
He then settled in Laudshut in Silesia, 
where he carried on an important linen 
trade. He died there in 1798. 

Haser, Charlotte Henrietta, a celebrated 
smger, bom at Leipsic, in 1789, daughter 
•f the director of music in the univenaty 
of Leipsic. In 1804, ehe was engaged at 
the Italian opera at Ihiesden. in 1807, 
she went through Prague and Vienna to 
Italy. Her fine voice, ner execution, and 
her peraeyering eflfbrts to combine the 
advantages of the Italian and German 
methods^ gave her a brilliant success. In 
private life, she was distinguished for the 
correctness of her morals, and her uncom- 
mon modesty. The most celebrated the- 
atres in Italy contended for her. She was 
repeatedly called to Rome, where she ob- 
tamed great applause. She was the first 
female singer in Italy who appeared in 
male charactera, and venturea to cope 
with the celebrated artists Crescentini, 
Yeluti, &c In Naples, she was engaged 
at the theatre of San Carlo for a year, and 
was oonunonlv known by the name of 
La Diema Tedesetu She afterwards mar- 
ried Vera, a respectable advocate in 
Rome, and now displays her splendid 
talents only among a select circle of 

Hasse, John Adolphus, chiq)el-master 
of Augustus, king of Poland and elector 
of Sirxony, one of the most eminent jnu- 
sical composers of the 18th century, was 
bom at Bergedorf, near Hamburg (1699). 
His extraordinary talents were soon ob- 
served by Konie, afterwards poet laureate 
to tlie king of Poland, who recommended 
him as tenor singer for the Hamburg ope- 
ra, where tlie celebrated Kaiser was then 
composer. His masterpieces served as 
models for Hoase, who, in the course of 
four years, became distinguished as a mu- 
sician and sin|;er. He brought out his 
first opera, Mtigonas, which was received 
with ereat applause, in 1723. To perfect 
himself in counterpoint, be determin- 
ed to study in one of the celebrated Ital- 
ian schoob. In 1724, he went to Italy, 
and studied at Naples under Porpora* 
Scarlatti was so pleased with his talents 
and modesty, that he voluntarily offered 
him his instmction, and called him his 
SOIL An opera which he set to music for 
the theatre royal, was the foundation of 
liis reputation, and procured him from tlie 
Italians the title or H earo iSSoMone. All 
tiie theatres of Ital^ contended for die 
hcMior of having him as leader of the 
orchestra. He went to Venice, in 1727, 
where his future wife, Faustina Bordoni, 

was at that time ui the bloom of her 
beauty, and the object of universal admi- 
ration. Having once heard Hasse phy 
upon the harpsichord, she immediately 
fell m love with him. He was here ap- 
pointed chapel-master in the amserwUcrio 
degU matralnii His reputation now pro- 
cured him the situation of chapel-master 
at Dresden^ with a yeariy salaiy of $9000 
for himseu and wife ; but as he was press- 
ed to remain in Italy, he divided his time, 
until 1740,between the twocountries. After 
repeated invitations, he went to E^fland, in 
17^ where he was received with great 
distinction, and his opera Arkaenu met 
with the highest applause. He soon, 
however, returned to Dresden. He went^ 
in 1763, to Vienna, where he composed 
his last opera, Rumaro^ and final^ re- 
moved to Venice (1770), in which city he 
died, in 178a Hasse is deservedly cele- 
brated as the most natural, elegant and ju- 
dicious composer of his time. He always 
regarded the voice as the chief object of 
attention, and, widiout being ignorant of 
harmony, he made the instrumental ac- 
compamment as simple as possible. A 
pupu of Leo, Vinci, Peri^lese and Porpo- 
ra, he was contented with being simple 
and natural. His compositions are so nu- 
merous, that he himself said, there were 
many which he should not recoj^nise. He 
set all the operas of Metasuisio, except 
Themistocles, and most of them twice or 
oftener. His sacred compositions (masses, 
Te Deums, &c.), are still favorites at Dres- 
den, where the greatest collection of them 
is to be found. His wife, Faustina Bor- 
doni, bom at Venice (1700), was one of 
the most celebrated and beautiful singers 
of the 18th century. She made her J^nd 
on the stage of her native city, in her 16th 
year ; and, wherever she was heard, she 
was called the tiuKJemSJiren. Medals were 
struck in honor of her at Florence. The 
effect of her musical talents was increased 
by her beauty. In 1^, she received an 
appointment of 15,000 florins at Vienna. 
In Dresden, where she was married to 
Hasse, she sang for the first time in 1731, 
and was ever after the fiiithful companion 
of her husband. 

Hassel, John George Henry, a distin- 
guished German f^eographerand statistical 
writer, was bom m 1770, at Wolfenbiittel,. 
in Bmnswick, and died Jan. 18, 1829, at 
Weimar. He was, fifom 1809 ta 1813, di- 
rector of the statistical bureau, &C., in 
Cassel, then the ciupital of the kingdom 
of WesmhalJa. After 1816, he tived a 
private life at Weimar. He wrote many 
works of much reputation ; among others,. 



GeDeral Geographico-Statiftical Lexicon 
(3vob^ Weimar, 1817 and 1818); Statis- 
tical Sketch of all the European States, 
and the moet important of the other Parts 
of the Worid (3 numben, Wehnar, 1823 
and 1891) ; Uenealogical-Statistical-Ifis- 
torical Ahnanae (annually, from 1824 to 
1829, W«mar)— <a work which contains 
▼erv extensive statistical infonnation. It 
will be continued by doctor l>ede,who 
edited die number for 1830. Hassel was 
coeditor of the Complete Manual of the 
latest Geography (Wehnar, 1819 to 1829), 
and, In connexion with W. MAller, edited 
the aeeood chief division of the Encyclo- 
psBdia of ErMh and Grvber, from H to 
O, and contributed largely to Pierer's En- 
cyclopflddic Dictionary (Altenburg, 1824 
to 1828), from A to K. 

HA98BLqui8T, Ffoderic, a Swedish 
naturalist, was one of the most eminent 
among the disciples of Lmnnus. He was 
bom In the province of Ostrogothia, in 
1722. The death of his ftther, who was 
vicar of a pertoh, leaving him without the 
means of support, he exerted his ftcuhies, 
and obtsinea fHends. by whose assistance 
he was supptied with the means of in- 
struction, jm 1741, he went to the uni- 
versity of Upsal, where his talents and in- 
dustry drew the attention of lionsBus. In 
1747, he pubhslied a dissertation De Vtri- 
hui PkaUamm. Soon after, he formed 
the scheme of making researches, <»i the 
spot, into the natural histoiy of Palestine ; 
and the university having ftmrished him 
with pecuniary resources, he embarked 
for Smvma in Ausust, 1749, and arrived 
there about the end of November. After 
exfJoring the environs of that dty, he 
went to Egypt, whence, in March, 1751, 
he took the route to Palestine, b^ l)amiet- 
ta and Jafb. He staid some time at Je- 
rusalem, and afterwards visited other parts 
of the countiy. Retuming to Smyrna, he 
brought vrith him a most noble collection 
of punts, minerals, fishes, reptiles, insects, 
and other natural curiosities. He died 
there, Feb. 9, 1752. The Swedish aueen. 
Louisa Ulrica, purchased the wlxJe ojr 
IIaaBelquisl*s inquisitions, which were de- 
posited in die casde of Drottnin^olm. 
Linnaeus, fi!om the papers and spedmens 
of natural history collected bv lus pupil, 
prepared for the press the Iter jPakuftnum, 
or Travels in Palestine, with Remarks on its 
Natural History (Stockhobn, 1757, Bvo.), 
which has been translated into English 
and other European languages. 

Hastiicos ; an ancient borough and 
maiket-town of England, on the eastern 
extremity of Sussex, fiunous for being the 

place near vdiich William the Conqueror 
landed in Endand, and for the bottle of 
Hastings, fougnt in the neighborhood. It 
•is now in neat repute fbr sea-bathing. It 
is one of the C^que Ports. Its situ- 
ation is beautifiil ; and the environs also 
abound vrith picturesque scenery and de- 
hgfatftil vralks and rides. A walk, called 
t^ surtnf |»arr«le, has been Ibrmedonthe 
west of the town. The public buiklingB 
are, two very ancient churches ; the town 
hall, buih in 1823, vrith the market-place 
tmder it; the custom-house, and two ex- 
cellent ftee schools. The lemains of an 
ancient castle are sliD to be seen. Two 
miles ftom the town is the stone on which 
William is said to have dined when he 
landed here ; it is called the etmmwrw's 
gUme, Hastiiigs sends two memDers to 
periiameut. Population, 8000 ; 86 miles 
S. E. Tunbridjre. 

Hastings, WarreiLwas bom in 1732 or 
17^ at the village of Churchill, in Oxford- 
shire, where his lather was clermnan of the 
parish. He was educated at Westminster 
school, and, in 175^ went out to Bengal 
as a vmter in the East India c<mipany'8 
service. After having filled some of the 
{Htncipal offices under the British govern- 
ment, and made himself acquainted with 
Oriental literature and pubhc affiiirs, he 
returned to England in 1765» vrith a inod- 
erate fortune. In 1788, he received the 
appointment of second in council at Ma- 
dras ; and, in 1771, he wbb removed to 
Bengal, to the presidency of which he was 
raised the foUovring year. In 1773, he 
was appointed governor-general of India. 
He held this situation for 13 years, during 
which he had to encounter many serious 
difficuhies, increased and strengthened 
the power of the company at the expense 
of tne native jnrinces, and, undoubtedly, 
vnuB guilty of much c^ypression and injus- 
tice to attain this end. He nosed the rev- 
enue of the company from 3,000^000 to 
£5^000/)00 steriin^ On the removal of 
lord North from office, in 17S2; his oppo- 
nents exerted themselves to displace tnose 
on whom he had conferred fq^pomtments. 
Upon the motion of Dundas^ Hastings 
was recalled m 1785, and immediatery 
loaded vrith accusations. The most prom- 
inent orators of the ojqwntion, Fox, 
Buike, Sheridan and others, were arrayed 
against him. He was accused of having 
governed, in the East Indies, arbitrarily 
and tyrannically ; of having extorted im- 
mense sums of money ; of having accom- 
plished the ruin of many princes ; in short, 
of having exercised oppression of every 
description. Feb. 17, 1786; Burke laid the 



charges against bim before the lower 
house, which were carried, in May, 1787, 
into the upper ; and the tnal conunenced 
Feb. 13, 17B6. The solemnity of the pro- 
ceedings in a case of this nature, and the 
conseauent slowness with which they were 
canied on, together with numerous inter- 
ruptions, retarded the final decision. Ma* 
ny of the pmnts of accusation required an 
accurate examination of the state of affiirs 
in the East Indies^ and witnesses had to 
be sununoned thence to London. The 
speeches of the accusers often occupied 
several days ; and, April 15, 1794, the up- 
per house held its one hundred and twen- 
tieth session, for the purpose of coming to 
a final decision. The public opimon, 
which had, in the beginning, preponderat- 
ed in fiivor of the accusers, now declared 
itself unanimously for the defendant; and 
the return of lord Comwallis fiom India 
was decisiye in his favor. April 13, 17^ 
Hastings was acquitted, and sentenced to 
pay oiuvthe costs of prosecution ^£71,060 
sterling) ; the crown itself had, besides this, 
incurred an expense of £100,000 sterling. 
The East India company indenmified him 
bjrapension of £AOOO for 28 yean, paid 
lum £42,000 of the amount in advance, 
and made him a loan of £50,000. The 
salary or pension was afterwards settled 
on bun for life. He was made a member 
of the privy cotmcil; but he interested 
himself little in public affiurs; and died 
Aug. 32, 1818. He published some pieces 
relrang to India, siid speeches and pa- 
pers in defence of his conduct 

Hastinos, Fnnds, marquis of Hast- 
ings, eari of Rawdon, &C., was the son of 
John, baron Rawdon and earl of Moira, 
of die kinsdom of Ireland, and was bom 
Dec 7, 1754. He was educated at Ox- 
ford ; andf after a short tour on the conti- 
nent, he entered the army in 1771, as on 
enagn in the 15th regiment of foot Hav- 
ing obtained a lieutenancy, he embarked 
for America, in 1773, and was present 
at the battle of Bunker's hill. After hav- 
ing served in other engagements, he was 
nominated, in 1778, adjutant-general of 
the British army in America, with the 
rank of lieutenant-